Human Anatomy & Physiology: exam 4 study guide Flashcards


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Describe the functional relationship between volume changes and gas flow into and out of the lungs.(Part 1)essay

As the muscles of inspiration , the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles contract, the thoracic cavity is expanded

inferiorly by the diaphragm pulling down as it contracts and laterally and superiorly as the external intercostal muscles cause the ribs to expand up and out. This expansion of the thoracic cavity causes the volume of the thorax to increase because it is now a larger "container" than before V(up), P(down)

2
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Describe the functional relationship between volume changes and gas flow into and out of the lungs.(Part 2)essay

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Boyle's Law, if volume increases in a given space it causes the pressure of gases in that space to decrease V(down) P (up)

Pressure in the lungs is now lower than the atmospheric pressure outside of the lungs, causing the air to be pushed into the lungs along this pressure gradient from higher to lower.

The flow of air into the lungs stops as the pressure equalizes with the atmospheric pressure. (pause)

3
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Describe the functional relationship between volume changes and gas flow into and out of the lungs.(Part 3)essay

Expiration starts when the inspiratory muscles relax and are pulled back into their normal resting length due to the elastic properties of the muscles and tissues of the thoracic cavity.

The volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs is thus decreased as the size of the "space" in the thorax is reduced.V(down) P(up)

This decrease of volume causes the pressure in the lungs to increase to a pressure higher than the atmospheric pressure, and air is pushed out of the lungs from the higher to lower pressure gradient.

4

Identify the cause of common digestive system dysfunctions

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Reflux

Peptic ulcers

Gallstones

Lactose intolerance

Divertticulitis

Ibs

Celiac disease

Constipation

5

___________________is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into forms that cell membranes can absorb?

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Digestion

Organs of the digestive system carry out these processes, as well as ingestion, propulsion, absorption and defecation

6

The digestive system consists of the ___________canal extending from the mouth to the ______, plus accessory ______ that empty into the alimentary canal

Alimentary

ANUS

ORGANS

7

Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract)

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FUNCTION: Digests and absorbs food

SYSTEM: Mouth, pharynx, esophagus,stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

8

Accessory digestive organs

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Teeth, tongue, gallbladder

Digestive glands A) Salivary glands
B) Liver
C) Pancreas

9
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ALIMENTARY CANAL

ACCESSORY ORGANS

Salivary glands
Secrete saliva: enzymes that initiate breakdown
of carbs. This begins the digestion of carbohydrates
There are three pairs of major salivary glands

Parotid glands
Submandibular glands
Sublingual glands

There are many minor glands scattered throughout the mucosa : t ongue, palate, and cheeks

10
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ALIMENTARY CANAL:

STEP 1

Mouth: Mechanical breakdown of food MASTICATION begins chemical digestion of carbs

Pharynx
Connects mouth with esophagus

Esophagus pushes food to stomach
Peristalsis: Adjacent segments of
alimentary tract organs alternately contract
and relax, which moves food along the tract
distally
Segmentation: Nonadjacent segments
of alimentary tract organs alternately
contract and relax, moving the food
forward then backward. Food mixing and
slow food propulsion occurs.

11
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ALIMENTARY CANAL

STEP 2

Liver: Produces bile (emulsifier of fats/lipids)

Gallbladder: Stores bile and introduces it into small intestine

Pancreas: Produces and secretes pancreatic juice,

Digestive enzymes

Bicarbonate ions ----->>>> into small intestine

12

ALIMENTARY CANAL

STEP 3

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Stomach - Secretes acid and enzymes

mixes food with secretions to begin enzymatic
digestion of proteins

Small intestine: Mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice

FINAL enzymatic breakdown of food molecules

MAIN site of nutrient absorption

Large intestine
Absorbs water and electrolytes to form feces

Rectum : Regulates elimination of feces

Anus

13

Digestive Processes

WHAT ARE Six essential activities?

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Ingestion - Swallowing can be divided into three stages:
Voluntary stage - where saliva is mixed with chewed food
Swallowing- begins and the swallowing reflex is triggered
Peristalsis - transports food in the esophagus to the stomach

Propulsion -
The palate and uvula raise
The hyoid bone and larynx elevate
The epiglottis closes off top of the trachea
The longitudinal muscles of pharynx contract
The inferior constrictor muscles relax and the esophagus opens; peristaltic waves pushes food through the pharynx

Mechanical digestion- CHEW CHURNING SEGMENTATION
Chemical digestion- PH ENZYMES
Absorption-SM. INTESTINE/ LYMPH/ BLOOD
Defecation- LRG. INTESTINE - MOSTLY H2O AND FECES TO ANUS

14

WHAT ARE THE General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal?

The alimentary canal is a muscular tube about 8 meters long

15

Peritoneum and Peritoneal Cavity

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Serous membrane of the abdominal cavity:
Visceral peritoneum on external surface of most digestive organs

Parietal peritoneum lines the body wall

PERITONEAL CAVITY : Between the two peritoneums (Fluid lubricates mobile organs)

16

________________ is a double layer of peritoneum
Routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves

Holds organs in place and stores fat

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Mesentery

17

___________________ lie posterior to the peritoneum
___________________ are surrounded by the peritoneum.

Retroperitoneal organs

Intraperitoneal (peritoneal) organs

18

Branches of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system extensively innervate the alimentary canal, including:

____________ – controls secretions
____________ – controls gastrointestinal motility

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Submucosal plexus

Myenteric plexus

19

_____________ – increase activities of digestive system
______________– inhibit certain digestive actions

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Parasympathetic impulses(FEED/BREED)

Sympathetic impulses( FIGHT OR FLIGHT)

20

THE ______Ingests food: Mechanically breaks up solid particles using saliva

Prepares food for chemical digestion ( Mastication)

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THE MOUTH

21

___________ is a thick, muscular organ that occupies the floor of the mouth and nearly fills the oral cavity when the mouth is closed

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The tongue

22

_______________ forms the roof of the oral cavity and consists of a hard anterior part and a soft posterior part

The palate

23

Hardest structures in the body
There are ____ primary (deciduous)
There are _____secondary (permanent)

The teeth
(deciduous) teeth numbering 20
(permanent) teeth numbering 32

24

The different salivary glands have varying proportions of two types of secretory cells

___________produce a watery fluid with a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase
___________ secrete mucous

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Serous cells

Mucous cells

25

__________
Secrete clear watery, serous fluid.
Rich in salivary amylase (CONVERTS STARCH AND GLYCOGEN= SIMPLE SUGARS )
______________
Secrete primarily serous fluid and some mucus.
______________
Secrete primarily mucus.

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Parotid glands

Submandibular glands

Sublingual glands

26

_____________is a cavity posterior to the mouth from which the tubular esophagus leads to the stomach.
Both the _____________ and esophagus muscular walls function in swallowing.

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The pharynx

27

The pharynx can be divided into 3 parts?

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Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

28

What is the Flat muscular tube from laryngopharynx to stomach, Pierces diaphragm at esophageal hiatus
and Joins stomach at the cardiac orifice ?

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Esophagus

29

_________ is a J-shaped, pouch-like organ, about 25-30 centimeters long.It hangs inferior to the diaphragm in the upper-left portion of the abdominal cavity, has three layers of smooth muscle:

An inner circular layer
An outer longitudinal layer
A further inner layer of oblique fibers.

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Stomach

30

The mucous membrane of the ______ has tubular gastric glands that secrete.

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STOMACH

31

________ IS From the chief cells
Inactive form of pepsin

___________IS From pepsinogen in the presence of hydrochloric acid Is a protein splitting enzyme

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Pepsinogen

Pepsin

32

______ IS From the parietal cells
Needed to convert pepsinogen to pepsin

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Hydrochloric acid

33

_________From the goblet cells and the mucous glands Protective to stomach wall

______________From the parietal cells Is required for vitamin B12 absorption

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Mucus

Intrinsic factor

34

______________ (air enters) → nasal cavity → ______________ (both air and food move through) → trachea → ______________ (large tubes leading to both lungs) → lungs.

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nares

pharynx

bronchus

35

______________ pleura; covers the surface of the lung ______________ pleura; lines the thoracic wall

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PARIETAL

VISCERAL

36

The space in between is called the ______________ cavity and it is filled with ______________ fluid.

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PLEURAL

SEROUS FLUID

37

This fluid assists breathing movements by acting as a/an ______________.

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lubricant-pleural fluid

38

Air flows from the trachea through the ______________, ______________, and ______________ bronchi to smaller and smaller bronchi. The trachea and bronchi contain ______________ to keep the airways open. Bronchi branch into ______________, which do not contain ______________ but do contain more ______________ muscle. This allows for regulation of air flow.

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main bronchus

lobar

segmental

cartilage

terminal bronchiole

cartilage

smooth muscle

39

Airways from the nasal cavity through the terminal bronchioles are called the ______________ zone.

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conducting zone

40

The function of this zone is to ______________ and ______________ the air.

warm, moisten

filter

41

Is there gas exchange in this zone? _______

no

42

The respiratory zone contains ______________ where gas is exchanged. This zone consists of the ______________ bronchioles, ______________ ducts, and ______________ sacs.

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aveoli

respiratory

alveolar

alveolar

43

_________ From the goblet cells and the mucous glands: Protective to stomach wall

_______________ From the parietal cells. Is required for vitamin B12 absorption

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Mucus

Intrinsic factor

44
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  1. Parasympathetic preganglionic nerve fiber (in vagus nerve)
  2. Parasympathetic postganglionic impulses stimulate the release of gastric juice from gastric glands
  3. Impulses stimulate the release of gastric
  4. Gastrin stimulates gastric glands to release more gastric juice
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Regulation of Gastric Secretions

45

O2 inhaled from environment and travels to alveoli of lungs. O2 is loaded by simple diffusion into the pulmonary capillaries and binds to hemoglobin forming oxyhemoglobin. CO2 is chemically released from the bicarbonate ion and unloaded by simple diffusion from the capillary to the alveoli to be exhaled.

O2 travels in blood to capillary bed and is released from hemoglobin unloaded by simple diffusion from the blood to the tissue. CO2 is loaded by simple diffusion into the blood from the tissue and carried in the blood as a bicarbonate ion back to the lungs.

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The alveoli are the sites of the vital process of gas exchange between the air and the blood.

46

__________________ begin breaking down proteins, but the stomach is not well-adapted to absorb digestive products.

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Gastric enzymes

47

Some water

Certain salts

Certain lipid-soluble drugs

Alcohol

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The stomach does absorb

48

ALIMENTARY CANAL HAS WHAT TWO MAJOR FUNCTIONS?

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  1. DIGEST
  2. ABSORB
  3. JEJUNUM & ILEUM
  4. MUSCLE TUBE @ 8 M LONG
49

MECHANICAL BREAKDOWN DUE TO CHEWING (MASTICATION) AND SALIVA

ENZYMES

DIGEST OF CARBS BC OF SALIVA

PAROTID - SEROUS FLUID (DIG. ENZYME AMYLAZE)

SUBMANDILAR - SEROUS / MUCUS

SUBLINGUAL - MUCUS

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MOUTH

50
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COMMON HALLWAY

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PHYRYNX

51
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MOVES FOOD THROUGH STOMACH

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ESOPHAGUS

52
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BILE- EMULSYFY FAT

WORKS WITH GALLBLADDER

STORAGE COMPARTMENT (FAT)

LARGEST INTERNAL ORGAN- CROWN UPPER RIGHT QUAD .

PRODUCES GYLCOGEN-->>GLUCOSE

CONVERTS NON CARBS

SYNTHESIZES

FORMS UREA

BREAKS DOWN RBC

REMOVES ALCOHOL

CONVERTS AMINO ACIDS

Phagocytosis of worn out RBCs and foreign substances

Removes toxins such as alcohol and certain drugs from the blood

LIVER( know 5 for test)

53

WASHER(CHURNING )

HC ACIDS

BREAKDOWN PROTIEN/ DIGESTION (FUNCTION)

J SHAPED POUCH

25-30 CM. @ UPPER LEFT QUADRANT

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STOMACH

54
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MIX AND BREAKDOWN

NUTRITION ABSORBTION

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SML. INTESTINE

55
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WHAT ARE THE LAYERS OF ALIMENTARY CANAL?

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MUCOSA- CIRCULAR

SUBMUCOSA - MUCULARIS CONTROLS SECRETION

EXTERNA- LONG ( LAGITUTAL)

SEROUS- OUTER ; EPITILIAL AND MUCUS

56

WHAT ARE THE "INTRINSIC NERVE PLEXUSES ?

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  1. MYENTRIC
  2. SUBMUCOSAL
57

FINGER LIKE PROJECTION

VILLI

58

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: ACCESSORY ARE

TEETH

TONGUE

GALLBLADDER - CARODID

59

DIGESTIONAL GLANDS

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SALIVARY GLANDS

LIVER

PANCREAS (ENDOCRINE) *APLHA*BETA * DELTA

60

FOOD

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BOLLUS

61

__________ GOBLET ------>>> MUCOUS GLANDS (PROTECT STOMACH WALLS)

MUCUS

62

TOP OF STOMACH

FUNDUS

63

RIDGES

RUGAE

64

NERVE FIBER @ VAGUS NERVE

RELEASE OF GASTRIC JUICE -> GASTRIC GLAND

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PARASYMPATIC

65

IMPULSE RELEASE OF GASTRIN

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STIMULATES GASTRIC GLAND

66

SEE FOOD - STIMULATES TASTE/ CELL

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CEPHALIC (VAGUS NERVE)

67

ACTIVATES STRETCH RECEPTORS

FOOD CHEMICALS --->>> G CELLS

(MEDULLA ---->>> VAGUS NERVE )

GASTRIC

68

LOW PH

PARTIALLY : FOOD & FAT

HYPERTONIC @ DUODENUM

GASTRIC RELEASE AT BLOOD

(STOP SIGNALS)

INTESTINAL

69

______________ DOESNT ABSORB OF DIGEST FOOD. ABSORBS SALTS, H2O, BOOZE, LIPID SOLUABLE DRUGS.

STOMACH

70

DIGESTED FOOD

CHYME

71

DUEL FUNCTION

ENDOCRINE/ EXOCRINE

RELEASES PANCREATIC JUICES

BY DUODEM- (PANCREATIC DUCT TO DUODEM)

FAT/PROTIEN / NUCLEIC ACID

AMYLASE - SPLITS GLYCOGEN

LIPASE- BREAK DOWN TRIGLYCENIDES

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PANCREAS

72

EMOLSIFER / BREAKS DOWN FAT

BILE

73

SECRETION BY PANCREATIC JUICE

STIMULATES BILE SALTS

HEPO SPHINCTER TO RELAX

STIMULATES GALLBLADDER VIA VAGUS NERVE

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CCK

74

WHICH NERVE STIMULATES GALLBLADDER MAKING BILESALTS AND PANCREATIC JUICE ?

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VAGUS

75

CYSTIC AND HEPATIC DUCT FORM THE _________ DUCT

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BILE

76

GREEN/YELLOW

H20 AND BILE SALTS ( DETERGANT)

EMULSIFICATION AND TO BREAK DOWN FATS(DIGESTIVE ENZYME)

SALTS- ABSORB FATTY ACID (CHOLESTROL)

RECYCLED AND RETURNED TO LIVER

Bile pigments

Cholesterol

Electrolytes

BILE (SALTS)

77

Bile secretion is stimulated by____________________

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Bile salts in enterohepatic circulation, Secretin from intestinal cells exposed to HCl and fatty chyme

78

Gallbladder contraction is stimulated by________________________

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Cholecystokinin (CCK) from intestinal cells exposed to proteins and fat in chyme

Vagal stimulation (minor stimulus)

CCK also causes the hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax

79

_________________is a tubular organ that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the beginning of the large intestine. It completes digestion of the nutrients in chyme, absorbs products of digestion, and transports the remaining residue to the large intestine. It consists of three parts that include. Duodenum. Jejunum. Ileum

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The small intestine

80

In addition to mucous-secreting goblet cells, there are many specialized mucous-secreting glands (Brunner’s glands) that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus in response to certain stimuli Enzymes in the membranes of the microvilli include________ (7)?

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  • Peptidase – breaks down peptides into amino acids
  • Sucrase, maltase, lactase – break down : disaccharides into monosaccharides
  • Lipase – breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
  • Enterokinase – converts trypsinogen to trypsin
  • Somatostatin – hormone that inhibits acid secretion by stomach
  • Cholecystokinin – hormone that inhibits gastric glands, stimulates pancreas to release enzymes in pancreatic juice, and stimulates the gallbladder to release bile
  • Secretin – stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice
81

Regulation of small intestine secretion occurs by_______(3)?

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  • Mucus secretion is stimulated by the presence of chyme in the small intestine
  • Distension of the intestinal wall activates nerve plexuses in the wall of the small intestine
  • Parasympathetic reflexes triggering the release of intestinal enzymes
82

What are the steps to Absorption of the Small Intestine ?

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  1. Villi: increase the surface area for absorption
  2. Small intestine absorption is so effective that very little reaches the organ’s distal end, noting that:
  3. Monosaccharides and amino acids absorb:
  4. Through facilitated diffusion and active transport
  5. Absorbed into blood
  6. Large proteins are broken down and absorbed into villi
  7. Fatty acids and glycerol absorb by:
  8. Several steps involved as noted
  9. Absorbed into lymph and blood
  10. Electrolytes and water absorb:
  11. Through diffusion, osmosis, and active transport
  12. Absorbed into blood
83

LARGE INTESTINE : Cecum, colon, rectum, anal, canal. UNIQUE FEATURES AND LAYERS ?

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Teniae coli- Three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle in the muscularis

Haustra - Pocketlike sacs caused by the tone of the teniae coli

Epiploic appendages - Fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum

84

Functions of the Large Intestine?

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  • Has little or no digestive function
  • Absorbs water and electrolytes
  • Secretes mucus
  • Houses intestinal flora
  • Forms feces
  • Carries out defecation
85

Movements of the Large Intestine?

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  • Movements of the large intestine are similar to those of the small intestine
  • It is slower and less frequent than that of the small intestine
  • Movements include:
  • Mixing movements
  • Peristalsis
  • Mass movements usually follow meals
  • The defecation reflex relaxes the internal anal sphincter and then the external anal sphincter
86

MOVEMENT OF FECAL MATTER

1) Distension, or stretch, of the rectal walls due to movement of feces into the rectum stimulates stretch receptors there. The receptors transmit signals along afferent fibers to spinal cord neurons.

2) A spinal reflex is initiated in which parasympathetic motor (efferent) fibers stimulate contraction of the rectal walls and relaxation of the internal ; anal sphincter

3) If it is convenient to defecate, voluntary motor neurons are inhibited, allowing the external anal sphincter to relax so that feces may pass.

87

Feces is composed of materials not digested or absorbed, and include?

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  • Water
  • Electrolytes
  • Mucus
  • Bacteria
  • Bile pigments altered by bacteria provide the color
88

The pungent odor is produced by bacterial compounds including?

  • Phenol
  • Hydrogen sulfide
  • Indole
  • Skatole
  • Ammonia
89

The respiratory system consists of passages that filter incoming air and transport it into the body, into the lungs, and to the many microscopic air sacs where gases are exchanged. Respiration is the process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells. Involves both the respiratory and the circulatory systems. Four processes that supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2:_________(4) ?

  • Ventilation (breathing)
  • External respiration
  • Transport of gases
  • Internal respiration
90

RESPIRATION -> CIRCULATORY

RESPIRATION Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): movement of air into and out of the lung

External respiration: O2 and CO2 exchange between the lungs and the blood (BOTH)

CIRCULATORY: Transport: O2 and CO2 in the blood. Internal respiration: O2 and CO2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues

91

WHY DO WE BREATHE?

  1. Respiration occurs on a macroscopic level at the organ system
  2. Gas exchange, oxygen and carbon dioxide, occur at the cellular and molecular levels
  3. Aerobic reactions of cellular respiration allow for:
  • ATP production
  • Carbon dioxide generation forming carbonic acid
92

Organs of the Respiratory System?

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Respiratory zone: site of gas exchange –respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli

Conducting zone: conduits to gas exchange sites

Includes all other respiratory structures : Respiratory muscles: diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation

93

Organs of the Respiratory System

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The organs of the respiratory system can be divided into two tracts:

Upper respiratory tract: The nose, Nasal cavity, Sinuses, Pharynx

Lower respiratory tract: Larynx, Trachea,Bronchial tree, Lungs

94

________ is an enlargement in the airway superior to the trachea and inferior to the pharynx, It is composed of a framework of muscles and cartilages bound by elastic tissue

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The larynx

95

______________ is a flexible cylindrical tube about 2.5 centimeters in diameter and 12.5 centimeters in lengthAs it extends downward anterior to the esophagus and into the thoracic cavity, it splits into the right and left primary bronchi

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The trachea (windpipe)

96

___________________ consists of branched airways leading from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs in the lungs

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The bronchial tree

97

The successive divisions of the branches from the trachea to the alveoli are?

1 .Right and left primary bronchi

2.Secondary or lobar bronchi

3.Tertiary or segmental bronchi

4.Intralobular bronchioles (12-14 generations)

5.Terminal bronchioles

6.Respiratory bronchioles

7.Alveolar ducts

8.Alveolar sacs

9.Alveoli

98

_________________is similar to that of the trachea, but the C-shaped cartilaginous rings are replaced with cartilaginous plates where the bronchus enters the lung. These respiratory tubes become thinner and thinner, and the cell layers thin and change until the alveoli is reached. It is the alveoli that provides surface area for gas exchange is similar to that of the trachea, but the C-shaped cartilaginous rings are replaced with cartilaginous plates where the bronchus enters the lung

These respiratory tubes become thinner and thinner, and the cell layers thin and change until the alveoli is reached

It is the alveoli that provides surface area for gas exchange

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The structure of the bronchus

99

WHAT : Surrounded by fine elastic fibers, Contain open pores that AND Connect adjacent alveoli, Allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized - > House alveolar macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile

Alveoli

100

____________ are soft, spongy, cone-shaped organs in the thoracic cavity

_________has three lobes and the left lung two lobes

LEFT AND RIGHT

RIGHT

101

WHAT ?? Occupy all of the thoracic cavity except the mediastinum, Root: site of vascular and bronchial attachments, AND Costal surface: anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces?

LUNGS

102

WHAT AM I DESCRIBING ?

  • Apex: superior tip
  • Base: inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm
  • Hilum: on mediastinal surface; site for attachment of blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
  • Cardiac notch ( L) concavity that accommodates the heart

LUNGS

103

_______ is smaller, separated into two lobes by an oblique fissure

_______ has three lobes separated by oblique and horizontal fissures

Bronchopulmonary segments (10 right, 8–9 left)

_______are the smallest subdivisions; served by bronchioles and their branches

LEFT

RIGHT

LOBULES

104

(low pressure, high volume)Pulmonary arteries deliver systemic venous blood

  • Branch profusely, along with bronchi
  • Feed into the pulmonary capillary networks

Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart

BLOOD SUPPLY / PULMONARY CIRCULATION

105
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Systemic circulation (high pressure, low volume)

Bronchial arteries provide oxygenated blood to lung tissue

  • Arise from aorta and enter the lungs at the hilum
  • Supply all lung tissue except the alveoli

Bronchial veins anastomose with pulmonary veins

Pulmonary veins carry most venous blood back to the heart

BLOOD SUPPLY/ Systemic circulation (high pressure, low volume)

106
  • Thin, double-layered serosa
  • Parietal pleura on thoracic wall and superior face of diaphragm
  • Visceral pleura on external lung surface
  • Pleural fluid fills the slitlike pleural cavity

Provides lubrication and surface tension

Pleurae

107

____________________ is the movement of air from outside of the body into the bronchial tree and the alveoli. The actions responsible for these air movements are inspiration, or inhalation, and expiration, or exhalation

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Breathing or ventilation

108

_______ IS Atmospheric pressure (Patm)

Pressure exerted by the air surrounding the body

760 mm Hg at sea level

Respiratory pressures are described relative to Patm

Negative respiratory pressure is less than Patm

Positive respiratory pressure is greater than Patm

Zero respiratory pressure = Patm

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Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity

109

_________________ IS (Ppul). Pressure in the alveoli, Fluctuates with breathing

AND Always eventually equalizes with Patm.

Intrapulmonary (intra-alveolar) pressure

110

_______ IS Pressure in the pleural cavity, Fluctuates with breathingVAND Always a negative pressure (<Patm and <Ppul)

Intrapleural pressure (Pip)

111

Negative Pip is caused by opposing forces–Two inward forces promote lung collapse

  • Elastic recoil of lungs decreases lung size
  • Surface tension of alveolar fluid reduces alveolar size

One outward force tends to enlarge the lungs

  • Elasticity of the chest wall pulls the thorax outward

Intrapleural Pressure

112

Atmospheric pressure due to the weight of the air is the force that moves air into the lungs. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)Moving the plunger of a syringe causes air to move in or out . Air movements in and out of the lungs occur in much the same way

Inspiration

113
  • The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas
  • Pressure (P) varies inversely with volume (V):

P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

BOYLES LAW

114

The forces responsible for normal resting expiration come from elastic recoil of lung tissues and from surface tension. These factors increase the intra-alveolar pressure about 1 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure forcing air out of the lungs

EXPIRATION

115

CO2 + H2O =

CARBONIC ACID

116

MUSCLES TO BREATHE ?

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SCALENES, SCM, INTERCOSTAL (IN/EX) , DIAPHRAGM

RIBS UP, DIAPHRAGM DOWN

117

Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR): flow of gases into and out of the alveoli during a particular time. Dead space is normally constant, Rapid, shallow breathing decreases AVR

Alveolar Ventilation

118

Used to assess a person’s respiratory status

Tidal volume (TV)

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)–Residual volume (RV)

Respiratory Volumes

119
  • Inspiratory capacity (IC)
  • Functional residual capacity (FRC)
  • Vital capacity (VC)
  • Total lung capacity (TLC)

Respiratory Capacities

120

Air movements other than breathing are called nonrespiratory movements. They clear air passages, as in coughing and sneezing, or express emotions, as in laughing and crying

Non-respiratory Air Movements

121

Respiratory Disorders That Decrease Ventilation: _____________

Bronchial Asthma and Emphysema

122

Groups of neurons in the brainstem comprise the respiratory areas that control breathing . Impulses travel on cranial nerves and spinal nerves, causing inspiration and expiration. Respiratory areas also adjust the rate and depth of breathing. The respiratory areas include:

  • Respiratory center of the medulla
  • Respiratory group of the pons

Respiratory Areas

123

A number of factors affect breathing rate and depth including:

  • Partial pressure of oxygen (Po2)
  • Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2)
  • Degree of stretch of lung tissue
  • Emotional state
  • Level of physical activity

Receptors involved include mechanoreceptors and central and peripheral chemoreceptors

FACTORS OF BREATHING

124

Changes in blood pH, O2 and CO2 concentration stimulates chemoreceptors

Motor impulses can travel

from the respiratory center

to the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles

Contraction of these muscles causes the lungs to expand stimulating mechanoreceptors in the lungs

Inhibitory impulses from the mechanoreceptors back to the respiratory center prevent overinflation of the lungs

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Factors Affecting Breathing

125

The alveoli are the sites of the vital process of gas exchange between the air and the blood.

Describe the exchange of O2 and CO2 in the lungs and body tissues. Include the names of the body structures needed, and how O2 & CO2 are transported in the blood.

O2 inhaled from environment and travels to alveoli of lungs. O2 is loaded by simple diffusion into the pulmonary capillaries and binds to hemoglobin forming oxyhemoglobin. CO2 is chemically released from the bicarbonate ion and unloaded by simple diffusion from the capillary to the alveoli to be exhaled.

O2 travels in blood to capillary bed and is released from hemoglobin unloaded by simple diffusion from the blood to the tissue. CO2 is loaded by simple diffusion into the blood from the tissue and carried in the blood as a bicarbonate ion back to the lungs.

Alveolar Gas Exchanges

126

Part of the wall of an alveolus is made up of cells (type II cells) that secrete pulmonary surfactant . The bulk of the wall of an alveolus consists of a layer of simple squamous epithelium (type I cells) .Both of these layers make up the respiratory membrane through which gas exchange takes place

Respiratory Membrane

127

Molecules diffuse from regions where they are in higher concentration toward regions where they are in lower concentration. It is important to know the concentration gradient, In respiration, think in terms of gas partial pressures. Gases diffuse from areas of higher partial pressure to areas of lower partial pressure, The respiratory membrane is normally thin and gas exchange is rapid

Increased diffusion is favored with more surface area, shorter distance, greater solubility of gases and a steeper partial pressure gradient

Decreased diffusion occurs from decreased surface area

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Diffusion Through the Respiratory Membrane

128

Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the ________.

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larynx

129

The loudness of a personʹs voice depends on ________.

the force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

130

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is ________.

to secrete surfactant

131

After the segmental (tertiary) bronchus, the next smaller branch of the respiratory passageway is (are) the ________.

terminal bronchioles

132

_________ O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the body cells. As the gases enter the blood, they dissolve in the plasma or chemically combine with other atoms or molecules

BLOOD TRANSPORTS

Gas Transport

133

Almost all oxygen carried in the blood is bound to the protein hemoglobin in the form of oxyhemoglobin. Chemical bonds between O2 and hemoglobin are relatively unstable. Oxyhemoglobin releases O2 into the body cells. About 75% of the O2 remains bound to hemoglobin in the venous blood ensuring safe CO2 levels and thereby pH

Oxygen Transport

134

Blood flowing through capillaries gains CO2 because the tissues have a high Pco2. The CO2 is transported to the lungs in one of three forms. WHAT ARE THEY ?

As CO2 dissolved in plasma

As part of a compound with hemoglobin

As part of a bicarbonate ion

135

WHERE ?

–HCO3– moves into the RBCs and binds with H+ to form H2CO3

–H2CO3 is split by carbonic anhydrase into CO2 and water

–CO2 diffuses into the alveoli

In pulmonary capillaries

Transport and Exchange of CO2

136

Exemplified by chronic bronchitis and emphysema

–Irreversible decrease in the ability to force air out of the lungs

–Other common features

  • History of smoking in 80% of patients
  • Dyspnea: labored breathing (“air hunger”)
  • Coughing and frequent pulmonary infections
  • Most victims develop respiratory failure (hypoventilation) accompanied by respiratory acidosis

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

137

–Characterized by coughing, dyspnea, wheezing, and chest tightness

–Active inflammation of the airways precedes bronchospasms

–Airway inflammation is an immune response caused by release of interleukins, production of IgE, and recruitment of inflammatory cells

–Airways thickened with inflammatory exudate magnify the effect of bronchospasms

Asthma

138

–Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis

–Symptoms include fever, night sweats, weight loss, a racking cough, and spitting up blood

–Treatment entails a 12-month course of antibiotics

Tuberculosis

139

Leading cause of cancer deaths in North America

–90% of all cases are the result of smoking

–The three most common types

1.Squamous cell carcinoma (20–40% of cases) in bronchial epithelium

2.Adenocarcinoma (~40% of cases) originates in peripheral lung areas

3.Small cell carcinoma (~20% of cases) contains lymphocyte-like cells that originate in the primary bronchi and subsequently metastasize

Lung cancer

140

The smallest macroscopic subdivision of the lung is the ________.

lobule

141

The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because ________.

they produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing

142

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

143

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.

BILE

144

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.

B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.

C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

D) There are 32 primary teeth, and most children lose these teeth due to decay because they are never very strong.

20, 24 MONTH 20

145

Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?

  1. A) 7- 10% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma
  2. B) 20% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin
  3. C) as bicarbonate ion in plasma
  4. D) attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

146

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

A) chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells

B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

C) as carbonic acid in the plasma

D) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

147

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.

A) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen

B) in the walls of the tract organs

C) in the pons and medulla

D) only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage

in the walls of the tract organs

148

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

  1. A) less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
  2. B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
  3. C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
  4. D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

149

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called:
a. absorption
b. secretion
c. chemical digestion
d. mechanical digestion 

chemical digestion

150

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

  1. A) B12
  2. B) K
  3. C) A
  4. D) C

B12

151

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

A) loss of oxygen in tissues

B) increase of carbon dioxide

C) pH (acidosis)

D) pH (alkalosis)

increase of carbon dioxide

152

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.

A) Henry's law

B) Boyle's law

C) Dalton's law

D) Charles' law

Dalton's law

153

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

A) carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract

B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

C) distribute hormones

D) return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

154

Peristaltic waves are ________.

A) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract

B) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract

C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract

D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

155

Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:

  1. A) During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2.
  2. B) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently.
  3. C) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity.
  4. D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

156

___ is the most common lethal genetic disease in the U.S

CYSTIC FIBROSIS

157

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the babyʹs loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.

alkalosis

158
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There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.

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IGA

159

Parietal cells of the stomach produce

HYDROCLORIC ACID

160

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the small intestine is known as the ______?

Ileum

161

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?

A) diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax

B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

C) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax

D) diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax

internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

162

Catabolism involves processes that:
a. cause a decline in circulating ketone bodies
b. mobilize fat during the post absorptive state
c. break down complex structures to simpler ones
d. elevate glucagon levels

break down complex structures to simpler ones

163
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Know parts of stomach

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164

The solutes contained in saliva include ________.

electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

165
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Which of the following is not found on the right lung?

CARDIAC NOTCH;
horizontal fissure;
middle lobe;
oblique fissure

166

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?

parietal cells
enteroendocrine cells
mucous neck cells
zymogenic cells

enteroendocrine cells

167

Paneth cells ________.

are located next to the lacteal in a villus
secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
are more common in the ileum than in the jejunum
are absorptive cells in the small intestine

secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

168

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

proteins
carbohydrates
starches
lipids

lipids

169

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.

simple carbohydrates and alcohols
protein and peptide fragments
fatty acids
starches and complex carbohydrates

protein and peptide fragments

170

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
serosa
lamina propria
muscularis mucosae
adventitia

lamina propria

171

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.

mucosa
serosa
muscularis externa
submucosa

serosa

172

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?

synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
synthesize vitamins C and D
produce gas
absorb bilirubin

synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

173

Which of these is not part of the ?

celiac artery
hepatic portal vein
superior mesenteric artery
inferior vena cava

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inferior vena cava

174

Hormones or pancreas that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.

ACh
secretin
histamine
gastrin

secretin

175

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.

hepatopancreatic ampulla
bile canaliculus
portal vein
pancreatic acini

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hepatopancreatic ampulla

176

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

gastrin
cholecystokinin
secretin
gastric inhibitor peptide

cholecystokinin

177

Hepatocytes do not ________.

process nutrients
detoxify
store fat-soluble vitamins
produce digestive enzymes

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produce digestive enzymes

178

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?

THE PANCREAS

179
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180
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181
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Know the layers of the alimentary canal, starting with the outermost layer

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a. Serosa, Longitudinal Muscle, Circular Muscle, Submucosa, Mucosa

182

Where is salivary amylase released from?

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a. Parotid gland

183

What does salivary amylase digest?

a. Carbohydrates
b. glucose

184

Gastrin: What is it for?

a. Hormone secreted by the stomach that regulates gastric juice secretion by stimulating HCl production.

185

Secretion of Cholecystokinin(CCK) from the intestinal wall is stimulated in the presence of what foods?

a. Fatty foods and protein

186

Secretin: inhibits

inhibits the action of pancreatic lipase.

187

Peristalsis vs. Segmentation

a. Peristalsis- occurs in stomach
b. Segmentation- occurs in small intestine

188

What is the function of the large intestine?

a. Absorption of water and electrolytes
b. Reservoir for fecal matter

189

What is the part of the digestive tract with the most lymph nodules and bacteria?

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a. Ileum

190

What is the greater omentum formed out of?

a. Peritoneal membrane

191

If the liver is damaged , what is going to be harder to digest?

a. Lipids

192

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is ____?

a. Increased

193

Peristaltic waves; where are they starting?

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a. Esophagus

194

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place….

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a. Mesenteries

195

Expiration, unlike inspiration, is a passive act. Expiration depends on 2 factors…

a . Elastic recoil of the lungs
b. Surface tension of alveolar fluid

196

What structure has the greatest surface area for gas exchange in the lungs

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a. Alveoli

197

What determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

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a. Partial pressure gradient

198

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Cancers