Step 1 of Glycolysis
ATP gets invested, creates glucose molecule with phosphate attached to it.
Step 2 of Glycolysis
Glucose molecule with phosphate attached turns into fructose with phosphate attached
Step 3 of Glycolysis
More ATP is added and the fructose molecule has a phosphate on both the 1 and 6 carbons. Making it a biphosphate.
Step 4 of Glycolysis
Molecule splits into two separate molecules and forms dihydroxyacetone with a phosphate attached a and glyceralydehyde with phosphate attached. Both are three carbons.
Step 5 of Glycolysis
A phosphate gets added which turns the G3P molecule into Biphosphoglycerate with phosphates on the 1 and 3 carbons.
Step 6 of Glycolysis
Phosphate leaves the Biphosphoglycerate and forms 2 ATP. Which turns it into a phosphoglycerate with a phosphate on the 3 carbon.
Step 7 of Glycolysis
Phosphate gets reorganized and turns phosphoglycerate with a phosphate on the 3 carbon into a phosphoglycerate with a phosphate on the 2 carbon.
Step 8 of Glycolysis
Two water molecules are extracted and phosphoenol pyruvate with a phosphate on the 2 carbon.
Step 9 of Glycolysis
Phosphate leaves to create 2 ATPs. What is left is 2 molecules of Pyruvate.
2 Carbons leave to create 2 molecules of Carbon Dioxide in which creates Acetic Acid. Coenz-A bonds to the Acetic Acid to make Acetyl-CoA which leads to Krebs.
Step 1 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
Acetyl-CoA adds its two-carbon acetyl group to Oxaloacetate, producing citrate or citric acid
Step 2 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
Citrate is converted into its isomer, isocitrate, by the removal of one water molecule and the addition of another.
Step 3 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
Isocitrate is oxidized, reducing NAD+ to NADH. Then the resulting compound loses a CO2 molecule.
Step 4 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
Another CO2 is lost and the resulting compound is oxidized, reducing NAD+ to NADH. The remaining molecule is then attached to coenzyme A by an unstable bond.
Step 5 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
CoA is displaced by a phosphate group, which is transferred to GDP, forming GTP, a molecule with functions similar to ATP. GTP can be used to generate ATP.
Step 6 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
Two hydrogens are transferred to FAD, forming FADH2 and oxidizing succinate.
Step 7 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
Addition of water molecule rearranges bonds in the substrate.
Step 8 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
The substrate is oxidized reducing NAD+ to NADH and regenerating oxaloacetate.
Step 1 of Electron Transport Chain
Light strikes the Photosystem II which excites an electron. This electron then excites a pigment until it reaches Pigment 680.
Step 2 of Electron Transport Chain
The electron is then transferred to a primary electron acceptor.
Step 3 of Electron Transport Chain
An enzyme splits water molecules into two H+ molecules and an oxygen atom. Oxygen immediately pairs with another Oxygen.
Step 4 of Electron Transport Chain
Photoexcited electrons get passed to PSI by means of an electron transport chain.
Step 5 of Electron Transport Chain
As the electron decrease in energy levels they synthesis ATP.
Step 6 of Electron Transport Chain
P700 can receive electrons that reach the bottom of the electron transport chain.
Step 7 of Electron Transport Chain
Electrons are then passed onto a protein that takes them down the second electron transport chain
Step 8 of Electron Transport Chain
NADP+ takes these electrons and creates NADPH
Step 1 of Calvin Cycle
Incorporates CO2 one at a time which attached to a five carbon sugar name ribulose bisphosphate.
Step 2 of Calvin Cycle
Rubisco an enzyme catalyzes this molecule and it is short lived so it splits into 2 molecules of phosphoglycerate which have a phosphate on the 3 carbon.
Step 3 of Calvin Cycle
The 2 molecules of phosphoglycerate which have a phosphate on the 3 carbon each receive a phosphate becoming bisphosphoglycerate which have phosphates on the 1 and 3 carbons.
Step 4 of Calvin Cycle
A pair of electrons get donated and loses a phosphate group which reduces this molecule making it into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
Step 5 of Calvin Cycle
One molecule of G3P leaves this reaction but the other one stays to be reused.
Step 6 of Calvin Cycle
The carbon skeletons of the G3P are rearranged by donating 3 molecules of ATP. In which turns it into Rubisco. Specifically the form that is ready to receive CO2 again.
Break up into pieces
No energy input, moves from high to low concentrations
Movement of small, non-polar molecules. Go directly through the membrane. Ex. CO2 , O2 , N2
Proteins in the membrane make it easy for substances to pass, small polar molecules
Always open. Ex. K , Na, Cl
Binds specifically. Ex. Glucose, Amino Acid
Movement of water down its concentration gradient, water moves to a high solute concentration
Animal Cells: Nothing happens
Plant Cells: Slightly shrunk, flaccid, soft
Animal Cells: Crenate, Shrinks
Plant Cells: Plasmolysis, Shrink significantly
Animal Cells: Lysis, Lyse, Burst
Plant Cells: Turgid, Maximum Turgor pressure
Reduction: Loses a charge
Oxidation: Gains a charge
Gap 1 Phase
Routine metabolic functions, Organelles reproduce
DNA Replication, Histones replicate
Gap 2 Phase
Cell prepares for Mitosis, Routine Functions
Mitosis: Nuclear Division
Cytokinesis: Cytoplasm division