CH.12

Helpfulness: +1
Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by Maggie_Tisdale
966 views
updated 5 years ago by Maggie_Tisdale
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Dividing of a cell into two new cells

Mitosis

2

The totality of a cells DNA

Genome

3

When DNA is divided into pieces

Chromosomes

4

Non-reproductive cells that have two sets of chromosomes = Diploid (2N)

Somatic Cells

5

Reproductive cells that have one set of chromosomes = Haploid (N)

Gametes

6

Each DNA strand in the duplicated DNA chromosome

Sister Chromatids

7

Where duplicated DNA molecules attach the sister chromatids

Centromere

8

What is DNA packaged into?

Chromosomes

9

Where spindles extend from in animal cells.

centrioles

10

A complex of proteins associated with the centromere

Kinetochore

11

What are the functions of Interphase?

  • Cell Growth
  • Copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division
12

What are the three sub-phases that happen during Interphase?

  • G1 (first gap)
  • S (synthesis)
  • G2 (second gap)
13

What happens in G1 of Interphase?

Growth of the cell

14

What happens in S of Interphase?

DNA is replicated

15

What happens in G2 of Interphase?

Preparing the cell for the Mitotic phase

16

What are the functions of the Mitotic Phase?

Cell division (splitting of chromosomes / cells)

17

What are the two sub-phases of the Mitotic (M) Phase?

  • Mitosis
  • Cytokinesis
18

Involves a single division, and results in two identical daughter cells that each contain the full, diploid genome.

Mitosis

19

What are the 5 phases of Mitosis?

  1. Prophase
  2. Prometaphase
  3. Metaphase
  4. Anaphase
  5. Telophase
20

In what stage of the cell cycle does centrosomes replicate (including centrioles in animals)

G2 of Interphase

21

The nuclear envelope remains intact in what stage of the cell cycle?

G2 of Interphase

22

In what stage of the cell cycle are chromosomes that were replicated in S-phase remain diffused (spread out)?

G2 of Interphase

23

Chromosomes/Chromatin Condense (start to change) in what phase of the cell cycle?

Prophase

24

The nucleoli disappears in this phase of the cell cycle.

Prophase

25

Centrosomes separate, moving to opposite poles during what phase in the cell cycle?

Prophase

26

Mitotic spindle begins to form in what phase of the cell cycle?

Prophase

27

The nuclear envelope breaks down in the phase

Prometaphase

28

Spindle microtubules invade the nuclear region in what phase of the cell cycle?

Prometaphase

29

Kinetochore microtubules attach to centromeres of chromosomes.

(each chromosome is attached to two microtubules, one from each side)

Prometaphase

30

Centrosomes arrive at opposite ends in what phase?

Metaphase

31

Chromosomes align on the metaphase plate in what phase?

Metaphase

32

Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell

Anaphase

33

The cell begins to lengthen via interactions between the non-kinetochore microtubules

Anaphase

34

Two daughter nuclei reform

Telophase

35

Chromosomes decondense (go back to diffused state)

Telophase

36

Cytokinesis, or the division of the cytoplasm occurs concurrently and finishes soon after this phase.

Telophase

37

Consists of fibers made of microtubules and centrosomes

Mitotic Spindle

38

Move chromosomes to the metaphase plate

Spindle Microtubules

39

Some _________ _______________ attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes.

Spindle Microtubules

40

What type of microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other to elongate the cell?

Nonkinetochore

41

The separation of chromosomes = _________

and

The division of the cytoplasm = ___________

Mitosis, Cytokinesis

42

Cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a cleavage furrow in what type of cell?

Animal Cell

43

A cell plate forms during cytokinesis in what type of cell?

Plant Cell

44

Has specific checkpoints where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received.

Cell Cycle Control System

45

Either commits to dividing or dies

G1 Checkpoint

46

Does a final check and looks for any problems

G2 Checkpoint

47

Checking to see if everything is in order

M Checkpoint

48

If G1 chooses not to divide where does the cell go?

G0

49

What cues trigger cell cycle regulation?

Internal and External

50

Kinetochores that are not attached to spindle microtubules

Internal Cue

51

DNA that has not completed replication

Internal Cue

52

Insufficient cell growth

Internal Cue

53

Growth factors, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide

External Cue

54

Density-dependent inhibition

External Cue

55

Chromosome replication begins. Soon thereafter, one copy of the origin moves rapidly toward the other end of the cell.

Binary Fissioning

56

Replication continues. One copy of the origin is now at each end of the cell.

Binary Fissioning

57

Replication finishes. The plasma membrane grows inward, and new cell wall is deposited.

Binary Fissioning

58

Two daughter cells result.

...

59

Prokaryotes reproduce by a type of cell division called?

Binary Fissioning

60

How do bacteria divide?

Binary Fissioning

61

What is Binary Fissioning?

A type of cell division

62

When do Mitotic Spindles begin to form?

In the cytoplasm during prophase

63

Short microtubules that extend from each centrosome.

Aster Microtubules

64

Microtubules that elongate by incorporating more subunits of the protein tubulin.

Spindle Microtubules