Chapter 12

Helpfulness: +1
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1

Where is Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulate?

lateral ventricles: line each hemisphere

3rd, 4th ventricle: in brain sterm

subrachnoid space

2

What cells make CSF

Neuroglia cells called ependymal cells

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what is choroid plexus ?

Ependymal cells associated BV that produce CSF

4

What is the funtion of CSF?

protects brain from movement of the skull + vertebral column -> brain floats

buoyancy -> weight brain is reduced

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What is hydrocephalus?

Result from blockage of CSF through CNS (cerebral aqueduct)

6

When hydrocephalus occur ?

Elderly people

7

What are regions of the brain?

  1. Brain Stem
  2. Cerebellum
  3. DIencephalon
  4. Cerebrum
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What is Brain Stem?

Connect the spinal cord and cerebellum

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What is structure of brain sterm

Anterior part: contain descending tracts involved with motor control

Posterior: contain ascending tracts from the spinal cord, cerebellum and craial nerve

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what are funtions of Brain stem

Control of hear rate, blood pressure, breathing

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Part of the brain stem

Midbrain

Smallest region of brain stem

Composed of tracts of nerve fibers

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what is corpora quadrigemina

the largest midbrain nuclei

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What are 2 superior colliculus?

Visual reflexes

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What are 2 inferior colliculus?

Auditory reflexes

15

Midbrain contain pain perception

Receptors respond to opiates (thuoc phien)

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Part of the brain stem

Pons(bridge)

  • Cerebral cortex communicate with pons
  • Some nuclei relay info between cerebrum and pons
  • lower part of pons control balance, breathing, swallowing,
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part of brain stem

Medulla Oblongata

  • Most inferior portion of brain stem, continuous spinal cord.
  • Ra[idly fatal
18

What are funtions of Medualla Oblongata

  • Heart rate control
  • Blood pressure regulation
  • Breathing
  • Vomiting (non)
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What is Reticular Formation?

  • Begins at upper portion of medulla
  • Some in brain stem
  • Damage can result in coma opposite
    half of the body
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Funtion of Reticular Formation

  1. regulation of sleep
  2. arousal (hung phan)
  3. maintaining consciousness.
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Part of the brain stem

Cerebellum

(little brain) smaller version of cerebrum

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What part cerebellum attach to brain stem

Cerebellar peduncle

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What is Cerebellar peduncle

  1. Superior cerebellar peduncle: connecting with the midbrain
  2. Middle cerebellar peduncle: connecting with the pons
  3. Inferior cerebellar peduncle: connecting with the medulla oblongata
24

Gray matter of cerebellum

consists of outer cortex and nuclei deep within the cerebellum

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White matter of cerebellum

consists of tracts collectively called arbor vitae

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Parts of Cerebellum

Flocculonodular lobe, vermis, lateral he,ispheres

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Flocculonodular lobe:

• a small inferior part

• Help control balance and coordination

• Alcohol depresses cerebellum so, drinking driver test walking with imbalance

28

Lateral hemisphere

two large hemispheres

29

Funtion of lateral hemisphere

concert with the frontal lobes of
the cerebral cortex in planning, and learning complex movements.

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Part of brain stem

Diencephalon

Location: between brain stem and cerebrum

Main components: the thalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus

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what is Thalamus

  • The largest part if the diencephalon
  • shape liek yo yo
  • collection of sensory input
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What is Interthamaic adhesion of thalamus ?

a small stalk in the center connecting two
lateral portions

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What does Sensory area do?

Ascending axons carrying sensory information project to the thalamus

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How does Sensory area work?

they synapse with thalamic neurons -> thalamic neurons send their axons to the cerebral cortex -> most awareness of sensory input occurs.

(audiotory, visual,, pain, touch pass through thalamus)

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What is Epithlamus ?

Small area, superior and posterior to the thalamus

36

What does Epithalamus consit ?

habenular nuclei and pineal body

37

What is habenular nuclei

influenced by the sense of smell

involved in emotional

visceral responses to odors. (mui hoi)

38

What is pineal body

Influence the sleep-wake cycle

39

What is Hypothalamus

The most inferior part of the diencephalon •

A collection of nuclei: connect to many other parts of the brain and spinal cord

Involved with autonomic, endocrine, emotional (limbic system)

40

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

helpingcontrol heart rate, blood vessel diameter, urine release from the urinary bladder, and the movement of food through the digestive tract.

41

Limbic system

HT is a part of the limbic system and affects mood, motivation, and emotions.

Feeling relaxed, sexual pleasure, rage, and fear are related to HT

42

What is Mammillary body?

involved in emotional response to order, olfactory
reflexes and memory

43

Cerebrum

Logitudinal fissure: divide into left and right hemispheres

44

Frontal lobe

voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, the sense of smell, and mood.

45

Parietal lobe

the reception and evaluation of most sensory information, such as touch, pain, temperature, balance, and taste.

• The frontal and parietal lobes are
separated by the central sulcus.

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Occipital lobe

reception and integration of visual input.

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Temporal lobe

Receive and evaluate input for smell and hearing.

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Cortex

the gray matter on the outer surface of the cerebrum

49

Nuclei

clusters of gray matter deep inside the brain

50

Cerebral medulla

white matter of the brain between the cortex and nuclei

Consist of tracts that connect areas of the cerebral cortex to each other or to other parts of the CNS

51

Parts of Cerebral medulla

Association fibers, Commissural fibers, Projection fibers

52

Association fibers

connect areas of the cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere

53

Commissural fibers

connect one cerebral hemisphere to the other.

54

Projection fibers

between the cerebrum and other parts of the brain and spinal cord

55

Sensory area of the Cerebral Cortex

Sensory pathways project to specific regions of the cerebral cortex, called primary
sensory areas.

56

primary sensory areas.

Visual cortex: processing visual images in the occipital lobe

auditory cortex: processing auditory stimuli in the temporal lobe

Taste area: perceive in the parietal lobe

Olfactory cortex: conscious and unconscious responses to odor on the inferior surface of the temporal lobe

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Motor area of Cerebral Cortex

primary motor cortex and premotor area

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primary motor cortex

controlling motor functions of the feet are in the most superior.

controlling the face are in the inferior region

59

premotor area

the staging area in which motor functions are organized before they are initiated in the motor cortex

60

5) Basal Nuclei

A group of functionally related nuclei located in the inferior cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain

Control of motor funtion

61

subthalamic nucleus

is located in the diencephalon.

62

substantial nigra

is located in the midbrain

63

6) LImbic system

Parts of the cerebrum and diencephalon are grouped together

64

Funtion of Limbic system

memory, reproduction, and nutrition