Respiratory System Flashcards


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1

Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the ________.
A) larynx
B) pharynx
C) trachea
D) carina

A) larynx

2

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is ________.
A) to secrete surfactant
B) to protect the lungs from bacterial invasion
C) to replace mucus in the alveoli
D) to trap dust and other debris

A) to secrete surfactant

3

Fill in the missing organs of the respiratory system:
________________ (air enters) → nasal cavity → _________________ (both air and food move
through) → trachea → ___________________ (large tubes leading to both lungs) → lungs

NOSE-- LARYNX--BRONCHI

4

Each lung is surrounded by two layers of serous membrane known as pleurae. These are:
__________ pleura; covers the surface of the lung
__________ pleura; lines the thoracic wall

1) VISCERAL PLEURA
2) PARIETAL PLEURA

5

The thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae in is called the ____________ cavity and it is filled with ___________ fluid.
This fluid assists breathing movements by acting as a ________________.

1) PLEURAL CAVITY
2) PLEURAL FLUID

6

Bronchial tree

the branching system of bronchi and bronchioles conducting air from the windpipe into the lungs.

7

Air flows from the trachea through the ______________, ______________, and ______________ bronchi to smaller and smaller bronchi. The trachea and bronchi contain ______________ to keep the airways open.

1) MAIN BRONCHI
2) SECONDARY BRONCHI
3) TERTIARY BRONCHI
4) SUPPORTING CARTILEDGE

8

Airways from the nasal cavity through the terminal bronchioles are called the __________________
zone.
The function of this zone is to _____________ and ______________ the air.
Is there gas exchange in this zone?

1) CONDUCTING ZONE
2) WARM AND MOISTEN
3) NO

9

Two groups of digestive organs

Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract)

  • Digests and absorbs food
  • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
10

Accessory digestive organs

Teeth, tongue, gallbladde

11

Digestive glands

Salivary glands

Liver

Pancreas

12

Digestive Processes, Six essential activities

1.Ingestion

2.Propulsion

3.Mechanical digestion

4.Chemical digestion

5.Absorption

6.Defecation

13

General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal

  • The alimentary canal is a muscular tube about 8 meters long
14

Peritoneum

Visceral peritoneum

Parietal peritoneum

serous membrane of the abdominal cavity

external surface of most digestive organs

lines the body wall

15

Peritoneal cavity

Between the two peritoneums

–Fluid lubricates mobile organs

16

Peritoneum and Peritoneal Cavity

  • Mesentery is a
  • Retroperitoneal organs lie posterior to the peritoneum
  • Intraperitoneal (peritoneal) organs are surrounded by the peritoneum

double layer of peritoneum

–Routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves

–Holds organs in place and stores fat

17
  • Retroperitoneal organs lie

posterior to the peritoneum

18

Intraperitoneal (peritoneal) organs are

surrounded by the peritoneum

19

Blood Supply

  • Arteries

Hepatic, splenic, and left gastric

Inferior and superior mesenteric

20

Splanchnic Circulation

  • Hepatic portal circulation

Drains nutrient-rich blood from digestive organs

Delivers it to the liver for processing

21
  • Submucosal plexus

controls secretions

22

Myenteric plexus

controls gastrointestinal motility

23
  • Parasympathetic impulses

increase activities of digestive system

24

Sympathetic impulses

inhibit certain digestive actions

25
  • The mouth: This action is called mastication
  • Ingests food
  • Mechanically breaks up solid particles using saliva
  • Prepares food for chemical digestion
26

Cheeks and Lips

  • The cheeks form the lateral walls of the mouth
  • The lips are highly mobile structures that surround the mouth opening
27

Tongue

The tongue is a thick, muscular organ that occupies the floor of the mouth and nearly fills the oral cavity when the mouth is closed

28

Palate

forms the roof of the oral cavity and consists of a hard anterior part and a soft posterior part

29

Salivary Glands

  • secrete saliva
  • This begins the digestion of carbohydrates
30

The three pairs of major salivary glands, including:

  • Parotid glands
  • Submandibular glands
  • Sublingual glands
31
  • There are many minor glands scattered throughout the

mucosa of the tongue, palate, and cheeks

32
  • Serous cells produce a watery fluid with a digestive enzyme called

salivary amylase

33
  • Mucous cells secrete

mucous

34

Parotid glands

  • Secrete clear watery, serous fluid
  • Rich in salivary amylase
35
  • Submandibular glands

Secrete primarily serous fluid and some mucus

36
  • Sublingual glands

Secrete primarily mucus

37

Pharynx and Esophagus

  • The pharynx is a cavity posterior to the mouth from which the tubular esophagus leads to the stomach
  • Both the pharynx and esophagus muscular walls function in swallowing
38

The pharynx can be divided into the following parts

  • Nasopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharynx
39

Swallowing can be divided into three stages:

  • Voluntary stage where saliva is mixed with chewed food
  • Swallowing begins and the swallowing reflex is triggered
  • Peristalsis transports food in the esophagus to the stomach
  • The peristaltic waves pushes food through the pharynx
40

Esophagus

  • Flat muscular tube from laryngopharynx to stomach
  • Pierces diaphragm at esophageal hiatus
  • Joins stomach at the cardiac orifice
41

Stomach

  • is a J-shaped, pouch-like organ, about 25-30 centimeters long
  • It hangs inferior to the diaphragm in the upper-left portion of the abdominal cavity
42

The stomach has three layers of smooth muscle

  • An inner circular layer
  • An outer longitudinal layer
  • A further inner layer of oblique fibers
43

The mucous membrane of the stomach has tubular gastric glands that secrete:

  • Pepsinogen
  • Pepsin
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Mucus
  • Intrinsic factor
44

The mucous membrane of the stomach has tubular gastric glands that secrete:

  • Pepsinogen
  • From the chief cells
  • Inactive form of pepsin
45

The mucous membrane of the stomach has tubular gastric glands that secrete:

  • Pepsin
  • From pepsinogen in the presence of hydrochloric acid
  • Is a protein splitting enzyme
46

The mucous membrane of the stomach has tubular gastric glands that secrete:

  • Hydrochloric acid
  • From the parietal cells
  • Needed to convert pepsinogen to pepsin
47

The mucous membrane of the stomach has tubular gastric glands that secrete:

  • Mucus
  • From the goblet cells and the mucous glands
  • Protective to stomach wall
48

The mucous membrane of the stomach has tubular gastric glands that secrete:

  • Intrinsic factor
  • From the parietal cells
  • Is required for vitamin B12 absorption
49

Gastric Absorption

  • Gastric enzymes begin breaking down proteins, but the stomach is not well-adapted to absorb digestive products
50

The stomach does absorb:

  • Some water
  • Certain salts
  • Certain lipid-soluble drugs
  • Alcohol
51

The pancreas has a dual function

as both an endocrine gland and exocrine gland

52

The exocrine function

is to secrete digestive juice called pancreatic juice

53

endocrine gland

ductless

54

Pancreatic juice contains

enzymes that digest carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids

55
  • Pancreatic amylase

– splits glycogen into disaccharides

56

Pancreatic lipase

breaks down triglycerides

57

Digest proteins

Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and carboxypeptidase

58
  • Nucleases

– digest nucleic acids

59

Bicarbonate ions

– make pancreatic juice alkaline

60

Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

  • CCK induces the secretion

of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice by acini

61

Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

  • Secretin causes

secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice by duct cells

62

Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

  • Vagal stimulation also

causes release of pancreatic juice (minor stimulus)

63

Liver

  • The liver is the largest internal organ
  • It is located in the upper-right abdominal quadrant just beneath the diaphragm
64

The liver carries on many important metabolic activities, including:

  • Produces glycogen from glucose
  • Breaks down glycogen into glucose
  • Converts non-carbohydrates to glucose
  • Oxidizes fatty acids
  • Synthesizes lipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol
  • Converts carbohydrates and proteins into fats
  • Deaminating amino acids
  • Forms urea
  • Synthesizes plasma proteins
  • Converts some amino acids to other amino acids
  • Stores glycogen, iron, and vitamins A, D, and B12
  • Phagocytosis of worn out RBCs and foreign substances
  • Removes toxins such as alcohol and certain drugs from the blood
65

Bile

  • Bile is a yellowish-green liquid that hepatic cells continuously secrete
66

Bile contains

  • Water
  • Bile salts:
67

Bile salts:

  • Emulsify fats
  • Help absorb fatty acids, cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins
  • Bile pigments
  • Cholesterol
  • Electrolytes
68

Functions of Bile Salts

  • Bile salts aid digestive enzymes
  • They reduce surface tension and break fat globules into droplets (like soap or detergent) and this is called emulsification
  • They enhance absorption of fatty acids and cholesterol
  • They help absorb fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K
  • Bile salts are recycled as they return to the liver
69

Bile secretion is stimulated by

–Bile salts in enterohepatic circulation

–Secretin from intestinal cells exposed to HCl and fatty chyme

70

Small Intestine consists of three parts that include:

  • Duodenum
  • Jejunum
  • Ileum
71

Functions of the Large Intestine

  • Has little or no digestive function
  • Absorbs water and electrolytes
  • Secretes mucus
  • Houses intestinal flora
  • Forms feces
  • Carries out defecation
72

Feces is composed of materials not digested or absorbed, and include:

  • Water
  • Electrolytes
  • Mucus
  • Bacteria
  • Bile pigments altered by bacteria provide the color
73

The pungent odor is produced by bacterial compounds including:

  • Phenol
  • Hydrogen sulfide
  • Indole
  • Skatole
  • Ammonia
74
  1. the layers of the alimentary canal, starting with the outermost layer

Serosa, Longitudinal Muscle, Circular Muscle, Submucosa, Mucosa

75

Where is salivary amylase released from?

Parotid gland

76

What does salivary amylase digest?

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Glucose
77

Gastrin: What is it for?

Hormone secreted by the stomach that regulates gastric juice secretion by stimulating HCl production.

78
  1. Secretion of Cholecystokinin(CCK) from the intestinal wall is stimulated in the presence of what foods?

...

79

Secretin:

inhibits the action of pancreatic lipase.

80

...

- occurs in stomach

81

Segmentation

occurs in small intestine

82

What is the part of the digestive tract with the most lymph nodules and bacteria?

Ileum

83

What is the greater omentum formed out of?

Peritoneal membrane

84

If the liver is damaged , what is going to be harder to digest?

Lipids

85
  1. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is ____?

Increased

86
  1. Peristaltic waves; where are they starting?

Esophagus

87
  1. The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place….

Mesenteries

88
  1. Expiration, unlike inspiration, is a passive act. Expiration depends on 2 factors…
  1. Elastic recoil of the lungs
  2. Surface tension of alveolar fluid
89
  1. What structure has the greatest surface area for gas exchange in the lungs

Alveoli

90
  1. What determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

Partial pressure gradient

91
  1. In high altitude, how does the body compensated for the decreased oxygen in your lungs?

Erythropoietin

92
  1. The force responsible for normal expiration is____

elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension.

93
  1. The Pharynx

the common passage way for both air and food

94
  1. Epiglottis

“Saves you from dying”

95
  1. In a protein deficient diet, what happens to the water in your cells?

Fluid leaves the cells and fills into the interstitial tissue

96

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

A) chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells

B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

C) as carbonic acid in the plasma

D) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

97

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.

  1. A) bile
  2. B) pancreatic juice
  3. C) intestinal juice
  4. D) gastric juice

A) bile

98

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.

  1. A) absorption
  2. B) secretion
  3. C) chemical digestion
  4. D) mechanical digestion

C) chemical digestion

99

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

  1. A) B12
  2. B) K
  3. C) A
  4. D) C

A) B12

100

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

  1. A) loss of oxygen in tissues
  2. B) increase of carbon dioxide
  3. C) pH (acidosis)
  4. D) pH (alkalosis)

B) increase of carbon dioxide

101

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.

A) Boyle's law

B) Henry's law

C) Charles' law

D) Dalton's law

A) Boyle's law

102

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.

A) duodenum

B) ileum

C) jejunum

D) pyloric sphincter

B) ileum

103

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

  1. A) less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
  2. B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
  3. C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
  4. D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

104

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?

  1. A) diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax
  2. B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
  3. C) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax

D) diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax

B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

105

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

A) carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract

B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

C) distribute hormones

D) return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low

B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

106

Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?

A) 710% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma

B) 20% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin

C) as bicarbonate ion in plasma

D) attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

D) attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

107

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

B) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.

C) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.

D) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.

A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

108

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

A) chief cells

B) parietal cells

C) serous cells

D) mucous neck cells

B) parietal cells

109

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.

A) Henry's law

B) Boyle's law

C) Dalton's law

D) Charles' law

C) Dalton's law

110

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.

  1. A) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen
  2. B) in the walls of the tract organs
  3. C) in the pons and medulla
  4. D) only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage

B) in the walls of the tract organs

111

Peristaltic waves are ________.

A) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract

B) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract

C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract

D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

112

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

  1. A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.
  2. B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.
  3. C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
  4. D) There are 32 primary teeth, and most children lose these teeth due to decay because they are never very strong.

C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20

113

Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:

A) During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2.

B) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently.

C) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity.

D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

114

Question

Correct Match

Selected Match

Item A

D.

appendix

D.

appendix

Item B

C.

ileum

C.

ileum

Item C

A.

duodenum

A.

duodenum

Item D

B.

jejunum

B.

jejunum

Question

Correct Match

Selected Match

Item A

D.

appendix

D.

appendix

Item B

C.

ileum

C.

ileum

Item C

A.

duodenum

A.

duodenum

Item D

B.

jejunum

B.

jejunum