final exam

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reproductive urinary system final lab
updated 6 years ago by kyrasjade
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1
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What’s the difference between mitosis and meiosis?

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In mitosis two identical sets of daughter nuclei, -46

Meiosis number of chromosomes is divided into half- 23

2

What are the steps in oocyte production?

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germ cells produce -->> primordial germ cell (PGC),-->>> mitosis, forming oogonia. oogenesis, the oogonia -->> primary oocytes.--->> SECONDARY

3

What are the steps in spermatocyte production?

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interphase before meiosis I,

synapsis before the first meiotic division.

meiosis II, the two daughter cells go through a second division to yield four cells containing a unique set of 23 single chromosomes into four sperm cells.

4

What are the three steps of urine formation and what is excreted and reabsorbed?

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Filtration
As blood courses through the glomeruli, soaks out of the blood through the membranes (by osmosis and diffusion) filtered flows into the Bowman's capsule.

Reabsorption ( peritubular copillaries). reabsorbed are water, glucose and other nutrients, and sodium (Na+) ions
Secretion
secretion is reabsorption in reverse. secretion moves substances out of the blood and into the tubules converted into urine.

5

Trace the flow of blood and the flow of filtrate/urine through the kidney.

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1-Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule:
2-Proximal tubule:
3-Descending limb of loop of henle:
4-Ascending limb of loop of henle:
5-Distal tubule: blood into nephron
6-Collecting Duct:

6

What ions are predominant in extracellular fluid vs. intracellular fluid?

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Extracellular fluids sodium, calcium, chloride and bicarbonate ions

Intracellular fluids potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and sulfate ions

7

What are the different causes of Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis?

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alkalosis pH above

acidosis pH below

Respiratory alkalosis isn’t enough carbon diox ide

  • hyperventilation, which commonly occurs with anxiety

Respiratory Acidosis too much CO2

  • chronic airway conditions, like asthma
  • injury to the chest
8

What is normal body pH range?

7.35 to 7.45

9

What causes the flow of filtrate out of the glomeruli?

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HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

10

What is Boyle’s law?

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INVERSELY RELATED TO PRESSURE

11

What is Frank-Starling law?

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EQUAL IN / EQUAL OUT

12

What is Dalton’s law and how does it apply to respiration?

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Total pressure=partial pressure gases

13

Production, activation and function of digestive enzymes and hormones including

gastrin, pepsinogen, pepsin, cholecystokinin, trypsin, trypsinogen, chymotrypsin, amylase.

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AMYLASE - a carbohydrase - an enzyme that breaks down starch into glucose

gastrin is secreted by the stomach cells to regulate the production of gastric juices.

PEPSIN Pepsin is an enzyme used to partially hydrolyze protein. Pepsin is released in an inactive form Pepsinogen.

pepsinogen reacts with HCl to form pepsin

cholecystokinin -a polypeptide hormone secreted in the small intestine,

stimulates gallbladder contraction and secretion of pancreatic enzymes.

Trypsin and Chymotrypsin are enzymes that break bonds next to specific amino acids

breaks proteins into amino acids in the DUODENUM

14

Summarize the correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to the elimination from the body.

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Formation of urine Blood leaves the heart via the aorta and enters the renal artery where it flows into the interlobar arteries. From there it branches off to the arcuate artery, which curves along the outer edge of the pyramids. From the arcuate artery, blood flows to the cortical radiate arteries then into the afferent arteriole. From the afferent arteriole, it goes into the : glomerulus for filtering.

ADH- DCT DISTAL CONVELATED TUBE

all waste goes to the proximal convoluted tubule, while blood that will stay in the body goes to the efferent arteriole. More blood filtering takes place in the peritubular capillaries. Blood that will stay in the body exits through the cortical radiate veins, then goes into the arcuate vein, then into the interlobar vein, then the renal vein, then back to the heart via the inferior vena cava.

At the same time this is happening, the waste that was sent to the proximal convoluted tubule travels down the descending loop of henle, then up the ascending loop of henle to the distal convoluted tubule where it is dumped into the collecting duct. From the collecting duct, it goes into the ureters, travels to the bladder, and then leaves the body via the urethra.

15

What is aldosterone?

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A corticosteroid hormone that stimulates absorption of sodium by the kidneys and so regulates water and salt balance (LH/ FSH)

16

What is renin?

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An enzyme secreted by and stored in the kidneys that promotes the production of the protein angiotensin (juxtaglomerular apparatus)

17

WHAT IS ANP ?

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Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), (polypeptide) ANP acts to reduce the water, sodium and adipose loads on the circulatory system, thereby reducing blood pressure.

18

What is ADH?

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water regulator in the body.

19

What are 2 ways you could check someone’s renal health?

Albuminuria-to-creatinine ratio (ACR).

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

20

If you wanted to create a more concentrated urine, what would your body do?

ADH causes the DCT and collecting ducts to be more permeable to water

21

What are the effects of angiotensin II?

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1. Constricts arteriolar smooth muscle, causing map to rise

2. stimulates reabsorption of Na+

Triggers adrenal cortex to release aldosterone

Aldosterone increases na+ reabsorption

3. Stimulates hypothalamus to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and activates thirst center ADH - causes water to be retained

4. Constricts efferent arterioles, decreasing capillar hydrostatic pressure and increasing fluid reabsorption

5. Causes glomerular cells to contract, decreasing surface area available for filtration

22

Explain the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism. What is its goal?

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is a hormone system regulating blood pressure (BP) and fluid volume, a third major participant in this system called aldosterone. The level of activity of the renin-angiotensin system determines and is determined by the body’s BP

23

In the loop of Henle, how does the descending & ascending loop differ in their permeability to water & sodium?

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descending (NO SALT): impermeable to Na+, but permeable to water/ h2o reabsorbed

ascending (NO H20) - permeable to na+ but impermeable to water : na+, k+, Cl-

24

What substances move through passive reabsorption?

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-H20 is highly permeable
-NaCl is highly permeable
-Glucose is highly permeable

25

In tubular reabsorption, substances are returned to the __________ from the ____________.

Distal convoluted tube

Proximal convoluted tubule (pct)

26

Why is pressure important in glomerular filtration?

The pressure helps to force liquid out of the blood.

27

What are the 3 steps in forming urine? Where does each occur?

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1. Glomerular filtration

2. tubular reabsorption : primarily in the proximal tubule

3. tubular secretion : distal tubules

28

What are the collecting ducts?

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receive filtrate from many nephrons

principle cells of collecting ducts - help maintain water and salt balance

29

Name/describe the parts and processes of a nephron.

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Glomerulus - tufts of capillaries; filtration

Bowman's capsule - enlarged, cup-shaped capsule surrounding glomerulus - collects filtrate

Proximal convoluted tubule (pct) - tubular reabsorption

Loop of henle - Sodium (Na+) and water balance

Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) - tubular secretion

30

What are mesangial cells?

Immunoreactive transformed smooth muscle cells that can contract in response to circulating vasoactive substances impeding glomerular blood flow and filtration.

31

What are the functions of the cells of JGA?

Granular cells (renin)

macula densa (monitor flow rate of filtrate.)

32

What are the layers of the glomerular filtration barrier?

Leaky endothelium (pores/fenestrae)

basement membrane (porous matrix of negatively charged glycoproteins)

podocytes (specialized epithelial cells with interdigitating pedicels separated by filtration slits).

33

What substances filter easily?

What substances don't filter?

What substances filter moderately?

Water, urea, glucose and inulin.

Albumin and hemoglobin.

Myoglobin.

34

The electrolytes of greatest importance to

sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, bicarbonate, and hydrogen ions

35

Posterior pituitary hormones and effect on the kidneys.

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ADH antidiuretic hormone, which helps control body water balance through its effect on the kidneys and urine output

oxytocin, which triggers the contractions of the uterus that occur during labor.

36

Anterior pituitary hormones and effect on reproductive organs.

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growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body's handling of nutrients and minerals

prolactin, which activates milk production in women who are breastfeeding

thyrotropin, which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

corticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones

hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to make sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women.

37

How do the kidneys control blood pressure and pH?

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buffers dissolved in the blood. remove excess chemicals remove H+ ions

38

How do the lungs control pH?

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increased-breathing counteract the pH-lowering effects of exercise by removing CO 2, & pH buffer

39
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Process of urine formation and micturition

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  1. Urine is made in the kidneys
  2. Urine is stored in the bladder
  3. The sphincter muscles relax
  4. The bladder muscle (detrusor) contracts
  5. The bladder is emptied through the urethra and urine is removed from the body
40

Flow of blood through the veins

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superior and inferior vena cava, -->>>right atrium-->> tricuspid valve --> right ventricle -->>pulmonic valve-->> pulmonary artery-->> lungs

-->> pulmonary veins -->> left atrium -->>> mitral valve-->> left ventricle -->> aortic valve -->>> aorta-->>>> body

41
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Flow of blood through the arteries

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body >> vena cava >> right atrium of the heart -->> right atrium contracts -->>pumps the blood >>> tricuspid valve >>> right ventricle.>> pulmonary artery >>> lungs -->> tiny blood vessels called capillaries ( absorb carbon dioxide from the blood and replace it with oxygen) >>> pulmonary vein >>> left atrium>> mitral valve >>>> the left ventricle -->> left side of the heart >>>>> left ventricle >>>>> aortic arch -->> body -->> carotid artery and into the brain -->> auxiliary arteries -->> arms through the aorta -->> torso and legs -->> Blood >> arteries >> capillaries >>>> veins -->> >>>>> heart.

42

Define Primary oocyte (egg), secondary oocyte

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oocyte is produced in the ovary during female gametogenesis and the first meiotic division is completed.

The second meiotic division usually stops short of completion unless fertilization occurs( secondary)

43

Why can “tighty-whiteys” cause infertility?

temperature of the testes is at issue : HEAT

44

Effects of estrogen and progesterone on the menstrual cycle.

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ESTROGEN

creates proliferative endometrium
necessary for proper ovulation
decreases sex drive

PROGESTERONE

maintains secretory endometrium
necessary for survival of embryo
restores sex drive
precursor of corticosteroids (cortisol)

45
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Function of T cells and B cells

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T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity

B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (antibodies).

function of T cells and B cells is to recognize specific “non-self” antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation.

46
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Flow of blood through the heart and all heart parts

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1. superior/inferior vena cava

2. right atrium

3. tricuspid valve

4. right ventricle

5. pulmonary valve

6. pulmonary artery

7. lungs

8. pulmonary veins

9. left atrium

10. mitral valve

11. left ventricle

12. aortic valve

13. aorta

14. body

47

What do the ductus deferens and the esophagus have in common?

peristalsis

48

Where is the egg fertilized?

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FALLOPIAN TUBES

49
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What hormones are in “the pill” and why?

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estrogen and progestin

50

Functions of the liver

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Bile production and excretion
Excretion of bilirubin, cholesterol, hormones, and drugs
Metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
Enzyme activation
Storage of glycogen, vitamins, and minerals
Synthesis of plasma proteins, such as albumin, and clotting factors
Blood detoxification and purification

51
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Identify all organs of the digestive system

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teeth, tongue, pharynx, stomach, gallbladder, liver, small intestine, colon, and pancreas.

52
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Identify all organs of the reproductive system

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Female: ovaries, uterus, and vagina.
Male: testes and penis.

53
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Identify all organs of the reproductive system MALE

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The male internal accessory organs include:
Epididymides
Ductus deferentia
Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands

54

Identify all organs of the reproductive system FEMALE

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  1. Fallopian tube
  2. Ovary
  3. Uterus
  4. Cervix
  5. Vagina
  6. Clitoris
  7. Labia minora
  8. Labia majora.
55
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Structure of sperm

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Sperm have three parts: a head chromatin; a midpiece filled with mitochondria to provide energy; and a flageullum or tail to move the sperm

56

Summarize the correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to the elimination from the body(Essay)

Blood leaves the heart via the aorta and enters the renal artery where it flows into the interlobar arteries. From there it branches off to the arcuate artery, blood flows to the cortical radiate arteries then into the afferent arteriole. From the afferent arteriole, it goes into the glomerulus for filtering.

all waste goes to the proximal convoluted tubule, while blood that will stay in the body goes to the efferent arteriole. More blood filtering takes place in the peritubular capillaries. Blood that will stay in the body exits through the cortical radiate veins, then goes into the arcuate vein, then into the interlobar vein, then the renal vein, then back to the heart via the inferior vena cava.

At the same time this is happening, the waste that was sent to the proximal convoluted tubule travels down the descending loop of henle, then up the ascending loop of henle to the distal convoluted tubule where it is dumped into the collecting duct. From the collecting duct >>>, it goes into the ureters>>>>, travels to the bladder>>>>>, and then leaves the body via the urethra.

57

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?

They regulate the temperature of the testes.

58

The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.

peristaltic contractions

59

female sex hormones

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Hypothalamus →GnRH→Pituitary →FSH →Follicle →Estrogens

60

The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.

the bulbospongiosus muscles

61

Which of the gland are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?

the seminal vesicles

62

Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?

GnRH

63

Uterine wall - has three layers

  1. Perimetrium - is a thin covering on the outside of the uterus. It is actually part of the peritoneum. OUTSIDE
  2. Myometrium - consists of three layers of smooth muscle. longitudinal, circular, and spiral. CONTRATIONS IN PREGNANCY
  3. Endometrium - is the inner mucosal lining. it consists of two layers:sheds at period
  4. Stratum functionale - contains secretory glands. This is the portion that is shed during mensus.
  1. Stratum basale - is a highly vascularized layer which serves to regenerate the stratum functionale.
64
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KIDNEY

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renal pyramid

renal corpuscle

RENAL ARTERY

ureter

nephron

major calyx

minor calyx

SEGMENTAL ARTERY

INTERLOBAR ARTERY

CORNICAL RADIATE

ARQUATE

65
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POSTERIOR (BACK SIDE)

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CORONARY SINUS- BIG FAT BACK

GREAT CARDIAC VEIN

INFERIOR VENA CAVA

L/R ORICAL

66
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Stomach

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Top is fundus

layers of gastrointestinal tract, the stomach walls consist of an outer mucosa, and inner submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa.

CARDIAC

PYLORIC REGION- PYLORIC CANAL

DUODEUOM

67

EPIPIMATES

Tightly coiled tubes
Connected to ducts within the testis
Promote maturation of sperm cells

68

Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?

secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth

69

The primary function of the uterus is to ________.

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

70

Why is the blood-testis barrier important?

cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system

71

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.

fallopian tubes

72

If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?

twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur

73

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.

they have the same number of chromosomes

74

The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.

meiosis

75

Spermiogenesis involves the ________.

formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm

76

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?

corpus luteum

77

What is the difference between metabolic alkalosis vs. acidosis?

Metabolic alkalosis develops when your body loses too much acid or gains too much base. This can be attributed to:

  • excess vomiting, which causes a loss of electrolytes
  • Gastric drainage, vomiting...loss of acids

Metabolic acidosis starts in the kidneys instead of the lungs. It occurs when they can’t eliminate enough acid or when they get rid of too much base. There are three major forms of metabolic acidosis:

  • Diabetic acidosis occurs in people with diabetes
  • Hyperchloremic acidosis results from a loss of sodium bicarbonate. This base helps to keep the blood neutral. Both diarrhea and vomiting can cause this type of acidosis.
  • Lactic acidosis occurs when there’s too much lactic acid in your body.
  • Kidney failure, excessive acidic ketones ( diabetes mellitus), prolonged diarrhea, prolonged vomiting...loss of bases
78
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taenia coli Any of the three bands in which the longitudinal muscular fibers of the large intestine

sigmoid

epiploic appendices / omental appendices are small pouches of the peritoneum filled with fat and situated along the colon, but are absent in the rectum.

79
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TRACHEA - L /R BRONCHI

AORTA

INFERIOR VENA CAVA

THYROID

ESOPHAGAS

SPLEEN

COMMON ILIAC- DIVISION

80
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labels on liver

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gallbladder

right lobe

inferior vena cava

hepatic portal

81
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FRONTAL HEART

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Endocardium - heart valves

Myocardium - Conduction system

  • SA node >> AV node >>> bundle of Hise >> bundle branches >> Purkinje fibers

Pericardial cavity - Pericardial sinus

82
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FRONTAL VIEW OF HEART

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Vena Cava
Carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart

Semilunar Valve
Flaps that prevent backflow of blood

Left Atrium
Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs

Left Ventricle
Region of the heart that pumps blood to the body

Pulmonary Artery
Carries blood to the lungs

Right Ventricle
Region of the heart that pumps blood to the lungs

Pulmonary Vein
Carries blood from the lungs

Right Atrium
Segment of the heart that receives deoxygenated blood

Aorta/ AORTIC ARCH
The main artery carrying blood to all parts of the body

chordae tendineae : heart strings, are cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve

PAPIL

83
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respiratory

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ESOPHAGAS

L/R BRONCHI

TRACHEA

PULMONARY TRUNK

AORTIC ARCH

INFERIOR VENA CAVA

AORTA

DIAPHRAGM

84
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lower digestive/ small ; large intestine( front only )

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  • appendix
  • ascending colon
  • transverse colon
  • The descending colon
  • The sigmoid colon – the v-shaped region of the large intestine Cecum – the first part of the large intestine Taeniae coli – three bands of smooth muscle Haustra – bulges caused by contraction of taeniae coli Epiploic appendages – small fat accumulations on the viscera
85

Ovarian hormones and cycle (essay)

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follice develops day 14 - ovulation (estrogen peaks)

day 12-14 estrogen drops - more frisky (surge)

day 20-21 progesterone goes up - mucus thickens - peaks

estrogen peaks again

pms estrogen and progesterone drop : repeat 28 days

86

FINAL product of oogenesis is called ______. (HINT: this is the ovulated secondary oocyte)

ovum

87

What is one of the hormones responsible for maintenance of corpus luteum after ferilization?

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

88

Cortex of an ovary contains (4 things)

primordial follicles
developing follicles
corpus luteum (-->corpus albicans)
stromal cells

89

ovaries are supported by ______

1. Mesovarium (attaches to ovary to POSTERIOR surface of broad ligaments)

2. A pair of supporting ligaments (ovarian ligaments & suspension ligaments)

90

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.

progesterone levels are at their highest

91

3 Major fx of ovary?

(1) synthesis & secretion of sex hormones
(2) release a secondary oocyte every 28 days
(3) Secrete inhibin (which is involved in the negative feedback ctrl of pituitary FSH production)

92

This membrane will eventually surround the oocyte

Zona pellucida

93

FINAL product of oogenesis is called ______. (HINT: this is the ovulated secondary oocyte)

ovum

94

United Secondary oocytes after the completion of meiosis II is called ____.

zygote

95

Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.

A) The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.
B) During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.
C) During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.
D) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

96

Which of the choices below is not a part of the brain-testicular axis?

thalamus

97

Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?

A) Both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer.
B) All lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant.
C) The only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation.
D) The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.

The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.

98

The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.

A) during spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced
B) the mature ovum is n, while the sperm is 2n
C) in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
D) spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only

in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

99

Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?

The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.

100

Why doesn’t semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?

The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.

101

Spermatogenesis ________.

involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

102
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Combo pancreas / spleen

spleen - hepatic portal

pancreas leading to small intestine @ dueodium

103
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mouth / upper head glands

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sublingual

submandibular

parotoid

104
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ANTERIOR CAVITY

BLADDER

CURVED SIGMIOD

COMMON ILIAC ARTERY

INFERIOR VENA CAVA

AORTA

ADRENAL GLANDS

KIDNEY

SPLEEN

DIAPHRAGM

ESOPHAGUS

THYROID

105

Gland at neck

Thyroid

106

ARTERYS SUPERIOR LIMB

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SUPERIOR LIMB- ARM

COMMON CAROTID-> SUBCLAVICAN-> AXILLARY->BRACHIAL-> DEEP ARTERY OF ARM-> RADIAL/ULNAR-> DEEP PALMAR-> SUPERFICIAL PALMAR->DIGITALS

107

VEINS SUPERIOR LIMB

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1. Palmar digital vein
2. Palmar metacarpal vein
3. Palmar venous arch vein
4. Radial and ulnar vein
5. Brachial vein
6. Axillary vein
7. Subclavian vein
8. Brachiocephalic vein
9. Superior vena cava
10. Right atrium
11. Tricuspid valve
12. Right ventricle
13. Pulmonary semilunar valve
14. Pulmonary trunk
15. Pulmonary artery
16. Lungs

17. Pulmonary veins
18. Left atrium
19. Mitral valve / bicuspid valve / Left AV Valve
20. Left ventricle
21. Aortic semilunar valve
22. Ascending aorta
23. Passes right and left coronary arteries
24. Aortic arch
25. Brachiocephalic trunk
26. Passes opening of the right common carotid artery
27. Right subclavian
28. Axillary artery
29. Brachial artery
30. Ulnar and radial artery
31. Palmar arch artery
32. Palmar metacarpal artery
33. Palmar digital vein

108
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HEAD/NECK ARTERY

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109
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HEAD/NECK VEIN

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110

HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN

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CELIAC TRUNK->LEFT GASTRIC-> COMMON HEPATIC->SPLEENIC R.GASTRIC->L. GASTROEPIPLOIC-> R. GASTROEPIPLOIC->GASTRODUODENAL

111
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POSTERIOR MALE REPRODUCTIVE

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112
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NEPHRON

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113
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SAGITAL CUT TESTES

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principal androgen produced by the testes is testosterone. Production of testosterone by the testes is stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH), produced by anterior pituitary secretion of LH is stimulated by (GnRH), released from the hypothalamus, inhibited by testosterone, inhibits the secretion of GnRH. These hormones constitute the (hypothalamic-pituitary-testes axis).

114
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PHARYNX

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115

INFERIOR LIMB VEIN

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External iliac

internal iliac

femoral

great saphenous

small saphenous

popliteal

perioneal (Fibula)

Anterior tibial

posterior tibial

116

WHAT IS THE MAIN BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE LOWER EXTREMITIES ?(ARTERY)

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COMMON ILIAC -> FEMORAL-> DEEP ARTERY OF THE THIGH->POPLITIAL LOWER LEG->ANTERIOR TIBILIAR / POSTERIAL TIBULAR/ FIBULAR ->ARCULATE (DORSAL ASPECT OF FOOT ) _. PANTAR ARTERY->DIGITAL ARTERY

117

ELECTROLYTES

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NA+

CI-

MG2+

CA2+

K+

118

CAUSES UTERINE CONTRACTIONS

prostaglandins- HELP SPERM MOVE

119

FUNCTIONS OF THE GALLBALDDER

BILE STORAGE

120

HYPERVENTILATION

CO2 DOWN PH UP- TOO LITTLE / DECREASE IN CO2 - RISE IN PH

121

WHAT DOES ADH DO TO THE COLLECTING TUBULE AND DISTAL ?

RE-ABSORPTION OF H2O: WHY ? DEHYDRATED AND NEED MORE RE-ABSORPTION OF FLUIDS

DIABETES INSIPIDUS

122

WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT GAS FOR PH IN BLOOD ?

CO2

123

WHERE DOES GLUCOSE GET REABSORBED?

KIDNEY- PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE - 70 % RE-ABSORPTION

124

what are the functions of the juxtaglomerular apparatus ?

FILTRATION RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE AND PH

125

DIABETES MILITIS: PRODUCING KEYTONE BODIES , WHAT CONDITION DOES IT LEAD TO?

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

126

PROLONGED VOMITING OR TAKING TOO MANY ANTACIDS : WHAT DOES IT CAUSE ?

METABOLIC ALKALOSIS

127

OBSTRUCTION OR BLOCKING OF THE AIRWAY CAUSES?

RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS

128

IF BLOOD PRESSURE SUDDENLY DROPS, WHAT HAPPENS TO FILTRATION?

DECREASES

129

FORCE THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR NORMAL RESPIRATION IN THE LUNGS?

EXPAND THE LUNGS : NATURAL ELASTIC RECOIL

INCREASE PRESSURE / LOWER VOLUME = CO2 OUT

130

IF YOU HAVE ALOT OF CARBS IN YOUR MEAL? ENZYME NEEDED

AMYLASE

131

WHAT DOES CHYME DO?

MAKE BICARBONATE FROM PANCREAS BE RELEASED FOR SMALL INTESTINE

132

WHAT SEX HORMONE IN MALES PRODUCES SPERM ?

FSH- FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE

133

SHORTER URETHRA IN A FEMALE COMPARED TO A MALE LEADS TO MORE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO?

UTI

134

WHAT IS THE MITRATION (URINATION) REFLEX CENTER CONTROLLED BY ?

SACRAL SEGMENTS OF THE SPINAL CORD

135

PROTEIN AND FAT IN THE SMALL INTESTINE LEADS TO THE SECRETION OF WHAT HORMONE?

CCK

136

WHICH HORMONE STIMULATES THE PANCREATIC JUICE TO RELEASE BICARBONATE TO MAKE CHYME LESS ACIDIC?

SECRETIN

137

FACE AND SCALP IS DRAINED BY THE EXTERIOR JUGULAR THE DRAINS INTO WHAT VEIN ?

SUBCLAVIAN

138

SUBCLAVIAN AND INTERNAL JUGULAR MERGE TO FORM?

BRACIOCEPHALLIC

139
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COMMON ILIAC MERGES TO FORM THE? ( 95 NORTH)

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA

140
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WHEN WE REMOVE THE PREPUSE( FORESKIN)?

circumcise

141

UNDECENDED TESTES CAUSE INFERTILITY WHY?

heat of body will destroy it

142

MECHANISM EQUAL IN/ EQUAL OUT TO HEART ?

FRANK - STERLING

143
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WHAT PROVIDES BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE LOWER EXTREMITIES ?

COMMON ILIAC

144

WHICH PROVIDE BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE THIGH?

FEMORAL

145

WHAT PROVIDES BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE KNEE?

POPLITEAL

146

WHICH PROVIDES BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE LOWER LEG? ( MORE THAN ONE)?

ANTERIOR TIBULAR/ POSTERIOR TIBULAR, FIBULAR

147

WHAT SUPPLY'S BLOOD TO THE FOOT ?

DORSALAS PEDIS

148

B CELLS DO WHAT

DIFFERENTIATES INTO PLASMA CELLS / CREATES ANTIBODIES

149

WHAT IS THE "SHRINKAGE"? REGULATES THE TESTES

dartos and cremaster muscle male shrinkage

150

ABILITY OF MALE TO EJACULATE IS DUE TO WHAT MUSCLES ?

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SYMPATHETIC - CORPUS SPONGIOSUM

151
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SITE OF FERTILIZATION IN A FEMALE?

IMPLANTATION OCCURS?

FALLOPIAN TUBES

UTERUS

152

MENSTRUATION ONLY WHEN BLOOD LEVELS OCCURS WHEN TWO HORMONES ARE DIMINISHED ?

ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE

153

WHAT CAUSES OVULATION ?

FIRST ESTROGEN SURGE DAY 12-14

154

WHICH IS THE HORMONE THAT PROMOTES THE UTERUS AND PREPS IT FOR PREGNANCY? PROMOTES THE UTERINE WALL

PROGESTERONE

155

2 POINT ESSAY - MUST KNOW

MENSTRAL : ESTROGEN ( UP ) DAY 12-14 >>> LH/ FSH ( UP) SURGE- EGG

COMES OUT >> LH/ FSH / ESTROGEN (DOWN) PROGESTRONE (UP) PEAKS AT

DAY 21 >>> 2ND SURGE DAY 22-25 ESTROGEN (UP) >>> ESTROGEN (DOWN)

PROGESTRON (DOWN) >>>> PMS UNTIL MENOPAUSE

Blood >>> heart via >>>> aorta >>> renal artery >>>

interlobar arteries >>> arcuate artery >>>> pyramids >>>

arcuate artery >>> cortical radiate arteries >>>> afferent arteriole

>>> ADH- DCT DISTAL CONVELATED TUBE>>> proximal convoluted tubule

>>> efferent arteriole >>> peritubular capillaries >>> Blood >>>

in the body exits >>>cortical radiate veins >>>> arcuate vein>>> interlobar vein

>>> renal vein >> heart >>> inferior vena cava >>> waste >>

proximal convoluted tubule >>> descending loop of henle >>>

ascending loop of henle >>> distal convoluted tubule >>>

collecting duct>>>>ureters >>> bladder >>>> leaves the body via the urethra.

156
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157

urogenital infection caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis

chlamydia

158

STI that initially causes inflamation

gonorrhea

159

STI caused by a bacterium called treponema pallidum

syphilis

160

a vaginal infection caused by bacterial microorganisms

vaginitis

161

form of vaginitis caused by the one-celled protozoan trichomonas vaginalis

Trichomoniasis

162

How did it get so late so soon? Its night before its afternoon. December is here before its June. My goodness how the time has flewn. How did it get so late so soon?
Dr. Seuss

The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you'll go.
Dr. Seuss

163
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ABNORMALLY FAST HEART BEAT= 100+ BEATS

ABNORMALLY LOW HEART BEAT = 60 - BEATS INADEQUATE BLOOD CIRCULATION

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tachycardia

bradycardia

164

The right and left internal jugular veins and the right and left subclavian merge to form the

Brachiocephalic veins

165

Which of the following arteries provide blood to the lower extremities?

Common iliac arteries

166

A) Common hepatic artery
B) Renal artery
C) Inferior mesenteric artery
D) Internal iliac artery
E) Aorta

Supplies the duodenum and stomach
Answer: A
Supplies the kidney.
Artery that does not anastomose.
Answer: B
Supplies the distal areas of the large intestine.
Answer: C
Supplies pelvic structures.
Answer: D
Largest artery of the body.
Answer: E

167

Veins that drain the lateral surface of the upper arm are the:

Cephalic veins

168

Which vessel drains the scalp?

External jugular vein

169

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

tunica media

170

Which of the following is not a branch of the aorta?

right cartoid artery

171

Which of the following supplies blood to parts of the intestinal tract?

superior mesenteric artery

172

Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?

right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium

173

The mechanism that ensures the volume of blood discharged from the heart is equal to the volume entering its chambers is ______ law of the heart.

Frank-Starling's

174

antenna- anterior communicating /posterior communicating /anterior cerebral

eyes- internal carotid

arms- posterior cerebral artery

body-basilar artery

leg- vertebral artery

circle of willis (brain)

175

WHAT HELPS RETURN THE BLOOD TO THE HEART ?

CONTRACTION OF SKELETAL MUSCLES AND THE DIAPHRAGM

GASTRAPHOLIAS : EXERCISE: SQUEEZES THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA

176

WHAT IS THE MAIN BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE BRAIN ?

INTERNAL CARTOID AND VERTERBRAL

177

Arch of aorta

Abdominal aorta

Coronary artery

Subclavian A/V

Axillary A/V

Brachial A/V

Radial A/V

Ulnar A/V

Vertebral artery

Hepatic A/V

Renal A/V

Lumbar A/V

To upper body

To abdominal cavity; legs

Supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle

To / From shoulder

To / From underarm area

To/From upper arm

To/From lateral lower arm used to take pulse @ wrist

To/From medial lower arm

(serving brain) To brain (posterior)

To/From liver

To/From kidneys

To/From posterior abdominal wall

178

Femoral A/V

Anterior/Posterior Tibial A/V

Dorsalis pedis A/V

Plantar A/V

Superior vena cava

Inferior vena cava

Internal jugular V

External jugular V

Cephalic V

Median cubital V

Great Saphenous V

External Iliac A/V

To/From upper leg- the external iliac artery entering the thigh

To/From lower leg

To/From top of foot

To/From bottom of foot

From upper body

From lower body

from brain

from superficial tissues of the head and neck

from superficial lateral arm

from superficial middle of arm (usually take blood from this vein)

from superficial medial leg (longest vein)

To/From superficial leg

179
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List all of the veins and their tributaries of the trunk (abdomen, thorax and neck region)

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  1. SVC
  2. L. and R. Brachiocephalic
  3. Internal Jugular
  4. External Jugular
  5. Subclavian
  6. IVC
  7. Hepatic veins
  8. R. Suprarenal
  9. R. gonadal
  10. R. Renal
  11. L. Suprarenal
  12. L. Renal
  13. L. Gonadal
  14. Common iliac
  15. Internal iliac
  16. External iliac
  17. Femoral
  18. R.Ascend
180
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Major arteries and veins of torso

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Descending aorta: descending thoracic aorta and descending abdominal aorta

Renal arteries

Inferior vena cava

Renal veins