Chapter 22 Respiratory

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1

Where does the diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood occur?

respiratory division

2

The ____ division includes all of the passageways through which air flows from the nose to the terminal branches

conducting division

3

The trachea, primary bronchi, and the alveolar sacs all belong to the

lower respiratory tract

4

Identify the two terms that describe the anterior openings of the nasal cavity

nostrils. nares

5

The nasal _____ separates the nasal cavity into left and right halves

septum

6

Identify three ways in which air is modified as it passes through the meatus in between two conchae

it is humidified, cleansed, and warmed

7

The ___ of the nasal cavity contains the sensory receptors for smell

olfactory epithelium

8

The most superior portion of the pharynx, posterior to the nasal cavity, extending to the soft palate is the

nasopharynx

9

The separation between the path of air to the lungs and the passageway for food to the esophagus occurs within the

laryngopharynx

10

Besides keeping food out of the airway, the larynx is also responsible for generating

voice

11

The _____ is an elastic cartilage structure, which functions to seal off the glottis during swallowing as the tongue pushes it downward toward the larynx

epiglottis

12

The larynx is located

between the layngopharynx and the trachea

13

The base of the long is located on its

inferior

14

The apex represents the ____ portion of the lung

superior

15

The right lung has ___ lobes and ___ fissures

3; 2

16

The human left lung has ____ lobes with ____ fissures between the lobes

2; 1

17

How many primary bronchi serve the right lung?

one

18

Secondary bronchi channel the flow of air amongst the

lobes of the lung

19

___ bronchi supply air to a single bronchopulmonary segment of the lung

tertiary

20

Most of the surface area for gas exchange within the respiratory system is found within the _____ of the lungs

alveoli

21

Identify the components of a respiratory membrane

type 1 (squamos) alveolar cell

endothelial cell of capillary

shared basement membrane

22

The _____ is a double-walled serous membrane that encloses each lung

pleura

23

The ____ ____ is the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura

pleural cavity

24

____ fluid fills the pleural cavity around the lungs

pleural

25

Contraction of the diaphragm leads to

inspiration

26

Decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity will result in

expiration

27

Describe the respiratory cycle

one complete inspiration and expiration

28

A person expelling air while yelling is performing ____ beathing

forced

29

Inspiration occurs when the thoracic cage is enlarged due to

the diaphragm contracting

30

Identify the two locations that contain respiratory control centers

medulla oblongata

pons

31

Central chemoreceptors in the brain stem that are involved in respiratory control respond directly to changes in

pH

32

Chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are called ___ chemorepeptors

peripheral

33

True or false: the respiratory control centers of the brainstem are involved in voluntary respiration

false

34

The inferior portion of the pharynx which extends from the epiglottis to the esophagus is the

laryngopharynx

35

The right lung has how many secondary bronchi

3

36

Gas exchange between the air and the blood occurs in the

alveoli

37

What is the respiratory membrane?

membrane through which gases are exchanged in the alveolus

38

The double-walled serous membrane that encloses each lung is called the

pleura

39

When the diaphragm relaxes, air is forced from the lungs. This is known as

expiration

40

Identify the two principal muscles or muscle groups responsible for resting (non-forced) inspiration

diaphragm and intercostals

41

Identify the origin of voluntary stimuli for respiration

primary motor cortex

42

Place the following airways in order from the trachea to alveoli

primary bronchus

secondary bronchus

tertiary bronchus

terminal bronchiole

respiratory bronchiole

alveolar duct

43

Chronic ____ is characterized by a reduciton in the number of cilia lining the airway and increased mucus production

bronchitis

44

The ____ are responsible for generating sounds within the larynx

vocal cords and vocal folds

45

Identify the factors that contribute airflow to resistance

diameter of the bronchioles and lung compliance

46

Inhalation of cigarette smoke often leads to ____ which is characterized by a loss of alveolar surface area

emphysema

47

Alveolar gas exchange describes the exchange of gases across the

respiratory membrane of alveoli

48

Pulmonary ____ describes the EASE at which the lungs expand during breathing

compliance

49

_____ refers to a shift in the pH of blood above 7.45

alkalosis

50

Identify features associated with the epithelium of the trachea

goblet cells

mucous

cilia

pseudostratified columnar cells

51

The structure that conducts air from the larynx to the primary bronchi is called the

trachea

52

A bluish color of the skin and mucous membrnes due to ischemia or hypoxemia is called ____

cyanosis

53

The volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum exhalation is the ___ volume

residual

54

The enzyme found in erythrocytes that catalyze the formation of carbonic acid, which then dissociates into bicarbonate and hyrdogen ions, is

carbonic anhydrase

55

The exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) that occurs in the capillary networks between the blood and the body's cells is called

systemic gas exchange

56

Which of these is true of pleural fluid?

reduces friction during breathing

slippery film in the pleural cavity

57

____ is a general term for a drop in the pH of blood below 7.35

acidosis

58

____ refers to the amount of air inhaled and exhaled during one cycle of quiet breathing

tidal volume

59

Insufficient oxygen reaching a tissue is called ______

hypoxia

60

The majority of carbon dioxide is transported through the blood in the form of

bicarbonate

61

Identify the four predominant components of inspired air

nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen

62

In the hemoglobin molecule, oxygen binds to

the heme group

63

The conducting zones of the respiratory system are referred to as the ____ because they are incapable of respiration

anatomical dead space

64

The lumen of the trachea is lined with epithelial cells that have _____, structures that move the abundant mucus upward toward the pharynx

cilia

65

Identify three of the structures that enter the lung at the hilum

nerves, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels

66

Identify the role of the dorsal respiratory group

adjusts respiratory rate based on stimuli from peripheral chemoreceptors

67

Identify the forms in which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood

dissolved gas, bicarbonate ion, and carbaminohemoglobin

68

Identify the conditions that would make oxygen toxic to the body

100% oxygen at 3.0 ATM for 1 hour

69

The ____ respiratory group sets the basal respiratory rate which may then be adjusted by commands from the pontine and/or dorsal respiratory groups

ventral

70

The dense support-material that can be palpated at the tip of your nose is composed of

cartilage

71

The chloride shift occurs during carbon dioxide loading and is accomplished when

chloride ions are transported into the RBC

bicarbonate ions are transported out of the RBC

72

The auditory tube (eustachian tube) and pharyngeal tonsil are associated with which portion of the pharynx

nasopharynx

73

The ____ includes all of the regions of the airway incapable of gas exchange, including both conducting and respiratory zones

physiological dead space

74

The _____ pressure refers to the slight vacuum that exists in between the visceral and parietal pleural membranes

intrapleural

75

Identify the principle synergistic muscles of resting respiration

the internal and external intercostals

76

When hemoglobin transports carbon dioxide it is called

carbaminohemoglobin