Dividing of a cell into two new cells
The totality of a cells DNA
When DNA is divided into pieces
Non-reproductive cells that have two sets of chromosomes = Diploid (2N)
Reproductive cells that have one set of chromosomes = Haploid (N)
Each DNA strand in the duplicated DNA chromosome
Where duplicated DNA molecules attach the sister chromatids
What is DNA packaged into?
Where spindles extend from in animal cells.
A complex of proteins associated with the centromere
What are the functions of Interphase?
- Cell Growth
- Copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division
What are the three sub-phases that happen during Interphase?
- G1 (first gap)
- S (synthesis)
- G2 (second gap)
What happens in G1 of Interphase?
Growth of the cell
What happens in S of Interphase?
DNA is replicated
What happens in G2 of Interphase?
Preparing the cell for the Mitotic phase
What are the functions of the Mitotic Phase?
Cell division (splitting of chromosomes / cells)
What are the two sub-phases of the Mitotic (M) Phase?
Involves a single division, and results in two identical daughter cells that each contain the full, diploid genome.
What are the 5 phases of Mitosis?
In what stage of the cell cycle does centrosomes replicate (including centrioles in animals)
G2 of Interphase
The nuclear envelope remains intact in what stage of the cell cycle?
G2 of Interphase
In what stage of the cell cycle are chromosomes that were replicated in S-phase remain diffused (spread out)?
G2 of Interphase
Chromosomes/Chromatin Condense (start to change) in what phase of the cell cycle?
The nucleoli disappears in this phase of the cell cycle.
Centrosomes separate, moving to opposite poles during what phase in the cell cycle?
Mitotic spindle begins to form in what phase of the cell cycle?
The nuclear envelope breaks down in the phase
Spindle microtubules invade the nuclear region in what phase of the cell cycle?
Kinetochore microtubules attach to centromeres of chromosomes.
(each chromosome is attached to two microtubules, one from each side)
Centrosomes arrive at opposite ends in what phase?
Chromosomes align on the metaphase plate in what phase?
Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
The cell begins to lengthen via interactions between the non-kinetochore microtubules
Two daughter nuclei reform
Chromosomes decondense (go back to diffused state)
Cytokinesis, or the division of the cytoplasm occurs concurrently and finishes soon after this phase.
Consists of fibers made of microtubules and centrosomes
Move chromosomes to the metaphase plate
Some _________ _______________ attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes.
What type of microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other to elongate the cell?
The separation of chromosomes = _________
The division of the cytoplasm = ___________
Cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a cleavage furrow in what type of cell?
A cell plate forms during cytokinesis in what type of cell?
Has specific checkpoints where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received.
Cell Cycle Control System
Either commits to dividing or dies
Does a final check and looks for any problems
Checking to see if everything is in order
If G1 chooses not to divide where does the cell go?
What cues trigger cell cycle regulation?
Internal and External
Kinetochores that are not attached to spindle microtubules
DNA that has not completed replication
Insufficient cell growth
Growth factors, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide
Chromosome replication begins. Soon thereafter, one copy of the origin moves rapidly toward the other end of the cell.
Replication continues. One copy of the origin is now at each end of the cell.
Replication finishes. The plasma membrane grows inward, and new cell wall is deposited.
Two daughter cells result.
Prokaryotes reproduce by a type of cell division called?
How do bacteria divide?
What is Binary Fissioning?
A type of cell division
When do Mitotic Spindles begin to form?
In the cytoplasm during prophase
Short microtubules that extend from each centrosome.
Microtubules that elongate by incorporating more subunits of the protein tubulin.