Biology Final Review Questions Flashcards


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1

Who was the first American radiation worker to die from radiation-induced cancer in October 1904

Clarence Madison Dally

2

Which of the following effects must be measured to determine the total amount of radiation exposure in a specific volume of dry air under standard conditions of pressure and temperature (760 mm Hg or 1 atmosphere at sea level and 22 degree C)

Quantity of ionization

3

In diagnostic radiology energy range (which includes mammography) from 23 to 150 kVp, which of the following tissues possesses the greatest ability to absorb radiant energy through the process of photoelectric absorption?

Bone

4

If a patient receiving x-ray therapy treatment receives a total dosage of 6000 rads, the dosage may be recorded as ______ if the SI system is used.

6000 cGy

5

One millirem equals ________ rem

1/1000

6

Fifteen sievert equals _______ rem

1500

7

As the intensity of x-ray exposure of the air volume increases, the number of electron-ion pairs produced:

also increases

8

Which of the following equals 400 rem

4000 mSv

9

Ten C/kg equals ______ roentgen

3.9 x 10^4

10

In the SI system an energy absorption of 1 joule (J) per kilogram of matter in the irradiated object equals which of the following

1 Gy

11

Thirty-five mSv equals ____ rem

3.5

12

Which of the following are types of ionizing radiation that produce virtually the same biologic effect for equal absorbed doses in body tissue?

X-rays, beta particles, and gamma rays

13

Which of the following statements is correct?

1 C/kg of dry air = 1

2.58 x 10^4 gray

14

45 rem equals ________ mSv

450

15

For x-rays and gamma ray photons with energies up to 3 million electron volts (MeV), which of the following quantities may be defined as the measure of the total electrical charge of one sign, either all pluses or all minuses, per unit mass that these two kinds of radiation generate in air only?

Exposure

16

Of the following equivalents, which equals 1 rad?

1. 100 erg/g

2. 1/100 J/kg

3. 0.01 Gy

1, 2, and 3

17

Alpha particles have a radiation weighting factor (WR) that is numerically equal to:

20

18

Which of the following units are NOT SI units?

1. roentgen

2. Coulomb per kilogram, gray and sievert

3. rad and rem

1 and 3 only

19

Which of the following units is a unit of energy that may be defined as the work done or energy expended when a force of 1 newton (N) acts on an object along a distance of 1 meter (m)?

joule

20

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

1 centisievert = 1 rem

21

Which of the following is the SI unit of electrical current?

ampere

22

Beta particles are actually:

high-speed electrons

23

Among physicians, cancer deaths attributed to x-ray exposure were reported as early as:

1910

24

The effective atomic number (Zeff) of soft tissue is:

7.4

25

Who discovered x-rays on Novemeber 8, 1895?

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

26

A nucleotide is formed from a nitrogen-containing base, a _____ -carbon sugar molecule, and a phosphate molecule.

five

27

The cell components that contain the centrioles are the:

centrosomes

28

Cytosine bonds only with

guanine

29

During which of the following subphases of mitosis do the centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell and begin to regulate the formation of the mitotic spindle?

Prophase

30

The number of mitochondria in cells varies from a few hundred to several thousand. The greatest number is found in cells exhibiting ____ acitivity.

the greatest

31

Antibodies are protein molecules produced by specialized cells in the bone marrow called:

B lymphocytes

32

The steps or rungs of the DNA ladder-like structure consists of complementary chemicals that are:

pairs of nitrogenous bases

33

In the human-body, mineral salts are necessary for:

1. proper cell function

2. creation of energy

3. conduction of impulses along nerves

1,2, and 3

34

Inorganic materials are compounds that _______ carbon

do not contain

35

The much smaller structures that make up nucleic acids are called:

nucleotides

36

Which of the following causes an increase in cellular activity that in turn causes biochemical reactions to occur more rapidly to meet the needs of the cell?

Enzymes

37

How many different amino acids are involved in protein synthesis?

22

38

In general, which of the following can human cells do?

1. Protect themselves

2. Regulate life processes

3. Reproduce

1, 2, and 3

39

Which of the following serves as a prototype for messenger RNA (mRNA)?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

40

Compounds called purines include adenine and:

1. cytosine

2. guanine

3. thymine

2 only

41

Which of the following groups of cells is most radiosensitive?

Lymphocytes

42

If bone marrow cells have not been destroyed by exposure to ionizing radiation, they can

repopulate after a period of recovery

43

Which of the following groups of cells is least radiosensitive?

adult nerve cells

44

As LET increases, the ability of ionizing radiation to cause biologic effects

also generally increases until it reaches a maximal value

45

One micron (mm)=_____ m

10^-6

46

Which of the following humans is most radiosensitive?

the embryo-fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy

47

Neutrophils play an important role in

fighting infection

48

While passing through a human cell, an x-ray photon interacts with and inactivates the cell's master molecule. What is the consequence for the cell?

Death

49

The radiation dose required to produce mitotic death is

less than the dose needed to produce apoptosis in slowly dividing cells or nondividing cells.

50

Direct action may occur after exposure to any type of radiation, but it is much more likely to happen after exposure to:

high-LET radiation such as alpha particles

51

Which of the following is (are) considered low-LET radiation?

1. x-rays

2. Alpha particles

3. Gamma rays

1 and 3 only

52

Which of the following tissues contains cells that do not divide?

1. epithelial tissue

2. muscle tissue

3. nervous tissue in adult

2 and 3 only

53

Which of the following statements is true concerning patients who receive radiation exposure from a routine radiographic procedure such as CXR

patients are not expected to sustain appreciable damage to either the blood or the blood-forming organs as a consequence of the exam.

54

Based on current data, which of the following would be considered a safe radiation dose for the gonads of both males and females

0 Gy

55

A periodic blood count is not recommended as a method for monitoring occupational radiation exposure becasue

2 and 3 only

56

A biologic reaction is produced by 4 Gy of a test radiation. It takes 16 Gy of 250 kVp xrays to produce the same biologic reaction. What is the relative biologic effectiveness of the test radiation?

4

57

The normal white blood cell count for an adult ranges from _____ to ______/mm^3 of blood.

5,000-10,000

58

The term apoptosis is synonymous with

programmed cell death

59

Radiosensitivity of ova

varies considerably throughout the lifetime of the germ cell

60

Which of the following is a scavenger-type of white blood cell that fights bacteria?

Granulocytes

61

Which of the following illustrates the radiation sensitivity of a particular type of cell

survival cell

62

______ of the effects of x radiation and gamma in macromolecule of living system (in vivo) occur in a human male?

Most

63

OH+OH=

H2O2

64

Which of the following means the loss or change of a nitrogenous base in the DNA chain?

mutation

65

As a result of numerous reported patient injuries that have been associated with the use of _______________, better management of the use of such procedures is essential.

computed tomography

high-level fluoroscopy

routine chest radiography

routine fluoroscopy

high-level fluroscopy

66

The correct order of development of the male germ cell from the stem cell phase to the mature cell is:

spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm

spermatocyte, spermatogonia, spermatid, sperm

spermatid, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, sperm

sperm, spermatid, spermatogonia, spermatocyte

spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm

67

Atrophy refers to:

aging of the skin from radiation exposure

shrinkage of organs and tissues after a high radiation dose is received

necrosis of the hypodermis from radiation exposure

wrinkling of the skin from radiation exposure

shrinkage of organs and tissues after a high radiation dose is received

68

_____ syndrome is not a form of acute radiation syndrome.

Carcinogenic

Hematopoietic

Gastrointestinal

Cerebrovascular

Carcinogenic

69

Which of the following are classified as early (acute) deterministic somatic effects of ionizing radiation?

Erythema, cataract formation, cancer

Nausea, epilation, intestinal disorders

Male and female sterility, embryologic defects, cancer

Blood disorders, fever, genetic effects

nausea, epilation, intestinal disorders

70

Attempts have been made to measure chromosome aberrations after diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures:

and these studies have been very successful in measuring the number of chromosome aberrations that occurred

but successful results have not been achieved in these studies

but these studies have only been moderately successful in measuring the number of chromosome aberrations that occurred

but these studies have only been minimally successful in measuring the number of chromosome aberrations that occurred

but successful results have not been achieved in these studies

71

The hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome is also called the _____ syndrome.

Auger

bone marrow

cerebrovascular

mutational

bone marrow

72

Genetic mutations have been produced in experimental female animals when their ovaries were irradiated with doses as low as _____ Gy (_____ rad).

0.10; 10

0.15; 15

0.20; 20

0.25; 25

0.25; 25

73

A single absorbed dose of 2 Gy (200 rad) can cause a radiation-induced skin erythema within _____ hour(s) after irradiation.

1

6

12

24 to 48

24 to 48

74

A decrease in the number of neutrophils can be caused by a radiation dose of _____ Gy (_____ rad).

0.1; 10

0.2; 20

0.3; 30

0.5; 50

0.5;50

75

The prodromal stage of acute radiation syndrome is also referred to as the:

initial stage

latent period

manifest illness period

recovery period

initial stage

76

For persons with hematopoietic syndrome, survival time shortens as the radiation dose:

decreases

increases

remains the same

there is no survival time for persons with the hematopoietic syndrome

increases

77

Grenz rays were once used to treat and cure:

acute radiation syndrome

cancer

lupus disease

skin diseases, such as ringworm

skin disease, such as ringworms

78

The correct order of development for the female germ cell from the stem cell phase to the mature cell is:

ovum, mature follicle, corpus luteum, primordial follicle

corpus luteum, primordial follicle, mature follicle, ovum

primordial follicle, ovum, corpus luteum, mature follicle

primordial follicle, mature follicle, corpus luteum, ovum

primordial follicle, mature follicle, corpus luteum, ovum

79

Research has shown that repeated radiation injuries have a _____ effect.

cumulative

quadratic

sigmoidal

threshold

cumulative

80

In 1898, after suffering severe burns attributed to radiation exposure, which Boston dentist began investigating the hazards of radiation exposure and became the first known advocate of radiation protection?

Marie Curie

Clarence Madison Dally

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

William Herbert Rollins

William Herbert Rollins

81

Studies of radiation therapy patients who received orthovoltage radiation therapy treatments provide _____ evidence of skin damage caused by radiation exposure.

no

minimal

a moderate amount of

significant

significant

82

Which of the following is the reason why the ovaries should be shielded whenever possible during all imaging procedures?

Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in somatic damage that can be passed on to future generations.

Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in somatic damage but it cannot be passed on to future generations.

Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in genetic mutations that can be passed on to future generations.

There is no valid reason why the ovaries should be shielded whenever possible during all imaging procedures.

Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in genetic mutations that can be passed on to future generations.

83

Revised atomic bomb data for Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that radiation-induced leukemias and solid tumors occurring in the survivors may be attributed to exposure to which of the following?

X-rays

Gamma radiation

Neutrons

Gamma radiation

84

The term LD 50/30 signifies the whole-body dose of radiation that can be lethal to ____% of the exposed population in _____ days.

50; 30

30; 50

50; 50

30; 30

50; 30

85

In the female the oogonia, the ovarian stem cells:

divide and reduce in number only during fetal development

multiply to millions of cells only during fetal development

are not present during fetal life

are present only in very small numbers during fetal life

multiply to millions of cells only during fetal development

86

During the major response stages of acute radiation syndrome after the initial stage, the period when symptoms that affect the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular systems become visible is called:

latent period

manifest illness

prodromal syndrome

manifest illness

87

Moist and dry desquamation can be caused by:

high radiation doses

low radiation doses

radiation doses received during routine diagnostic imaging procedures

radiation doses received during routine mammography

high radiation doses

88

Some local tissues suffer immediate consequences from high radiation doses. Examples of such tissues include:
1. bone marrow
2. male and female reproductive organs
3. skin

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

89

A term that is synonymous with epilation is:

alopecia

atrophy

desquamation

radiodermatitis

alopecia

90

Radiation-induced abnormalities are caused by unrepaired damage to:

all stem cells in the body

DNA within ova or sperm

epithelial cells

somatic cells

DNA within ova or sperm

91

When a prediction is made that the number of excess cancers in a given population will increase as the natural incidence of cancer increases in that population with age, the risk is described by which of the following terms?

Absolute

Excess

Quadratic

Relative

Relative

92

Laboratory experiments with mice prove that cataracts may be induced with doses of ionizing radiation as low as _____ Gy (_____ rads).

0.10; 10

0.01; 1

0.50; 50

0.05; 5

0.10; 10

93

Genetic effects from exposure to ionizing radiation occur as a result of radiation-induced damage to the DNA molecule in which of the following?
1. Sperm of an adult male
2. Ova of an adult female
3. Somatic cells of male and female adults

1 only

2 only

3 only

1 and 2 only

1 and 2 only

94

Radiation dose-response curves can be used to predict the risk of _________ in human populations that have been exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation.

cataract formation

genetic effects

malignancy

spontaneous abortions

malignancy

95

Radium decays with a half-life of:

8 days

50 year

500 years

1622 years

1622 years

96

Radiation-induced cataracts in humans follow a __________ dose-response relationship.
You Answered

nonlinear, nonthreshold

linear, nonthreshold

linear, threshold

nonlinear, threshold

nonlinear, threshold

97

The human body can incorporate radium into bone because it is chemically similar to:

calcium

potassium

phosphorus

sodium

calcium

98

Mutations in genes and DNA that occur at random as natural phenomena are called _____ mutations.

deterministic

sporadic

spontaneous

stochastic

spontaneous

99

Studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrate that the incidence of leukemia has _________ since the late 1940s and early 1950s and the incidence of solid tumors has continued to __________ since the late 1950s and early 1960s.

slowly declined, escalate

increased rapidly, decrease

increased slowly, decrease

rapidly declined, decrease

slowly declined, escalate

100

For an accurate estimate of the number of radiation-induced leukemias and other malignancies that may occur in some of the 135,000 evacuees from the 1986 nuclear power station accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, the exposed population must:

not be permitted to receive any additional medical radiation exposure for at least 20 years from the date of the accident

not be permitted to intermingle with the unexposed population

remain living in the same geographic area for the remainder of their lives

have long-term monitoring

have long-term monitioring

101

Genetic mutations at the molecular level are called _____ mutations.

chromatid

chromosome

molecular

point

point

102

The term “linear nonthreshold curve” implies that the biologic response to ionizing radiation is _____ the dose.

directly proportional to

inversely proportional to

directly proportional to the square of

inversely proportional to the square of

directly proportional to

103

A radiation dose of 0.05 Gy to 0.15 Gy (5 to 15 rads) delivered to a human embryo during the preimplantation stage of development results in which of the following?

Congenital abnormalities

Delayed bone growth

Embryonic death

Microcephaly

Embryonic death

104

Of the following late somatic effects caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, which effect is considered to be most important?

Cataract formation

Embryologic or birth defects

Cancer

None; all are considered to be of equal importance

cancer

105

Existing data on radiation-induced genetic effects in humans:

prove conclusively that radiation causes major genetic effects

prove conclusively that radiation causes only minor genetic effects

are still inconclusive

prove conclusively that radiation does not cause genetic effects

are still inclonclusive

106

Uranium miners in the Colorado plateau who developed lung cancer years after exposure provide an example of which of the following?
You Answered

Early deterministic somatic effects

Late stochastic somatic effects

Early genetic effects

Late genetic effects

late stochastic somatic effects

107

What do agents such as chemicals, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and viruses have in common?

They have nothing in common.

They can increase the frequency of mutations in only those members of the population who are already genetically impaired.

They are all mutagens that may increase the frequency of occurrence of mutations.

They always cause spontaneous abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy.

They are all mutagens that may increase the frequency of occurrence of mutations.

108

What is the mean value of the radiation doubling equivalent dose for humans, as determined from the offspring of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

1.00 Sv (100 rem)

1.56 Sv (156 rem)

3.00 Sv (300 rem)

5.67 Sv (567 rem)

1.56 Sv (156 rem)

109

In which of the following human populations is the risk for causing a radiation-induced cancer not directly measurable?
1. All patients in diagnostic radiology subjected to a radiation dose below 0.1 sievert (less than 10 rem)
2. Chernobyl radiation accident victims living in contaminated villages
3. Japanese atomic bomb survivors

1 only

2 only

3 only

2 and 3 only

1 only

110

Which of the following groups of people exposed to ionizing radiation provide proof that low-level radiation exposure produces late effects?

135,000 evacuees from the 1986 nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine

Japanese atomic bomb survivors

Children of the Marshall Islanders who were inadvertently subjected to fallout during the atomic bomb test in 1954

None of the above

None of the above

111

Normally, mutations in genetic material occur spontaneously, without a known cause. A genetic disorder is present in approximately ____% of all live births in the United States.

10

20

25

30

10

112

Today, as a result of programs stressing radiation safety education and protective devices, radiation workers employed in medical imaging:

may only experience a moderate degree of adverse health effects as a consequence of their work

may only experience a small amount of adverse health effects as a consequence of their work

need not experience any adverse health effects as a consequence of their work

programs stressing radiation safety education and the use of protective devices have no impact on adverse health effects that radiation workers sustain.

need not experience any adverse health effects as a consequence of their work

113

Studies of postpartum patients treated with ionizing radiation for relief of mastitis indicate that in this group of individuals, radiation exposure to healthy breast tissue:

can cause breast cancer

cannot cause breast cancer

can cause breast enlargement

can cause breast shrinkage

can cause breast cancer

114

After the 1986 nuclear power station accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, an attempt was made to prevent thyroid cancer in children in Poland and some other countries as a consequence of accidental overdose of iodine-131, __________ was administered as a substitute for take-up of iodine-131.

potassium bromide

sodium chloride

sodium bicarbonate

potassium iodide

potassium iodide

115

When the speed of screen-film systems doubles, for example, when changing from a 200-speed to a 400-speed system, patient radiation exposure is _____ by approximately _____%.

increased; 25

increased; 50

reduced; 25

reduced; 50

reduced; 50

116

CR imaging has greater _______ flexibility than does conventional screen-film radiography.

kilovoltage

milliamperage

time of exposure

x-ray beam collimation

kilovoltage

117

In standard image intensification fluoroscopy, an x-ray beam half-value-layer (HVL) of 3- to 4-mm aluminum is considered acceptable when peak kilovoltage ranges from:

50 to 60

60 to 70

70 to 80

80 to 100

80 to 100

118

When settings are changed from one mA to a neighboring mA station, the most that linearity can vary is _____%.

0

10

20

50

10

119

When performing a mobile fluoroscopic procedure, to reduce the radiation exposure to the patient, the radiographer must use a minimal source-skin distance of ____ cm (____ inches).

15; 6

30; 12

38; 15

45; 18

30;12

120

The control panel, where technical exposure factors are selected and seen on indicators by the equipment operator, must be located:

at the foot end of the radiographic examining table

at the head end of the radiographic examining table

behind a suitable protective barrier that has a r
adiation-absorbent window that permits observation of the patient during any procedure

behind any regular wall that has a regular glass window that permits observation of the patient during any procedure

behind a suitable protective barrier that has a radiation-absorbent window that permits observation of the patient during any procedure

121

To visualize smaller and lower-contrast objects during interventional procedures, high-level-control fluoroscopy uses exposure rates that are _______ those normally used in routine fluoroscopy.

higher than

lower than

the same as

none of these; smaller and lower-contrast objects cannot be visualized by fluoroscopy during interventional procedures

higher than

122

During a fluoroscopic examination a resettable cumulative timing device times the x-ray beam-on time and sounds an audible alarm or temporarily interrupts the exposure after the fluoroscope has been activated for what length of time?

1 minute

3 minutes

5 minutes

10 minutes

5 minutes

123

When using digital fluoroscopy systems, making use of the last-image-hold feature can:

be an effective dose reduction technique

eliminate the need to collimate the primary beam

eliminate increased involuntary patient motion

eliminate increased voluntary patient motion

be an effective dose reduction technique

124

Sharper size restriction of the radiographic beam is achieved when the cone or cylinder is:

longer

shorter

made of aluminum

made of durable plastic

longer

125

What is the purpose of radiographic beam filtration?

To decrease beam hardness, thereby reducing patient skin dose and the dose to superficial tissues

To increase beam hardness, thereby reducing patient skin dose and the dose to superficial tissues

To eliminate short wavelength radiation to reduce the radiation received by the patient’s skin and superficial tissues

To increase beam hardness, thereby increasing patient skin dose with only a slight increase to superficial tissues

To increase beam hardness, thereby reducing patient skin dose and the dose to superficial tissues

126

Depending on the area of the body being examined with a fluoroscopic image intensification system, for adult patients a range of ______ kVp is generally used.

30 to 60

60 to 75

75 to 110

110 to 140

75 to 110

127

When an exposed computed radiography imaging plate is ready to be processed, an imaging reading unit is used to scan the photostimulable phosphor imaging plate with a helium-neon laser beam. This results in the emission of violet light that is changed into an electronic signal by a device called a:

charge-coupled-device array

photodiode

photomultiplier tube

scintillator

photomultiplier tube

128

Of the following procedures, which involve extended fluoroscopic time?
1. Biliary drainage
2. Stent and filter placement
3. Urinary or biliary stone removal

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

129

When compared with the traditional material in the front of a cassette (aluminum or cardboard), the cassette front containing the carbon fiber absorbs approximately _____ as much radiation, resulting in a _____ dose for the patient because _____ radiographic techniques are required to produce the recorded image.

four times; higher; higher

three times; higher; higher

twice; higher; higher

half; lower; lower

half;lower;lower

130

Digital radiography images can be accessed:

at only one workstation at a time, thereby decreasing the convenience for physicians providing patient care

at no more than two workstations at a time, thereby decreasing the convenience for physicians providing patent care

at several workstations at the same time, making image viewing very convenient for physicians providing patient care

none of these; digital images cannot be accessed at any workstations by physicians

at several workstations at the same time, making image viewing very convenient for physicians providing patient care

131

Luminance is determined by measuring the concentration of light:

at only one particular point of the field of view

over a particular field of view

at only one particular point of the field of view and then squaring the number

over a particular field of view and then squaring the number

over a particular field of view

132

A radiographer uses a high-speed, rare-earth screen-film system with optimal technical exposure factors to obtain posteroanterior and lateral radiographs of a 2-year-old child’s chest. To maximize reduction of radiation exposure to the patient following adequate immobilization, the radiographer should collimate the x-ray beam so that it is _______ shield the child’s reproductive organs.

only slightly larger than the margins of the image receptor and

no larger than the margins of the image receptor and

smaller than the margins of the image receptor and

smaller than the margins of the image receptor and not

smaller than the margins of the image receptor and

133

Current federal standards limit entrance skin exposure rates of general-purpose intensified fluoroscopic units to a maximum of _____ R/min (_____ ´ 2.58 ´ 10–4 C/kg/min).

5; 5

10; 10

20; 20

25; 25

10; 10

134

Computed radiography, because of its higher exposure latitude, makes grid use on the pediatric population:

absolutely necessary for all radiographic examinations

less necessary than was previously believed

necessary only for extremity examinations

unnecessary for any examination

less necessary than was previously believed

135

Which of the following materials is commonly used in the tabletop of a radiographic examination table to make the tabletop as radiolucent as possible so that it will absorb only a minimal amount of radiation, thereby reducing the patient’s radiation dose?

Carbon fiber material

Formica

Granite

Slate

carbon fiber material

136

Federal government specifications recommend a minimum total filtration of _____-mm aluminum equivalent for stationary (fixed) fluoroscopic x-ray units operating above 70 kVp.

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

2.5

137

Which of the following is not an x-ray beam limitation device?

Aperture diaphragm

Collimator

Filter

Extension cylinder

filter

138

When a fluoroscopic image is electronically amplified by an image intensification system, which of the following benefits result?
1. Increased image brightness
2. Saving of time for the radiologist
3. Patient dose reduction

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

139

Which of the following types of filters should be used to provide uniform density when radiographing a foot in the dorsoplantar projection?

Bilateral wedge filter

Trough filter

Thoraeus filter

Wedge filter

wedge filter

140

The actual long-term health effects of a “dirty bomb” are likely to be:

catastrophic

maximal

minimal

nonexistent

minimal

141

In ______, a neutron transforms itself into a combination of a proton and an energetic electron.

alpha decay

beta decay

gamma decay

x-ray absorptionb

beta

142

Each fluorine-18 nuclear transformation by positron decay yields two highly penetrating ____-keV photons.

250

472

511

777

511

143

Radioactive material that is attached to or associated with dust particles or in liquid form on various surfaces defines the term radioactive:

contamination

dispersal device

fallout

syndrome

contamination

144

If enough explosives are used to spread radioactive material over a broad area, then radioactivity is ______ higher than background levels.

extremely hazardous and may be much

moderately hazardous and may be

slightly hazardous and may be only slightly

diluted and may not be much

diluted and may not be much

145

Diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine typically make use of ______ radioisotopes as radioactive tracers.

long-lived

short-lived

very weak

potentially lethal

short-lived

146

Strontium-89 is a pure __________ emitter.

alpha

beta

gamma

x-rayb

beta

147

During a radiation emergency, the dose limit for individuals engaging in lifesaving activities is _____ mSv (_____ rem) per event.

50; 5

100; 10

250; 25

500; 50

250; 25

148

During a radiation emergency, at a dose rate of _____ Sv/hr (_____ rem/hr), emergency personnel should await specific instructions from radiation experts on how to proceed.

0.1; 10

0.5; 50

1.0; 100

5.0; 500

0.1; 10

149

While a patient receiving iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is hospitalized, a large, ____-inch-thick rolling lead shield can be positioned between the patient and any attending personnel for protection.

up to 1

2

3

6

up to 1

150

The design of a ______ imaging suite involves significant radiation safety concerns.

diagnostic x-ray

computed radiography

computed tomography

positron emission tomography/computed tomography

positron emission tomography/computed tomography

151

Iodine-125 (I-125) in the form of titanium-encapsulated cylindrical seeds has been used quite extensively within the past decade to give a tumoricidal radiation equivalent dose to:

malignant brain tumors

malignant breast tumors

malignant lung tumors

prostate cancers that are confined within the prostate gland

prostate cancers that are confined within the prostate gland

152

Strontium is a member of the same family of elements in the periodic table as is:

calcium

carbon

sodium

potassium

calcium

153

Therapeutic radioisotopes are characterized by:

very short half-lives

half-lives that are exactly the same

relatively long half-lives

half-lives that remain constant for all eternity

relatively long half-lives

154

Tellurium-125 (Te-125) has _____ protons and _____ neutrons.

125; 125

75; 63

52; 73

45; 58

52; 73

155

What is the traditional unit of equivalent dose and effective dose

Rem

156

What is the quality factor for x-ray photons

1

157

What does the traditional radiation unit, the roentgen measure

Radiation exposure in the air only

158

Which of the following produces antibodies

lymphocytes

159

Water constitutes approximately ______ of the weight of the human body?

80-85%

160

Which action of ionizing radiation is MOST harmful to the human body

Indirect action

161

Which molecules in the human body are most commonly directly acted on by ionizing radiation to produce molecular damage through an indirect action

Water

162

Which of the following illustrates the radiation sensitivity of a particular type of cell

survival curve

163

Which of the following gonadel radiation doses may cause permanent sterility in a human male?

6.0 Gy

164

The absorbed dose is responsible for biological damage.

True or False

True