Chapter 23 Urinary System

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1

The motor fibers of the renal plexus are branches of the ___ nervous system

sympathetic

2

In the kidney, the process by which fluid and solutes from the tubular fluid are moved to the blood is called tubular

reabsorption

3

The kidneys play a major role in the regulation of ____ and ____

acid-base balance

electrolytes

4

List, in order, the structures through which a drop of urine will flow after it drains from a renal papilla

minor calyx

major calyx

renal pelvis

ureter

5

The ____ of the kidney is the inner layer, while the ____ is the layer surrounding it

medulla; cortex

6

The renal pelvis funnels urine into the tube called the

ureter

7

List the functions of the kidneys

regulations of electrolyte balance

site of calcitriol activation

filtering blood to remove the metabolic waste

8

The glomerulus is a bed of capillaries surrounded by a

glomerular capsule

9

The functional unit of the kidney is called the

nephron

10

List solutes that are reabsorbed from the nephron loop

sodium

potassium

chlorine

11

The renal medulla is comprised of

renal pyramids and renal columns

12

The process by which water and some solutes in the blood plasma pass from the glomerular capillaries into the capsular space is called the glomerular

filtration

13

List some variables that affect the glomerular filtration rate

permeability of filtration membrane

surface area available for filtration

14

List in order, from the blood side to the capsular space, the structures through which any filtered substance must pass

fenestrated endothelium of the capillary

basement membrane

filtration slits

15

Activation of the renin-angiotensin mechanism initiates changes that will result in an _____ in blood pressure

increase

16

Urine is conveyed out of the body by a tube called the

urethra

17

The ____ can be described as a muscular sac on the floor of the pelvic cavity, inferior to the peritoneum and posterior to the pubic symhpysis

bladder

18

Nephrons classified as ____ nephrons have long nephron loops that extend deep into the medulla

juxtamedullary

19

The _____ _____ carries blood from the glomerulus into the peituibular capillaries

efferent arteriole

20

Filtration pressure at a glomerulus is determined by the balance of ____ pressure and ____ pressure

hydrostatic

colloid osmotic

21

The process of separating wastes from bodily fluids and elimination them from the body is called

excretion

22

Name the plasma protein that is converted by renin to angiotensin I

angiotensinogen

23

Renal clearance is the net effect of

glomerular filtration of waste

amount added by tubular secretion

amount removed by tubular reabsorption

24

List the order of arteries carrying blood from the renal artery into the renal cortex

segmental arteries

interlobar arteries

arcuate arteries

cortical radiate arteries

25

A nephron consists of ______ and ______

renal corpuscle and renal tubule

26

Clearing aspirin, penicillin, and other drugs from the blood stream via the kidneys are examples of tubular

secretion

27

Describe the location of the kidneys

retroperitoneal at the level of T12 to L3

28

Small molecules can pass freely through the filtration membrane into the capsular space. Those molecules that have passed through the filtration membrane include

electrolytes, water, glucose

29

The fluid in the glomerular capsule is formed by filtration at the glomerulus. This fluid is called _____

filtrate

30

The tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism of GFR regulation relies on the monitoring of tubular fluid by a renal structure called the _____ _____

juxtaglomerular apparatus

31

The amount of water reabsorption can be altered, allowing the production of either a concentrated or dilute urine. This is the role of the ____ ____ of the renal tubules

collecting duct

32

The primary function of the nephron loop is to generate a medullary ECF osmotic gradient that allows the ____ of urine

concentration

33

Tubular secretion is important for waste removal. Some of the substance that are secreted include

bile acids, ammonia, urea

34

From deepest to most superficial, list the layers of connective tissue that surround the kidney

fibrous capsule

perirenal fat capsule

renal fascia

35

Name the length of tube that includes the proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct

renal tubule

36

The kidneys regulate blood volume and blood pressure by

regulating water output

37

A chemical that increases urine volume is called a _____

diuretic

38

List some hormones that regulate the amount of water and salts that is reabsorbed by the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct

aldosterone

antidiuretic hormone

atrial natriuretic peptide

39

List renal tubular segments that are influenced by aldosterone

ascending limb of nephron loop

collecting duct

distal convoluted tubule

40

Name the hormone that makes the collecting duct more permeable to water so water reenters the tissue fluid and blood rather than being lost in the urine

ADH

41

The blunt tips of the renal pyramids, from which urine is collected into the calyces, are called renal

papilla

42

Describe the benefit of renal autoregulation

GFR held steady regardless of changes in mean arterial pressure

43

List the components of a renal corpuscle

glomerular capsule

glomerulus

44

Describe collecting ducts

carry fluid from multiple nephrons to renal papillae

45

The kidneys produce _____, a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells

erythropoietin

46

Define transport maximum

the upper limit of amount of solute that can be reabsorbed

47

The detrusor muscle is thickend near the urethra to from an internal urethral sphincter which compresses the urethra and retains urine in the bladder. This sphincter is composed of _____ muscle

smooth

48

List some effects of activation of the renin-angiotensin system

increased water retention

increased BP

vasoconstriction

49

List two examples of nitrogenous wastes that are excreted by the kidneys

urea

creatinine

50

Plasma angiotensin II levels would be increased when mean arterial blood pressure is

decreased

51

The micturition center is located in the ____ of the brain stem

pons

52

The color of urine is due to the presence of a pigment called ____, produced during the breakdown of hemoglobin

urochrome

53

The longest and most coiled region of the renal tubule arises from the glomerular capsule and is called the

proximal convoluted tubule

54

List the three segments of the male urethra

prostatic urethra

membranous urethra

spongy urethra

55

When considering all of the pressures present within the renal corpuscle, the net filtration pressure causes the movement of fluid ____ the glomerular capillaries

out of

56

Water moves through specialized water channels called

aquaporins

57

The ___ segment of the nephron loop participates in active transport of salts

thick

58

Within the renal corpuscle, colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is an ____ pressure

inward

59

Name the effect of atrial natriuertic peptide

decreased sodium reabsorption

60

Name the symptoms of diabetes mellitus that are directly related to the high level of glucose in the renal tubules

polyuria

dehydration

glycosuria

61

Within the renal corpuscle, blood hydrostatic pressure is the pressure forcing fluid into the glomerular capsular

space

62

The ____ ____ consists of a descending limb and an ascending limb

nephron loop

63

The _____ nervous system causes vasconstriction of the afferent arterioles, reducing glomerular blood flow and GFR

sympathetic

64

Leaky junctions between epithelial cells in the proximal convoluted tubule that allow water to move are called

tight junctions

65

Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction of

efferent arterioles and those throughout the body

66

Angiotensin II stimulates the posterior pituitary to secrete ____ hormone

ADH

67

A urine output of less than 500 ml/day is called ___ and can be due to kidney disease, dehydration, shock, and other cauess

oliguria

68

The pH of urine is usually mildly

acidic

69

The muscularis of the bladder is composed of three layers of smooth muscle called the ____ muscle

detrusor

70

Describe a renal calyx

cuplike or funnellike structure that collects urine

71

The most abundant cation in the glomerular filtrate is

sodium

72

Fluid and solutes reabsorbed at the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) are picked up by what capillary bed?

peritubular capillaries

73

The region of the nephron that is adapted for reabsorption as seen in its length and prominent microvilli is the

proximal convoluted tubule

74

The capillaries forming a glomerulus have pores that allow filtration. Due to the presence of these pores, this type of capillary is classified as a ____ capillary

fenestrated

75

Contraction of aretiolar smooth muscle whn it is stretched allows adjustment of afferent arteriolar diameter with changes in blood pressure. This is the basis for the ____ mechanism of renal autoregulation

myogenic

76

Filling the bladder stimulates stretch receptors that, in turn, trigger a reflex that relaxes the internal urethra sphincter. This reflex is ____

parasympathetic

77

Glucose is cotransported with sodium by the sodium-glucose transporter and then removed from the basolaterial surface of thcell and into the blood by a process called

facilitated diffusion

78

The kidneys are about the size of a

bar of soap

79

The salts in the medullary ECF that contribute to its high osmolarity were transported into the ECF from the _____ limb of the nephron loops

ascending

80

As an enzyme, _____ functions to convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

renin

81

The hormone ____ causes increased reabsorption of sodium (and the water that follows) and secretion of potassium from the larger segments of the renal tubule

aldosterone

82

The collecting duct receives fluid from the

distal convoluted tube

83

Increased GFR results in ____ urine volume and ____ blood volume

increased; decreased

84

If glomerular filtration rate is too ___, fluid flows through the renal tubules too rapidly. Urine output will increase and electrolyte depletion may occur.

high

85

Describe the importance of the medullary ECF osmolarity gradient

allows production of very concentrated urine

86

Hyperglycemia in diabetes results in glucose in the urine, a condition called _____

glycosuria

87

Parathyroid hormone acts on the proximal convoluted tubule to inhibit ____ reabsorption and on the distal convoluted tubule to increase ____ reabsorption

phosphate; calcium