5 Radreview Radiation exposure & monitoring

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1

The operation of personnel radiation monitoring devices can depend on which of the following?

Ionization
Luminescence
Thermoluminescence

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

2

What is the established annual occupational dose-equivalent limit for the lens of the eye?
A
10 mSv
B
50 mSv
C
150 mSv
D
250 mSv

C 150 mSv

3

Which of the following is an acceptable approximate entrance skin exposure (ESE) for a PA chest radiograph?
A
6 mR
B
20 mR
C
38 mR
D
0.6 R

B 20 mR

4

Medical and dental radiation accounts for what percentage of the general public's exposure to human-made radiation?
A
10%
B
50%
C
80%
D
95%

C 80%

5

The operation of personal radiation monitoring can be based on stimulated luminescence. Which of the following personal radiation monitors function(s) in that manner?

OSL dosimeter
TLD
Pocket dosimeter

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

6

Which of the following is (are) included in whole-body dose equivalents?

Gonads
Lens
Extremities

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

7

Which of the following exposures would most likely deliver the greatest dose to the thyroid?
A
AP skull
B
PA skull
C
PA esophagus
D
PA chest

A AP skull

8

The control dosimeter that comes from the monitoring company should be
A
stored in a radiation-free area
B
kept in a designated control booth
C
kept in the film-processing area
D
used as an extra badge for new personnel

A stored in a radiation-free area

9

Which unit of exposure is described as 100 ergs of energy per gram of irradiated absorber?
A
roentgen
B
rad
C
rem
D
curie

B
rad

10

The annual dose limit for occupationally exposed individuals is valid for
A
alpha, beta, and x-radiations.
B
x- and gamma radiations only.
C
beta, x-, and gamma radiations.
D
all ionizing radiations.

C beta, x-, and gamma radiations.

11

The tabletop exposure rate during fluoroscopy shall not exceed
A
5 mR/min
B
10 R/min
C
10 mR/h
D
5 R/h

B 10 R/min

12

Personal radiation monitor reports must include which of the following information?

Dose equivalents for report period
Dosimeter type
Radiation quality

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

13

According to the NCRP, the pregnant radiographer's gestational dose-equivalent limit for a 1-month period is
A
1 mSv
B
5 mSv
C
0.1 mSv
D
0.5 mSv

D 0.5 mSv

14

Which of the following is a measurement of dose to biologic tissue?
A
Roentgen (C/kg)
B
Rad (Gy)
C
Rem (Sv)
D
RBE

C Rem (Sv)

15

If the exposure rate to a body standing 5 feet from a radiation source is 10 mR/min, what will be the dose to that body at a distance of 8 feet from the source?
A
25.6 mR/min
B
16 mR/min
C
6.25 mR/min
D
3.9 mR/min

D 3.9 mR/min

16

The annual dose limit for medical imaging personnel includes radiation from

occupational exposure
background radiation
medical x-rays

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

A 1 only

17

A dose of 25 rad to the fetus during the seventh or eighth week of pregnancy is likely to cause which of the following?
A
Spontaneous abortion
B
Skeletal anomalies
C
Neurologic anomalies
D
Organogenesis

C Neurologic anomalies

18

All the following statements regarding TLDs are true except
A
TLDs are reusable
B
a TLD is a personal radiation monitor
C
TLDs use a lithium fluoride phosphor
D
after x-ray exposure, TLDs emit heat in response to stimulation by light

D
after x-ray exposure, TLDs emit heat in response to stimulation by light

19

A thermoluminescent dosimetry system would use which of the following crystals?
A
Silver halide
B
Sodium thiosulfate
C
Lithium fluoride
D
Aluminum oxide

C Lithium fluoride

20

Which of the following is (are) acceptable way(s) to monitor the radiation exposure of those who are occupationally employed?

TLD
OSL dosimeter
Quarterly blood cell count

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

21

Filters are an important component of film badges. Their function is to
A
decrease exposure to the user.
B
identify the quality of radiation exposure.
C
reduce film fog.
D
increase film sensitivity.

B identify the quality of radiation exposure.

22

It is recommended that a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) or film badge be worn
A
under the lead apron at waist level
B
outside the lead apron at waist level
C
under the lead apron at collar level
D
outside the lead apron at collar level

D outside the lead apron at collar level

23

An optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter contains which of the following detectors?
A
Gadolinium
B
Aluminum oxide
C
Lithium fluoride
D
Photographic film

B Aluminum oxide

24

Which of the following radiologic examinations would deliver the greatest ESE?
A
Chest
B
Skull
C
Abdomen
D
Thoracic spine

C Abdomen

25

Which of the following is recommended for the pregnant radiographer?
A
Change dosimeters weekly.
B
Wear a second dosimeter under the lead apron.
C
Wear two dosimeters and switch their positions appropriately.
D
The pregnant radiographer must leave radiation areas for duration of the pregnancy.

B Wear a second dosimeter under the lead apron.

26

The rad may be described as
A
disintegrations per second.
B
ions produced in air.
C
energy deposited in an absorber.
D
biologic effects.

C energy deposited in an absorber.

27

Types of secondary radiation barriers include

the control booth
lead aprons
the x-ray tube housing

A
2 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

28

A dose of 25 rad to the fetus during the fourth or fifth week of pregnancy is more likely to cause which of the following:
A
Spontaneous abortion
B
skeletal anomalies
C
neurologic anomalies
D
organogenesis

B skeletal anomalies

29

Which of the following statements regarding film badges is (are) correct?
1. Film badges should be read quarterly.
2. Film badges must not leave the workplace.
3. Film badges measure quantity and quality of radiation exposure.
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C 2 and 3 only

30

The person responsible for ascertaining that all radiation guidelines are adhered to and that personnel understand and employ radiation safety measures is the
A
radiology department manager
B
radiation safety officer
C
chief radiologist
D
chief technologist

B radiation safety officer

31

What unit of measure is used to express ionizing radiation dose to biologic material?
A
Roentgen (C/kg)
B
Rad (Gy)
C
Rem (Sv)
D
RBE

C Rem (Sv)

32

Which of the following personnel monitoring devices used in diagnostic radiography is considered to be the most sensitive and accurate?
A
TLD
B
Film badge
C
OSL dosimeter
D
Pocket dosimeter

C OSL dosimeter

33

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended what total equivalent dose limit to the embryo/fetus?
A
0.5 mSv
B
5.0 mSv
C
50 mSv
D
500 mSv

B 5.0 mSv

34

The rad is the unit of
A
radiation dose.
B
exposure.
C
dose equivalent.
D
ionization in air.

A radiation dose.

35

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommends an annual occupational effective (stochastic) dose equivalent limit of
A
50 mSv (5 rem).
B
100 mSv (10 rem).
C
25 mSv (2.5 rem).
D
200 mSv (20 rem).

A 50 mSv (5 rem).

36

Which of the following refers to a regular program of evaluation that ensures the proper functioning of x-ray equipment, thereby protecting both radiation workers and patients?
A
Sensitometry
B
Densitometry
C
Quality assurance
D
Modulation transfer function

C Quality assurance

37

Radiation output from a diagnostic x-ray tube is measured in which of the following units of measurement?
A
Rad
B
Rem
C
Roentgen
D
Becqueral

C Roentgen

38

The purpose of filters in a film badge is
A
to eliminate harmful rays
B
to measure radiation quality
C
to prevent exposure by alpha particles
D
as a support for the film contained within

B to measure radiation quality

39

Which type of personnel radiation monitor can provide an immediate reading?
A
Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)
B
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)
C
Film badge
D
Ionization chamber

D Ionization chamber

40

According to the NCRP, the annual occupational whole-body dose-equivalent limit is
A
1 mSv
B
50 mSv
C
150 mSv
D
500 mSv

B 50 mSv

41

What is the annual dose-equivalent limit for the skin and hands of an occupationally exposed individual?
A
5 rem
B
25 rem
C
50 rem
D
100 rem

C 50 rem

42

The roentgen is the unit of
A
radiation dose
B
biologic dose
C
dose equivalent
D
ionization in air

D ionization in air

43

Occupational radiation monitoring is required when it is possible that the individual might receive more than
A
5 mrem
B
10 mrem
C
one-tenth the annual dose limit
D
one-fourth the annual dose limit

C one-tenth the annual dose limit

44

Which of the following is considered the unit of exposure in air?
A
Roentgen (C/kg)
B
Rad (Gy)
C
Rem (Sv)
D
RBE

A Roentgen (C/kg)

45

How will x-ray photon intensity be affected if the SID is doubled?
A
Its intensity increases two times.
B
Its intensity increases four times.
C
Its intensity decreases two times.
D
Its intensity decreases four times.

D Its intensity decreases four times.

46

What is the annual TEDE limit for radiation workers?
A
5 mSv
B
500 mSv
C
5,000 mSv
D
50 mSv

D 50 mSv

47

According to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the gestational dose-equivalent limit for embryo/fetus of a pregnant radiographer is
A
1 mSv
B
0.5 mSv
C
15 mSv
D
50 mSv

B 0.5 mSv

48
card image

Referring to the nomogram in Figure 3–8, what is the approximate patient ESE from a particular projection made at 105 cm using 125 kVp, 400 mA, 8 ms, and 3.0 mm Al total filtration ?

Reproduced, with permission, from McCullough EC, Cameron JR. Exposure rates from diagnostic x-ray units. Br J Radiol 1970;43:448–451.
A
23 mR
B
48 mR
C
230 mR
D
480 mR

B 48 mR

49

The largest dose to the male gonads is most likely to result from which of the following exposures?
A
Lateral thoracic spine
B
Oblique lumbar spine
C
Cross-table lateral hip
D
AP axial skull

C Cross-table lateral hip

50

The roentgen, as a unit of measurement, expresses
A
absorbed dose
B
exposure in air
C
dose equivalent
D
dose to biologic material

B exposure in air

51

The NCRP recommends an annual effective occupational dose-equivalent limit of
A
2.5 rem (25 mSv)
B
5 rem (50 mSv)
C
10 rem (100 mSv)
D
20 rem (200 mSv)

B 5 rem (50 mSv)

52

The unit of absorbed dose is the
A
roentgen (C/kg).
B
rad (Gy).
C
rem (Sv).
D
RBE.

B rad (Gy).

53

The term effective dose refers to
A
whole-body dose
B
localized organ dose
C
genetic effects
D
somatic and genetic effects

A whole-body dose

54

The purpose of filters in a film badge is
A
to eliminate harmful rays.
B
to measure radiation quality.
C
to prevent exposure by alpha particles.
D
as a support for the film contained within.

B to measure radiation quality.

55

Which of the following personnel radiation monitors will provide an immediate reading?
A
TLD
B
Film badge
C
Lithium fluoride chips
D
Pocket dosimeter

D Pocket dosimeter

56

The unit of measurement used to express occupational exposure is the
A
roentgen (C/kg)
B
rad (Gy)
C
rem (Sv)
D
relative biologic effectiveness (RBE)

C rem (Sv)

57

Any wall that the useful x-ray beam can be directed toward is called a
A
secondary barrier
B
primary barrier
C
leakage barrier
D
scattered barrier

B primary barrier

58

The annual dose limit for occupationally exposed individuals is valid for
A
alpha, beta, and x-radiations
B
x- and gamma radiations only
C
beta, x-, and gamma radiations
D
all ionizing radiations

C beta, x-, and gamma radiations

59

What is the established fetal dose-limit guideline for pregnant radiographers during the entire gestation period?
A
0.1 rem
B
0.5 rem
C
5.0 rem
D
10 rem

B 0.5 rem

60

According to the NCRP, the annual occupational dose-equivalent limit (50 rem) to the thyroid, skin, and extremities is
A
50 mSv
B
150 mSv
C
500 mSv
D
1,500 mSv

C 500 mSv