Chapter 25 The Digestive System

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1

The functions of the ____ cavity include ingestion, speech, and respriation

buccal

2

Name the three phases of gastric regulation

gastric, intestinal, cephalic

3

List, in order, the segments of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunem, ileum

4

The pancreatic islets are the ____ portion of the pancreas, while the majority of the pancreas is an _____ gland secreting enzymes and sodium bicarbonate

endocrine; exocrine

5

List the pancreatic enzymes that digest protein

trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase

6

When swallowing, a bolus of food moves from the mouth into the ____ before the esophagus

pharynx

7

The selective intake of food is known as

ingestion

8

_____ and _____ are absorbed into blood. ______ are absorbed into lymph.

protein and carbohydrates; lipids

9

List the purposes for small intestinal muscle contractions

propel contents along intestines

mixing of chyme with secretions

increase contact of chyme with intestinal lining

10

The straight muscular tube conveying from food from pharynx to the stomach is the _____

esophagus

11

The portion of the tooth that is exposed from the gum, that you can see is known as the ____ of the tooth

crown

12

List in order the passage of bile from its point of secretion in the liver to the duodenum

bile canliculi

bile ductules

hepatic ducts

common hepatic duct

bile duct

13

As a group, the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are classified as ____ salivary glands

extrinsic

14

List examples of how the digestive system mechanically digests materials

chewing, churning of stomach, and segmentation

15

The ______ _______ does not secrete digestive enzymes, but does absorb water and electrolytes

large intesting

16

The enzyme _____ _____ begins starch digestion in the mouth

salivary amylase

17

Describe goblet cells

mucus-secreting epithelial cells

18

List the components of intestinal juice secreted by the intestinal crypts

water and mucus

19

Name the liver function that contributes to the process of digestion

secretion of bile

20

The hard noncellular secretion that covers the crown and neck of a tooth is the _____

enamel

21

List the components of bile

cholesterol, bile acids, phospholipids, and bile pigments

22

Identify the functions of saliva

aids in swallowing

dissolves molecules so they can be tasted

inhibits bacterial growth

23

Bile acids are recycled from liver to the small intestine and back via the ________ circulation

enterohepatic

24

The portion of the stomach between the fundus and the pyloric regions is known as the _____

corpus

25

Describe the gallbladder

sac on underside of liver

26

List functions of the cheeks and lips

push food between teeth

sucking action

speech articulation

27

The _____ nervous system is comprised of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses

enteric

28

List some of the functions of stomach acid

activate pepsin and lingual lipase

denature proteins in food

destroy pathogens

29

List the substances absorbed from the stomach

aspirin, lipid-soluble drugs

30

Name the stimulus for the defecation reflex

stretching of the sigmoid colon and stretching of rectum

31

The _______ reflex involves the duodenum sending signals, typically inhibitory, to the stomach

enterogastric

32

The segment of the digestive tract found on the right side of the abdomen is the _____ colon

ascending

33

The hormone has a strong stimulatory effect on the gallblader

cholecystokinin

34

List the blood vessels that carry blood to the liver

hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein

35

Collectively, the teeth are known as the _____

dentition

36

An enzyme called gastric lipase digests dietary _____ in the stomach of infants

fat

37

The conical projection that extends from posterior margin of the soft palate is called the _____

uvula

38

List the three layers of the muscularis externa of the stomach

outer longitudinal

middle circular

inner oblique

39

Name the pancreatic secretion that is needed to neutralize the acid in the chyme arriving in the duodenum

sodium bicarbonate

40

An enzyme that is secreted in its inactive form is known as a ______

zymogen

41

The term ______ means pertaining to the intestines

enter

42

Name the hormone secreted by the mucosa of the small intestine that stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic enzyme release

CCK

43

The rhythmic, wave-like contraction of the smooth muscles of the digestive tract is known as ______

peristalsis

44

The spongy retroperitoneal gland posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach describes the

pancreas

45

Name the function of the bile components lecithin and bile acids

fat digestion

46

List some of the functions of stomach acid

destroy pathogens

denature proteins in food

activate pepsin and lingual lipase

47

The S-shaped portion of the large intestine, located in the lower left quadrant, is the ____ colon

sigmoid

48

The term _____ refers to the group of enzymes that digest proteins

protease

49

Glucose and galactose are moved into absorptive cells via _____ while fructose is absorbed by _______

transporters; facilitated diffusion

50

List some components of saliva

mucus, amlyase and lipase, water, and lysozyme

51

The portions of the large intestine that are located in the pelvic cavity are the _____ and anal canal

rectum

52

The villi of the small intestine are best described as

fingerlike projections of mucosa

53

A series of hydrolysis reactions that breaks dietary marcomolecules into monomers is known as ______ digestion

chemical

54

List the mechanisms that protect the stomach lining from the acidic environment

epithelial cell replacement

tight junctions between epithelial cells

mucous coat

55

The salivary gland located just beneath the skin anterior to the earlobe is the ______ salivary gland

parotid

56

The upper _____ ______ is formed by the inferior pharyngeal constrictors

esophageal sphincter

57

The inactive precursor of pepsin is

pepsinogen

58

The valve at the junction of the small intestine to the large intestine is the _____ valve

ileocecal

59

Name the process by which large drops of fats are broken apart into smaller fat droplets

emulsification

60

The soupy mixture of semidigested food formed in the stomach is known as _____

chyme

61

The large intestines begin with a pouch inferior to the ileocecal valve that is known as the

cecum

62

List three examples of hormones produced by the digestive tracts

gastrin, CCK, secretin

63

Muscular contractions called ______ involve alternating ring-like constrictions at several places along the intestine

segmentation

64

List the nervous components that mediate the defecation reflex

parasympathetic nervous system

myenteric nerve plexus

65

Name the muscular band that regulates the passage of chyme from the stomach to the duodenum

pyloric sphincter

66

The hormone _____ is secreted by the small intestine in response to the presence of acidic chyme

secretin

67

The enzyme that digests dietary starch is salivary or pancreatic

amylase

68

List four components of gastric juice

water, pepsin, lipase, hydrochloric acid

69

Describe the goal of the cephalic phase of gastric regulation

to prepare the stomach for the arrival of food

70

_____ is the enzyme that digests lipids. It has lingual, gastric, and pancreatic forms

lipase

71

Water is absorbed through the process of _______, following the absorption of salts and organic nutrients

osmosis

72

The enzymes that hydrolyzes nucleic acids into nucleotides are called ________

nucleases

73

List the components of the pulp found within teeth

loose connective tissue, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves

74

The forceful ejection of stomach and intestinal contents from the mouth is called

vomiting

75

Name the phase of gastric regulation that occurs in response to food in the stomach

gastric phase

76

List the four lobes of the liver

left, caudate, right, and quadrate lobe

77

The tubular glands that open into the gastric pits of the initial region of the stomach are called ________ glands

cardiac

78

The mucosa of the colon is primarily lined with _______ ______ epithelium

simple columnar

79

Longitudinal ridges within the mucosa of the anal are called anal _______

columns

80

The part of the mesentary that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach is the ______ omentum

lesser

81

Name the classes of nutrients that are absorbed without being digested

vitamins and minerals