164 notecards = 41 pages (4 cards per page)
Who was the first American radiation worker to die from radiation-induced cancer in October 1904
Clarence Madison Dally
Which of the following effects must be measured to determine the total amount of radiation exposure in a specific volume of dry air under standard conditions of pressure and temperature (760 mm Hg or 1 atmosphere at sea level and 22 degree C)
Quantity of ionization
In diagnostic radiology energy range (which includes mammography) from 23 to 150 kVp, which of the following tissues possesses the greatest ability to absorb radiant energy through the process of photoelectric absorption?
If a patient receiving x-ray therapy treatment receives a total dosage of 6000 rads, the dosage may be recorded as ______ if the SI system is used.
One millirem equals ________ rem
Fifteen sievert equals _______ rem
As the intensity of x-ray exposure of the air volume increases, the number of electron-ion pairs produced:
Which of the following equals 400 rem
Ten C/kg equals ______ roentgen
3.9 x 10^4
In the SI system an energy absorption of 1 joule (J) per kilogram of matter in the irradiated object equals which of the following
Thirty-five mSv equals ____ rem
Which of the following are types of ionizing radiation that produce virtually the same biologic effect for equal absorbed doses in body tissue?
X-rays, beta particles, and gamma rays
Which of the following statements is correct?
1 C/kg of dry air = 1
2.58 x 10^4 gray
45 rem equals ________ mSv
For x-rays and gamma ray photons with energies up to 3 million electron volts (MeV), which of the following quantities may be defined as the measure of the total electrical charge of one sign, either all pluses or all minuses, per unit mass that these two kinds of radiation generate in air only?
Of the following equivalents, which equals 1 rad?
1. 100 erg/g
2. 1/100 J/kg
3. 0.01 Gy
1, 2, and 3
Alpha particles have a radiation weighting factor (WR) that is numerically equal to:
Which of the following units are NOT SI units?
2. Coulomb per kilogram, gray and sievert
3. rad and rem
1 and 3 only
Which of the following units is a unit of energy that may be defined as the work done or energy expended when a force of 1 newton (N) acts on an object along a distance of 1 meter (m)?
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
1 centisievert = 1 rem
Which of the following is the SI unit of electrical current?
Beta particles are actually:
Among physicians, cancer deaths attributed to x-ray exposure were reported as early as:
The effective atomic number (Zeff) of soft tissue is:
Who discovered x-rays on Novemeber 8, 1895?
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
A nucleotide is formed from a nitrogen-containing base, a _____ -carbon sugar molecule, and a phosphate molecule.
The cell components that contain the centrioles are the:
Cytosine bonds only with
During which of the following subphases of mitosis do the centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell and begin to regulate the formation of the mitotic spindle?
The number of mitochondria in cells varies from a few hundred to several thousand. The greatest number is found in cells exhibiting ____ acitivity.
Antibodies are protein molecules produced by specialized cells in the bone marrow called:
The steps or rungs of the DNA ladder-like structure consists of complementary chemicals that are:
pairs of nitrogenous bases
In the human-body, mineral salts are necessary for:
1. proper cell function
2. creation of energy
3. conduction of impulses along nerves
1,2, and 3
Inorganic materials are compounds that _______ carbon
do not contain
The much smaller structures that make up nucleic acids are called:
Which of the following causes an increase in cellular activity that in turn causes biochemical reactions to occur more rapidly to meet the needs of the cell?
How many different amino acids are involved in protein synthesis?
In general, which of the following can human cells do?
1. Protect themselves
2. Regulate life processes
1, 2, and 3
Which of the following serves as a prototype for messenger RNA (mRNA)?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Compounds called purines include adenine and:
Which of the following groups of cells is most radiosensitive?
If bone marrow cells have not been destroyed by exposure to ionizing radiation, they can
repopulate after a period of recovery
Which of the following groups of cells is least radiosensitive?
adult nerve cells
As LET increases, the ability of ionizing radiation to cause biologic effects
also generally increases until it reaches a maximal value
One micron (mm)=_____ m
Which of the following humans is most radiosensitive?
the embryo-fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy
Neutrophils play an important role in
While passing through a human cell, an x-ray photon interacts with and inactivates the cell's master molecule. What is the consequence for the cell?
The radiation dose required to produce mitotic death is
less than the dose needed to produce apoptosis in slowly dividing cells or nondividing cells.
Direct action may occur after exposure to any type of radiation, but it is much more likely to happen after exposure to:
high-LET radiation such as alpha particles
Which of the following is (are) considered low-LET radiation?
2. Alpha particles
3. Gamma rays
1 and 3 only
Which of the following tissues contains cells that do not divide?
1. epithelial tissue
2. muscle tissue
3. nervous tissue in adult
2 and 3 only
Which of the following statements is true concerning patients who receive radiation exposure from a routine radiographic procedure such as CXR
patients are not expected to sustain appreciable damage to either the blood or the blood-forming organs as a consequence of the exam.
Based on current data, which of the following would be considered a safe radiation dose for the gonads of both males and females
A periodic blood count is not recommended as a method for monitoring occupational radiation exposure becasue
2 and 3 only
A biologic reaction is produced by 4 Gy of a test radiation. It takes 16 Gy of 250 kVp xrays to produce the same biologic reaction. What is the relative biologic effectiveness of the test radiation?
The normal white blood cell count for an adult ranges from _____ to ______/mm^3 of blood.
The term apoptosis is synonymous with
programmed cell death
Radiosensitivity of ova
varies considerably throughout the lifetime of the germ cell
Which of the following is a scavenger-type of white blood cell that fights bacteria?
Which of the following illustrates the radiation sensitivity of a particular type of cell
______ of the effects of x radiation and gamma in macromolecule of living system (in vivo) occur in a human male?
Which of the following means the loss or change of a nitrogenous base in the DNA chain?
As a result of numerous reported patient injuries that have been
associated with the use of _______________, better management of the
use of such procedures is essential.
The correct order of development of the male germ cell from the stem
cell phase to the mature cell is:
spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm
Atrophy refers to:
shrinkage of organs and tissues after a high radiation dose is received
_____ syndrome is not a form of acute radiation syndrome.
Which of the following are classified as early (acute) deterministic
somatic effects of ionizing radiation?
nausea, epilation, intestinal disorders
Attempts have been made to measure chromosome aberrations after
diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures:
but successful results have not been achieved in these studies
The hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome is also called the
Genetic mutations have been produced in experimental female animals
when their ovaries were irradiated with doses as low as _____ Gy
A single absorbed dose of 2 Gy (200 rad) can cause a
radiation-induced skin erythema within _____ hour(s) after
24 to 48
A decrease in the number of neutrophils can be caused by a radiation
dose of _____ Gy (_____ rad).
The prodromal stage of acute radiation syndrome is also referred to
For persons with hematopoietic syndrome, survival time shortens as
the radiation dose:
Grenz rays were once used to treat and cure:
skin disease, such as ringworms
The correct order of development for the female germ cell from the
stem cell phase to the mature cell is:
primordial follicle, mature follicle, corpus luteum, ovum
Research has shown that repeated radiation injuries have a _____
In 1898, after suffering severe burns attributed to radiation
exposure, which Boston dentist began investigating the hazards of
radiation exposure and became the first known advocate of radiation
William Herbert Rollins
William Herbert Rollins
Studies of radiation therapy patients who received orthovoltage
radiation therapy treatments provide _____ evidence of skin damage
caused by radiation exposure.
Which of the following is the reason why the ovaries should be
shielded whenever possible during all imaging procedures?
Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in genetic mutations that can be passed on to future generations.
Revised atomic bomb data for Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that
radiation-induced leukemias and solid tumors occurring in the
survivors may be attributed to exposure to which of the following?
The term LD 50/30 signifies the whole-body dose of radiation that can
be lethal to ____% of the exposed population in _____ days.
In the female the oogonia, the ovarian stem cells:
multiply to millions of cells only during fetal development
During the major response stages of acute radiation syndrome after
the initial stage, the period when symptoms that affect the
hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular systems become
visible is called:
Moist and dry desquamation can be caused by:
high radiation doses
Some local tissues suffer immediate consequences from high radiation
doses. Examples of such tissues include:
1, 2, and 3
1, 2, and 3
A term that is synonymous with epilation is:
Radiation-induced abnormalities are caused by unrepaired damage to:
DNA within ova or sperm
When a prediction is made that the number of excess cancers in a
given population will increase as the natural incidence of cancer
increases in that population with age, the risk is described by which
of the following terms?
Laboratory experiments with mice prove that cataracts may be induced
with doses of ionizing radiation as low as _____ Gy (_____ rads).
Genetic effects from exposure to ionizing radiation occur as a result
of radiation-induced damage to the DNA molecule in which of the
1 and 2 only
Radiation dose-response curves can be used to predict the risk of
_________ in human populations that have been exposed to low levels of
Radium decays with a half-life of:
Radiation-induced cataracts in humans follow a __________
The human body can incorporate radium into bone because it is
chemically similar to:
Mutations in genes and DNA that occur at random as natural phenomena
are called _____ mutations.
Studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrate that the
incidence of leukemia has _________ since the late 1940s and early
1950s and the incidence of solid tumors has continued to __________
since the late 1950s and early 1960s.
slowly declined, escalate
For an accurate estimate of the number of radiation-induced leukemias
and other malignancies that may occur in some of the 135,000 evacuees
from the 1986 nuclear power station accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine,
the exposed population must:
have long-term monitioring
Genetic mutations at the molecular level are called _____ mutations.
The term “linear nonthreshold curve” implies that the biologic
response to ionizing radiation is _____ the dose.
directly proportional to
A radiation dose of 0.05 Gy to 0.15 Gy (5 to 15 rads) delivered to a
human embryo during the preimplantation stage of development results
in which of the following?
Of the following late somatic effects caused by exposure to ionizing
radiation, which effect is considered to be most important?
Existing data on radiation-induced genetic effects in humans:
are still inclonclusive
Uranium miners in the Colorado plateau who developed lung cancer
years after exposure provide an example of which of the following?
late stochastic somatic effects
What do agents such as chemicals, elevated temperatures, ionizing
radiation, and viruses have in common?
They are all mutagens that may increase the frequency of occurrence of mutations.
What is the mean value of the radiation doubling equivalent dose for
humans, as determined from the offspring of the atomic bomb survivors
of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
1.56 Sv (156 rem)
In which of the following human populations is the risk for causing a
radiation-induced cancer not directly measurable?
Which of the following groups of people exposed to ionizing radiation
provide proof that low-level radiation exposure produces late effects?
None of the above
Normally, mutations in genetic material occur spontaneously, without
a known cause. A genetic disorder is present in approximately ____% of
all live births in the United States.
Today, as a result of programs stressing radiation safety education
and protective devices, radiation workers employed in medical imaging:
need not experience any adverse health effects as a consequence of their work
Studies of postpartum patients treated with ionizing radiation for
relief of mastitis indicate that in this group of individuals,
radiation exposure to healthy breast tissue:
can cause breast cancer
After the 1986 nuclear power station accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine,
an attempt was made to prevent thyroid cancer in children in Poland
and some other countries as a consequence of accidental overdose of
iodine-131, __________ was administered as a substitute for take-up of
When the speed of screen-film systems doubles, for example, when
changing from a 200-speed to a 400-speed system, patient radiation
exposure is _____ by approximately _____%.
CR imaging has greater _______ flexibility than does conventional
In standard image intensification fluoroscopy, an x-ray beam
half-value-layer (HVL) of 3- to 4-mm aluminum is considered acceptable
when peak kilovoltage ranges from:
80 to 100
When settings are changed from one mA to a neighboring mA station,
the most that linearity can vary is _____%.
When performing a mobile fluoroscopic procedure, to reduce the
radiation exposure to the patient, the radiographer must use a minimal
source-skin distance of ____ cm (____ inches).
The control panel, where technical exposure factors are selected and
seen on indicators by the equipment operator, must be located:
behind a suitable protective barrier that has a radiation-absorbent window that permits observation of the patient during any procedure
To visualize smaller and lower-contrast objects during interventional
procedures, high-level-control fluoroscopy uses exposure rates that
are _______ those normally used in routine fluoroscopy.
During a fluoroscopic examination a resettable cumulative timing
device times the x-ray beam-on time and sounds an audible alarm or
temporarily interrupts the exposure after the fluoroscope has been
activated for what length of time?
When using digital fluoroscopy systems, making use of the
last-image-hold feature can:
be an effective dose reduction technique
Sharper size restriction of the radiographic beam is achieved when
the cone or cylinder is:
What is the purpose of radiographic beam filtration?
To increase beam hardness, thereby reducing patient skin dose and the dose to superficial tissues
Depending on the area of the body being examined with a fluoroscopic
image intensification system, for adult patients a range of ______ kVp
is generally used.
75 to 110
When an exposed computed radiography imaging plate is ready to be
processed, an imaging reading unit is used to scan the photostimulable
phosphor imaging plate with a helium-neon laser beam. This results in
the emission of violet light that is changed into an electronic signal
by a device called a:
Of the following procedures, which involve extended fluoroscopic
1, 2, and 3
When compared with the traditional material in the front of a
cassette (aluminum or cardboard), the cassette front containing the
carbon fiber absorbs approximately _____ as much radiation, resulting
in a _____ dose for the patient because _____ radiographic techniques
are required to produce the recorded image.
Digital radiography images can be accessed:
at several workstations at the same time, making image viewing very convenient for physicians providing patient care
Luminance is determined by measuring the concentration of light:
over a particular field of view
A radiographer uses a high-speed, rare-earth screen-film system with
optimal technical exposure factors to obtain posteroanterior and
lateral radiographs of a 2-year-old child’s chest. To maximize
reduction of radiation exposure to the patient following adequate
immobilization, the radiographer should collimate the x-ray beam so
that it is _______ shield the child’s reproductive organs.
smaller than the margins of the image receptor and
Current federal standards limit entrance skin exposure rates of
general-purpose intensified fluoroscopic units to a maximum of _____
R/min (_____ ´ 2.58 ´ 10–4 C/kg/min).
Computed radiography, because of its higher exposure latitude, makes
grid use on the pediatric population:
less necessary than was previously believed
Which of the following materials is commonly used in the tabletop of
a radiographic examination table to make the tabletop as radiolucent
as possible so that it will absorb only a minimal amount of radiation,
thereby reducing the patient’s radiation dose?
carbon fiber material
Federal government specifications recommend a minimum total
filtration of _____-mm aluminum equivalent for stationary (fixed)
fluoroscopic x-ray units operating above 70 kVp.
Which of the following is not an x-ray beam limitation device?
When a fluoroscopic image is electronically amplified by an image
intensification system, which of the following benefits result?
1, 2, and 3
Which of the following types of filters should be used to provide
uniform density when radiographing a foot in the dorsoplantar
The actual long-term health effects of a “dirty bomb” are likely to
In ______, a neutron transforms itself into a combination of a proton
and an energetic electron.
Each fluorine-18 nuclear transformation by positron decay yields two
highly penetrating ____-keV photons.
Radioactive material that is attached to or associated with dust
particles or in liquid form on various surfaces defines the term
If enough explosives are used to spread radioactive material over a
broad area, then radioactivity is ______ higher than background
diluted and may not be much
Diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine typically make use of
______ radioisotopes as radioactive tracers.
Strontium-89 is a pure __________ emitter.
During a radiation emergency, the dose limit for individuals engaging
in lifesaving activities is _____ mSv (_____ rem) per event.
During a radiation emergency, at a dose rate of _____ Sv/hr (_____
rem/hr), emergency personnel should await specific instructions from
radiation experts on how to proceed.
While a patient receiving iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is hospitalized,
a large, ____-inch-thick rolling lead shield can be positioned between
the patient and any attending personnel for protection.
up to 1
The design of a ______ imaging suite involves significant radiation
positron emission tomography/computed tomography
Iodine-125 (I-125) in the form of titanium-encapsulated cylindrical
seeds has been used quite extensively within the past decade to give a
tumoricidal radiation equivalent dose to:
prostate cancers that are confined within the prostate gland
Strontium is a member of the same family of elements in the periodic
table as is:
Therapeutic radioisotopes are characterized by:
relatively long half-lives
Tellurium-125 (Te-125) has _____ protons and _____ neutrons.
What is the traditional unit of equivalent dose and effective dose
What is the quality factor for x-ray photons
What does the traditional radiation unit, the roentgen measure
Radiation exposure in the air only
Which of the following produces antibodies
Water constitutes approximately ______ of the weight of the human body?
Which action of ionizing radiation is MOST harmful to the human body
Which molecules in the human body are most commonly directly acted on by ionizing radiation to produce molecular damage through an indirect action
Which of the following illustrates the radiation sensitivity of a particular type of cell
Which of the following gonadel radiation doses may cause permanent sterility in a human male?
The absorbed dose is responsible for biological damage.
True or False