Abdominal Gas in Conflict with the Heart: Human Anatomy & Physiology Chap 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16, Flashcards


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1

those one that lie around the body's center of gravity

Axial Skeleton

2

bones of the limbs or appendages

Appendicular Skeleton

3

which cover the one ends at movable joints

Articular cartilage

4

smooth and homogenous

compact bone

5

Spongy bone

composed of small trabeculae of one and lots of open space

6

are much longer than they are wide

Long bone

7

typically cube shaped, contain more spongy bone than compact bone

Short bone

8

generally thin, with two wafer/like layers of compact bone

Flat bone

9

ones that do not fall into one of the preceding categories

irregular bone

10

special types of short bones formed in tendons

sesamoid bones

11

shaft

Diaphysis

12

fibrous membrane covering

Periosteum

13

the end of the long bone

epiphysis

14

compact bone appears to be dense and homogenous

Trabeculae

15

Framework for support and movement

Skeletal System

16

Skeletal System Stores

minerals and lipids

17

Tissue that the skeletal system is made up of

connective tissue Bone & Cartilage

18

Main components Skeletal System are

Bone & Cartilage

19

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL TEXTURES OF BONE

Compact & Spongy (cancellous)

20

composed of small trabeculae of one and lots of open space it is the inside layer of compact bone

spongy bone

21

runs parallel to the long axis of the bone and carries blood vessels, nerves and lymph vessels through the bony matrix

Central(haversian) canal

22

are living tissue

bones

23

a central canal and all the concentric lamellae surrounding it are referred to as

an osteon

24

cells living in bone

OSTEOCYTES cells

25

ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR BONE GROWTH AND CHANGES IN THE SHAPE OF BONES

OSTEOCYTES

26

Calcium from Microcrystallinen, non living matrix is very dense/hard calcium crystals called

Hydroxyapatite

27

Hydroxyapatite is just a

fancy name for bone

28

tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then from lamella to lamella.

Canaliculi

29

We look at bone based on how they

grow

30

when the body produces calcium in areas the a tendon irritates the area this is how you get

sesamoid bones

31

SHAFT OF A LONG BONE

diaphysis

32

the end of the long bone

epiphyis

33

WHEN DESCRIBING SECTIONS OF A LONG BONE WHEN TALKING ABOUT ENDS OF THE LONG BONE

proximal epiphysis distal epephysis

34

epiphsyatal line that separate spongy and compact bone

growth plate

35

hollow section in the diaphysis is called

the medullary cavity

36

is found in the medullary cavity

yellow bone marrow

37

pointed, pen-like

styloid

38

-Axial
-Protects vital organs; hematopoiesis

RIBS

39

1. Diaphysis
2. Epiphysis
3. Periosteum
4. Endosteum
5. Articular Cartilage
6. Epiphyseal Line

PARTS OF LONG BONES

40

supports the skull

-The atlas (1st vertebra)

41

support for trunk

-Bones in legs and pelvis provide

42

-Oval-shaped condyle fits with elliptical cavity of another bone
-Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction
-ex: Fingers

Condyloid Joint

43

-Nearly flat/slight curved surface
-Sliding or twisting of bones
-ex: Wrist and Ankle

Gliding Joint

44

What is a movable joint?

A joint that allows the body to move forward...

45

A plate near the ends of long bones.

What is the epiphyseal plate?

46

The junction of two bones

articulation

47

a projection adjacent to a condyle

epicondyle

48

a narrow, slitlike opening through a bone

fissure

49

shaped like a shallow socket

glenoid

50

a club-shaped or hammer-shapped process

malleolus

51

Types of cartilage growth? (2 types)

1. appositional growth 2. interstitial growth

52

The skull is composed of two sets of bones. These are called?

1. The cranium 2. the facial bones

53

An opening above each orbit allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass.

Supraorbital forameN

54

The smooth area between the eyes?

Glabella

55

Posterolateral to the frontal bone, forming sides of cranium.

Parietal Bone

56

Midline articulation point of the two parietal bones.

Sagittal suture

57

Inferior to the parietal bones on lateral skull.

Temporal bone

58

A bridgelike projection joining the zygomatic bone anteriorly. Together these 2 bones form the zygomatic arch.

Zygomatic process

59

Rounded depression on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process, forms the socket for the mandibular condyle, the point where the mandible (lower jaw) joins the cranium.

Mandibular fossa

60

Point of articulation of parietals with frontal bone.

Coronal suture

61

a prominent, rounded epiphysis

HEAD

62

a narrow, prominent ridgelike projection

CREST

63

-Convex surface fits with concave surface of another bone
-Flexion or extension
-ex: Elbow and Knee

Hinge Joint

64

-Cylindrical surface of one bone fits in a ring formed by another bone/ligament
-Rotation
-ex: Neck

Pivot Joint

65

Both concave and convex bone surface
-Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction

SADDLE JOINT

66

Head of bone fits into socket of another
-Rotation
-ex: Shoulder and Hip

Ball and Socket Joint

67

Skeletal muscles attach to bones via

tendons

68

-Axial
-Protect spinal chord

Vertebrae

69

Are ribs axial or appendicular?

Axial

70

What is the primary inorganic component that makes up the skeletal system?

Calcium phosphate

71

the line of union in an immovable articulation

suture

72

an indentation of v-shaped depression

notch

73

found on joints

hyaline cartilage

74

What is the membrane surrounding individual bones? It's called

periosteum

75

peri means

around

76

THE SKULL IS THE BODY'S MOST COMPLEX BONEY STRUCTURE IT IS FORMED BY THE?

cranial bones and facial bones

77

cranial bones protect

the brain

78

facial bones protect the ??
Facial Bones also allow us to present our feelings to the world using facial??

eyes, muscles

79

only bone that moves inside the skull is the

mandible

80

the irregular edges of the bones interlock and are united by very short connective tissue fibers

sutures

81

THE CORONAL, SAGITTAL SQUAMOUS AND LAMBDOID SUTURES CONNECT CRANIAL BONES ARE

THE MAJOR SKULL SUTURES

82

The cranium is divided into two major areas, what are these areas called?

cranial vault & cranial floor

83

FORMING THE SUPERIOR,LATERAL AND POSTERIOR WALLS OF THE SKULL

cranial vault

84

FORMING THE SKULL BOTTOM

cranial floor

85

internally the cranial floor has three distinct concavities

ANTERIOR MIDDLE AND POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSAE

86

FORMING SIDES OF THE CRANIUM

parietal bone

87

FORMS FOREHEAD

frontal bone

88

inferior to the parietal bone on the lateral skull

temporal bone

89

ARMS OF GLASSES

temples

90

FORMS THE LATERAL PORTIONS OF THE SKULL

TEMPORAL bone

91

POSTERIOR BONE OF THE CRANIAL FORMS FLOOR AND BACK WALL OF THE SKULL

occipital bone

92

cheek bone

zygomatic bone

93

FORMS THE UPPER JAW BONE AND PART OF THE ORBITS

maxilla

94

bone that flaps when you talk

mandible

95

means the butterfly

sphenoid bone

96

means crying

lacrimal bone

97

Provides sturdy support with some resilience or "give"

hyaline cartilage

98

MAXILLARY, SPHENOID ETHMOID AND FRONTAL AIR CAVITIES

PARANASAL sinuses

99

LOCATED IN THE THROAT SERVES AS A POINT OF ATTACHMENT FOR TONGUE AND NECK MUSCLES

hyloid

100

bone fractured from strangulation

hyloid bone

101

Four pairs, named for the bones they reside in.

Frontal sinus,Ethmoid sinus, Sphenoid sinus, Maxillary sinus

Paranasal bones

102

24 bones stacked in the

vertebral column

103

7 BONES C1-C7

cervical vertebrae

104

12 BONES IN MID BACK t1-t12

thoracic region

105

extending from the skull to the pelvis body's major axial support

vertebral column

106

in the vertebral column they're 24 single bones called? two fused bones called the ?? and the ??

vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx

107

5 BONES LOWER BACK L1-L5 IS CALLED

THE LUMBAR REGION

108

ONCE HAD 5 BONES NOW FUSED TOGETHER MAKING ONLY 1 BONE

THE SACRUM

109

4 BONES FUSED TOGETHER TO MAKE ONE BONE

COXXYX

110

IN A VERTEBRA THE PART THAT BARES WEIGHT IS CALLED

THE BODY

111

IN A VERTEBRA THE HOLLOW PART IN THE CENTER WHERE THE SPINAL CORD GOES THROUGH IS CALLED

VERTEBRAL ARCH

112

is a part of the vertebra that connects to the spinous process.

THE LAMINA

113

From a lateral perspective, the posterior extensions directly off the vertebral body and are located on each side.

PEDICAL

114

a HOLE IN A BONE IS CALLED A

FORAMINA

115

cervical VERTEBRAE SMALL AND LIGHT AND THE VEREBRAL FORAMEN IS ?? IN SHAPE

TRIANGULAR

116

A FLAT JOINT

FACET

117

What is located within the intervertebral joints and are tightly bound to adjacent vertebral bodies for spinal stability but allow for flexibility and movement of the vertebral column?

intervertebral disks

118

The joints located along a portion of the vertebral column and articulates with the ribs to the thoracic vertebra.

costal joints

119

The joints found between the vertebral bodies.

intervertebral joints

120

Where was the term "atlas" for C1 derived from?

a Greek god who bore the world upon his shoulders

121

What is the distinquishing feature of C1?

t has no body but a thick arch of bone called the anterior arch which includes a small anterior tubercle

122

What is another term used to describe the second vertebra, C2?

axis

123

What is the most distinctive feature of C2?

dens; odontoid process

124

How many divisions are in the vertebral canal?

5; cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx

125

What is the vertebral column?

a complex succession of many bones called vertebrae

126

VISIBLE THROUGH THE SKIN

C-7

127

Where does the rotation of the head primarily occur?

between C1 and C2

128

C1 is the most bulky and solid part. What is it's purpose

support the weight of the head and assist in rotation of the head

129

What acts as a pivot for rotation of the head?

dens

130

What extends posteriorly from the vertebral body

RING OR ARCH

131

much more flexible than hyaline; tolerates repeated bending better; external ear and epiglottis

elastic cartilage

132

Where does the rotation of the head primarily occur?

between C1 and C2

133

The vertebral body is a thin ring of dense cortical bone

Vertebrae

134

compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae T-1- T-12

THORACIC VERTEBRAE

135

is derived from the Latin word “lumbus,” meaning lion, and arns its name. It is built for both power and flexibility L-1-L-5

LUMBAR VERTABRA

136

THE BONY THORAX IS COMPOSED OF THE STERNUM, RIBS,AND THORACIC VERTEBRAE

THORACIC CAGE

137

the largest and strongest in the movable part of the spinal column.

The regions of the spine consist of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral.

LUMBAR REGION

138

rib articulates with the vertebral column Costovertebral MEANS

RIB JOINTS

139

C-1 IS ALSO KNOWN AS THE

ATLAS

140

C-2 IS KNOWN AS THE

AXSIS

141

C1 SPINS ON THE

DENS

142

HOW MANY RIBS

24 12 ON EACH SIDE

143

HOW MANT PAIRS OF RIBS ARE THERE

12 PAIR

144

RIB PAIRS 1-7

TRUE RIBS

145

RIB PAIRS 8-12

FALSE RIBS`

146

RIB PAIRS 11-12

FLOATING RIBS

147

ATTACH TO THE VERTEBRA AND ATTACH TO THE BREAST BONE

TRUE RIBS

148

HOW MANY TRUE RIBS DO YOU HAVE

14

149

HOW MANY FALSE RIBS DO YOU HAVE

10

150

ATTACH TO THE VERTEBRA AND DO NOT ATTACH

FALSE RIBS

151

A TYPICAL FLAT BONE IS THE RESULT OF THE FUSION OF THREE BONES..

THE STERNUM

152

FORMS THE BULK OF THE STERNUM

GLADIOLUS AKA BODY

153

which cover the one ends at movable joints

Articular cartilage

154

Provides sturdy support with some resilience or "give"

Hyaline Cartilage

155

THE POINT WHERE THE STERNAL BODY AND XIPHOID PROCESS FUSE LIES AT THE LEVEL OF THE NINTH THORACIC VERTEBRA

XIPHISTERNAL JOINT

156

tolerates repeated bending
ex. external ear and epiglottis

Elastic cartilage

157

Round or oval opening through a bone

Foramen

158

Shallow depression or groove such as that on the bony surface

Sulcus

159

Air-filled cavity

Sinus

160

Large, irregularly shaped projection

Trochanter

161

Raised area on or above a condyle

Epicondyle

162

Projection or prominence

Process

163

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

facet

164

great tensile strength and can withstand heavy compression

Fibrocartilage

165

a thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for longitudinal growth of the bone during youth

epiphyseal plate

166

thin bone covering the epiphyseal plate after the growth stops

epiphyseal line

167

compact bone appears to be dense and homogenous

Trabeculae

168

lacunae arranged in concentric circles around the central canal

Circumferential lamellae

169

a central canal and all the concentric lamellae surrounding it

an osteon

170

tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then from lamella to lamella.

Canaliculi

171

canal that runs into the compact bone and marrow cavity form the periosteum at right angles of the shaft.

Perforating(Volkmann's) canal

172

immovable joints

synarthroses

173

slightly movable joints

amphiarthroses

174

freely movable joints

Diarthrases

175

bones joined by fibrous tissue

Fibrous joint

176

the irregular edges of the bones interlock and are united by very short connective tissue fibers

suture

177

the articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of cartilage

cartilaginous joints

178

the bones are connected by a broad,flat disc of fibrocartilage

symphyses

179

the bony portions are united by hyaline cartilage

synchondroses

180

those in which the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid

synovial joint

181

a HUMAN FETUS ABOUT TO BE BORN HAS HOW MANY BONES

275

182

are soft spots on a baby's head which, during birth, enable the bony plates of the skull to flex, allowing the child's head to pass through the birth

FONTANELS

183

ANTERIOR FONTANELLES ARE LOCATED BETWEEN THE

2 PARIETAL BONES AND THE FRONTAL BONE

184

THE SPHEROIDAL FONTANEL IS LOCATED BETWEEN THE

FRONTAL BONE, SPHEROIDAL BONE AND THE TEMPORAL PARIETAL BONE

185
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Acromial (lateral) end

186
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Medial (sternal) end

187
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Acromion

188
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Glenoid cavity

189
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Lateral Angle

190
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Lateral border

191
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Inferior angle

192
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Medial border

193
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Infraspinous fossa

194
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Spine of scapula

195
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Supraspinous fossa

196
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Superior angle

197
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MASTOID FONTANEL

198
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POSTERIOR FONTANEL

199
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SPHENOIDAL FONTANEL

200
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ANTERIOR FONTANEL

201
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LACRIMAL

202
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SCAPULA

Acromion

203
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SCAPULA

Glenoid cavity

204
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SCAPULA

Lateral angle

205
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SCAPULA

Lateral border

206
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Inferior angle

207
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SCAPULA

Medial border

208
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Coracoid process

209
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SCAPULA

Superior angle

210
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SCAPULA

Subscapular fossa

211
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SCAPULA

Suprascapular notch

212
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humerus

Greater Tubercle

213
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humerus

Lesser Tubercle

214
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humerus

Deltoid Tuberosity

215
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humerus

Radial fossa

216
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humerus

Capitulum

217
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humerus

Trochlea

218
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Medial epicondyle

219
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humerus

Coronoid fossa

220
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humerus

Anatomical neck

221
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humerus

Head of Humerus

222
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humerus

Greater Tubercle

223
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humerus

Deltoid Tuberosity

224
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Trochlea

225
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humerus

Medial epicondyle

226
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humerus

Anatomical neck

227
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humerus

Head of Humerus

228
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humerus

Lateral epicondyle

229
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humerus

Olecranon fossa

230
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FEMUR

Head

231
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FEMUR

Lesser Trochanter

232
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FEMUR

Medial epicondyle

233
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FEMUR

Patellar surface

234
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FEMUR

Lateral epicondyle

235
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FEMUR

Greater Trochanter

236
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Head

237
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FEMUR

Lesser Trochanter

238
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FEMUR

Medial epicondyle

239
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FEMUR

Lateral epicondyle

240
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FEMUR

Greater Trochanter

241
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FEMUR

Lateral condyle

242
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FEMUR

Medial condyle

243
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FEMUR

Intercondylar notch

244
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FEMUR

neck

245
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TIBIA BONE ANTERIOR

Medial condyle

246
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Medial malleolus

247
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TIBIA

Anterior crest

248
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TIBIA

Tibial tuberosity

249
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TIBIA

Lateral condyle

250
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TIBIA

Intercondylar eminence

251
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fibula

Head

252
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fibula

Lateral Malleolus

253
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Carpals

254
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Metacarpals 1 through 5

255
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Phalanges

256
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Distal phalanx

257
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Middle phalanx

258
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Proximal phalanx

259
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Phalanges

260
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Metatarsal bones 1 through 5

261
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Tarsal bones (7)

262
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Talus (ankle)

263
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Calcaneus (heel)

264
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radius

Head

265
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radius

Neck

266
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radius

Styloid process of radius

267
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radius

Radial tuberosity

268
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radius and ulna

Olecranon process

269
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radius and ulna

Coronoid process

270
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radius and ulna

Head of ulna

271
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radius and ulna

Styloid process of ulna

272
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radius and ulna

Trochlear notch

273
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Medial view of left os coxa
Formed by the fusion of three bones:
WHAT IS THE CORRECT NAME FOR #1

Illium

274
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Formed by the fusion of three bones:
WHAT IS THE CORRECT NAME FOR #2

Ischium

275
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Formed by the fusion of three bones:
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3) Pubis

276
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Iliac crest

277
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Anterior superior iliac spine

278
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Anterior inferior iliac spine

279
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Acetabulum

280
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5) Pubis

281
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Obturator foramen

282
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Ishial ramus

283
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Ishial Tuberosity

284
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Ishial spine

285
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Greater sciatic notch

286
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Posterior inferior iliac spine

287
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Posterior superior iliac spine

288
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Posterior Superior Iliac spine

289
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Posterior Inferior Iliac spine

290
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Greater sciatic notch

291
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Ischial spine

292
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Ischial tuberosity

293
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Ischial ramus

294
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Obturator foramen

295
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Pubis

296
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Anterior inferior iliac spine

297
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Anterior superior iliac spine

298
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Iliac crest

299
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frontal bone

300
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nasal bone

301
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inferior orbital fissure

302
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zygomatic

303
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maxilla

304
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mandible

305
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mental foramen

306
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infraorbital foramen

307
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superior orbital fissure

308
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frontal bone

309
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greater wing of sphenoid bone

310
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zygomatic bone

311
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maxilla

312
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mandible

313
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mental foramen

314
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coronoid process of mandible

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head of mandible

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mastoid process

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temporal bone

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occipital bone

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parietal bone

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sagittal suture

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parietal bone

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lambdoidal suture

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occipital bone

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tuberosity

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angle

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subcostal groove

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body or shaft

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articular part of tuberosity

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neck

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head

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sternal notch

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sternoclavicular joint

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manubrium

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body of sternum GLADIOLUS

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false ribs

336
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xiphoid process

337

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WHAT IS THE CORRECT NAME FOR #3

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343

The process when cartilage turns to bone

What is ossification?

344

The place where two bones meet.

What is a joint?

345

-composed of fibrous connective tissue
-permits tendons to slide easily and prevent them from slipping out of place

tendon sheaths?

346

Wraps entire muscle. Wrapped by Deep Fascia

Epimysium

347

Bundles of muscle fibers (myofiber)

Fascicles

348

Covers the fascicles (each BUNDLE of fibers)

Perimysium

349

Covers every individual muscle fiber

Endomysium

350

1) Direction of muscle fibers
2) Relative size of muscle
3) Location of muscle
4) Number of origin
5) Location of origin
6) Shape of muscle
7) Action of muscle

Naming Muscles (7)

351

Origin vs Insertion

Origion: tendon attaching the muscle to the less movable bone is called the origin
Insertion: tendon attaching to muscle to the MORE movable bone is called the insertion

352

tendon attaching the muscle to the less movable bone is called the

Origion

353

tendon attaching to muscle to the MORE movable bone is called the

Insertion

354

Paris of muscles that act against each other are called what?

Antagonists

355

Muscles can't push, but they pull
True or False?

TRUE

356

Sarcolemma vs Sarcoplasm

Sarcolemma: Cell membrane
Sarcoplasm: Cytoplasm

357

Protein in muscle, stores oxygen. Unique oxygen binding protein...has a reddish pigment like blood.

Myoglobin

358

Thousands of protein fibers that run in the length of the cell. Accounting for as much as 80% of the volume of the sarcoplasm
---Myofribil are contractile elements of the cell

Myofibril

359

3 types of contractile proteins in Myofibril

1) Thinner filaments of actin
2) Thicker filaments of myosin
3) Elastic filaments

360

Location of mitochondria in the muscle

sarcoplasm

361

--darker
--lighter strip in midsection called H zone
--M line in the H zone (darker)

Dark A Bands

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--lighter
--z disc in the middle (darker)

Light I bands

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"muscle segment" is the region between two successive Z discs. The sarcomere is the smallest contractile unit of the muscle cell
(From I band to A band to I band)

Sarcomere

364

Factors that affect muscle action

Temperature
Age
Exercise

365

Biceps

Brachialis

366

Canal leading ot eardrum and middle ear.

External auditory meatus

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WHAT IS THE CORRECT NAME FOR #

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368

Needlelike projection inferior to external auditory meatus; attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the neck. This process os often broken off demonstrations.

Styloid process

369

Rough projection inferior and posterior to external auditory meatus, attatchment site for muscles.

Mastoid process

370

Tiny opening between the mastoid and styloid processes through which cranial nerve 7 leaves the cranium.

Stylomastoid foramen

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Opening medial to the styloid process through which the internal jugular vein and cranial nerves IX, X, and XIpass.

Jugular foramen

372

Most posterior bone of cranium, forms floor and back wall. Joins sphenoid bone anteriorly via its narrow basioccipital region.

Occipital Bone

373

Site of articulation of occipital bone and parietal bone.

Lamboid suture

374

Large opening in base of occipital, which allows the spinal cord to join with the brain.

Foramen magnum

375

Rounded projections lateral to the foramen magnum that articulate with the first cervical vertebra (atlas).

Occiptal condyles

376

Bat-shaped portions of the sphenoid anterior to the sella turcica.

Lesser wings

377

rregularly shaped bone anterior to the sphenoid. Forms the roof of the nasal cavity, upper nasal septum, and part of the medial orbit walls.

Ethmoid bone

378

Vertical projection providing a point of attachment for the dura mater, helping ot secure the brain within the skull.

Cristi galli