Chapter 24 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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1

_____ excretion represents the major route of water loss

urine

2

A buffer is any mechanism that resists changes in pH by

converting a strong acid or base to a weak one

3

List the roles of calcium

participate in muscle contraction

participates in bone and tooth development

acts as a second messenger and activates exocytosis during neurotransmission

acts as a factor for blood clotting

4

Water output is significantly controlled through variations in

urine volume

5

A person is in a state of fluid ____ when daily gains and losses are equal.

balance

6

Rank the following routes of normal water loss from largest volume to smallest volume

urine

cutaneous transpiration

breath

feces

sweat

7

The combination of water from food and drink is known as _____ water

preformed

8

Prolonged, heavy work ____ the respiratory loss to 650 mL/day and perspiration to 5 L/day; at the same time it ____ urine output by nearly two-thirds

raises; reduces

9

Indicate which of the following statements is correct regarding the abundance of electrolytes in the ECF and ICF

sodium is more abundant in the ECF and potassium is more abundant in the ICF

10

The two main categories of acid-base imbalances are respiratory and

metabolic

11

Cellular function requires a fluid medium with a carefully controlled composition. Select the three mechanisms by which the body maintains homeostatic balance

electrolyte, water, and acid-base balance

12

Indicate which of the following are examples of fluid sequestration

pleural effusion

hemorrhage

edema

13

Name the most abundant cation of the intracellular fluid, which is the greatest determinant of intracellular osmolarity and cell volume

potassium

14

____ is the principal cation of the ECF; it accounts for 90% to 95% of the osmolarity of the ECF and therefore it is the most significant solute in determining total body water

sodium

15

The ____ of a solution is determined by its hydrogen ions

pH

16

The most important buffer system in the blood is the bicarbonate buffer, which is a solution of ____ acid and bicaronate ions

carbonic

17

Indicate which of the following regulate sodium homeostasis

aldosterone

antidiuretic hormone

natriuertic peptides

18

Indicate which of the following are the functions of chloride ions

important in osmotic balance

participate in chloride shift that accompanies CO2 loading and unloading

contribute to formation of stomach acid

play major role in the regulation of body pH

19

Indicate which of the following statements are true regarding fluid sequestration

causes of fluid sequestration include edema and hemorrhage

it is a condition in which excess fluid accumulates in a particular location

20

The plasma concentration of chloride less than 95 mEq/L is called ______ and it is usually a side effect of hyponatremia

hypochloremia

21

Name the condition in which plasma sodium concentration is less than 130 mEq/L

hyponatremia

22

A ____ buffer is a system - namely, the respiratory or urinary system - that stabilizes pH by controlling the body's output of acids, bases, or CO2

physiological

23

____ play a crucial role in governing the body's water distribution and total water content

electrolytes

24

A deficiency of CO2 is called

hypocapnia

25

Indicate which of the following are examples of preformed water

water in a baked potato and steak dinner

water in an apple

water in a glass of milk

26

List the components of transcellular fluid

vitreous and aqueous humors of the eye

bile; and fluid in the digestive, urinary, and respiratory tracts

cerebrospinal, synovial, peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial fluids

27

Indicate four factors that can lead to volume depletion (hypovolemia), in which proportionate amounts of water and sodium are lost

chronic vomiting

hemorrhage

profuse sweating

diarrhea

28

A blood pH below 7.35 is defined as a state of _____

acidosis

29

The _____ can neutralize more acid or base than either the respiratory system or the chemical buffers

kidneys

30

Prolonged exposure to _____ can dehydrate a person

heat or cold

31

Indicate which of the following is not an anion electrolyte

calcium ion

32

Imbalances of water can also cause

electrolyte and acid-base imbalances

33

Most magnesium is found in intracellular fluid complexed with

ATP

34

Indicate which of the following are the two types of increase of fluid in the body

volume excess

hypotonic hydration

35

ADH release is inhibited when

blood osmolarity is too low

blood volume and pressure is too high

36

Plasma concentrations of calcium less than 4.5 mEq/L are known as

hypocalcemia

37

True imbalances in ____ concentration are relatively rare because its excess or depletion is almost always accompanied by proportionate changes in water volume

sodium

38

Indicate which of the following are fast-acting stimuli that cause a short-term inhibition of thirst

cooling or moistening the mouth

39

Identify the "salt-retaining hormone"

Aldosterone

40

List the tree major chemical buffer systems of the body

bicarbonate

phosphate

protein

41

The condition called _____ is a dangerously high plasma potassium concentration greater than 5.5 mEq/L

hyperkalemia

42

Every process that depends on ATP depends on ____ ions

phosphate

43

Calcium concentration is regulated chiefly by ______ hormone and calcitriol, and in children by calcitonin

parathyroid

44

In _____ transpiration, water diffuses through the epidermis and evaporates

cutaneous

45

The primary effects of aldosterone are that the urine contains ____ NaCl and ____ potassium and has a ____ pH

less; more; lower