Campbell Biology 10th Edition: Biology Exam 2 Flashcards


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created 8 years ago by bandrulez172
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Campbell Biology 10th Edition
Chapters 6, 7, 9, 10, 12
Flashcards for exam
updated 8 years ago by bandrulez172
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biology, science, life sciences
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1

Step 1 of Glycolysis

ATP gets invested, creates glucose molecule with phosphate attached to it.

2

Step 2 of Glycolysis

Glucose molecule with phosphate attached turns into fructose with phosphate attached

3

Step 3 of Glycolysis

More ATP is added and the fructose molecule has a phosphate on both the 1 and 6 carbons. Making it a biphosphate.

4

Step 4 of Glycolysis

Molecule splits into two separate molecules and forms dihydroxyacetone with a phosphate attached a and glyceralydehyde with phosphate attached. Both are three carbons.

5

Step 5 of Glycolysis

A phosphate gets added which turns the G3P molecule into Biphosphoglycerate with phosphates on the 1 and 3 carbons.

6

Step 6 of Glycolysis

Phosphate leaves the Biphosphoglycerate and forms 2 ATP. Which turns it into a phosphoglycerate with a phosphate on the 3 carbon.

7

Step 7 of Glycolysis

Phosphate gets reorganized and turns phosphoglycerate with a phosphate on the 3 carbon into a phosphoglycerate with a phosphate on the 2 carbon.

8

Step 8 of Glycolysis

Two water molecules are extracted and phosphoenol pyruvate with a phosphate on the 2 carbon.

9

Step 9 of Glycolysis

Phosphate leaves to create 2 ATPs. What is left is 2 molecules of Pyruvate.

10

Pre-Krebs

2 Carbons leave to create 2 molecules of Carbon Dioxide in which creates Acetic Acid. Coenz-A bonds to the Acetic Acid to make Acetyl-CoA which leads to Krebs.

11

Step 1 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

Acetyl-CoA adds its two-carbon acetyl group to Oxaloacetate, producing citrate or citric acid

12

Step 2 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

Citrate is converted into its isomer, isocitrate, by the removal of one water molecule and the addition of another.

13

Step 3 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

Isocitrate is oxidized, reducing NAD+ to NADH. Then the resulting compound loses a CO2 molecule.

14

Step 4 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

Another CO2 is lost and the resulting compound is oxidized, reducing NAD+ to NADH. The remaining molecule is then attached to coenzyme A by an unstable bond.

15

Step 5 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

CoA is displaced by a phosphate group, which is transferred to GDP, forming GTP, a molecule with functions similar to ATP. GTP can be used to generate ATP.

16

Step 6 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

Two hydrogens are transferred to FAD, forming FADH2 and oxidizing succinate.

17

Step 7 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

Addition of water molecule rearranges bonds in the substrate.

18

Step 8 of Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)

The substrate is oxidized reducing NAD+ to NADH and regenerating oxaloacetate.

19

Step 1 of Electron Transport Chain

Light strikes the Photosystem II which excites an electron. This electron then excites a pigment until it reaches Pigment 680.

20

Step 2 of Electron Transport Chain

The electron is then transferred to a primary electron acceptor.

21

Step 3 of Electron Transport Chain

An enzyme splits water molecules into two H+ molecules and an oxygen atom. Oxygen immediately pairs with another Oxygen.

22

Step 4 of Electron Transport Chain

Photoexcited electrons get passed to PSI by means of an electron transport chain.

23

Step 5 of Electron Transport Chain

As the electron decrease in energy levels they synthesis ATP.

24

Step 6 of Electron Transport Chain

P700 can receive electrons that reach the bottom of the electron transport chain.

25

Step 7 of Electron Transport Chain

Electrons are then passed onto a protein that takes them down the second electron transport chain

26

Step 8 of Electron Transport Chain

NADP+ takes these electrons and creates NADPH

27

Step 1 of Calvin Cycle

Incorporates CO2 one at a time which attached to a five carbon sugar name ribulose bisphosphate.

28

Step 2 of Calvin Cycle

Rubisco an enzyme catalyzes this molecule and it is short lived so it splits into 2 molecules of phosphoglycerate which have a phosphate on the 3 carbon.

29

Step 3 of Calvin Cycle

The 2 molecules of phosphoglycerate which have a phosphate on the 3 carbon each receive a phosphate becoming bisphosphoglycerate which have phosphates on the 1 and 3 carbons.

30

Step 4 of Calvin Cycle

A pair of electrons get donated and loses a phosphate group which reduces this molecule making it into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.

31

Step 5 of Calvin Cycle

One molecule of G3P leaves this reaction but the other one stays to be reused.

32

Step 6 of Calvin Cycle

The carbon skeletons of the G3P are rearranged by donating 3 molecules of ATP. In which turns it into Rubisco. Specifically the form that is ready to receive CO2 again.

33

Homogenization

Break up into pieces

34

Centrifigation

separate parts

35

Passive Transport

No energy input, moves from high to low concentrations

36

Simple Diffusion

Movement of small, non-polar molecules. Go directly through the membrane. Ex. CO2 , O2 , N2

37

Facilitated Diffusion

Proteins in the membrane make it easy for substances to pass, small polar molecules

38

Channel Protein

Always open. Ex. K , Na, Cl

39

Carrier Protein

Binds specifically. Ex. Glucose, Amino Acid

40

Osmosis

Movement of water down its concentration gradient, water moves to a high solute concentration

41

Isotonic Solution

Animal Cells: Nothing happens

Plant Cells: Slightly shrunk, flaccid, soft

42

Hypertonic Solution

Animal Cells: Crenate, Shrinks

Plant Cells: Plasmolysis, Shrink significantly

43

Hypotonic Solution

Animal Cells: Lysis, Lyse, Burst

Plant Cells: Turgid, Maximum Turgor pressure

44

Redox Reactions

Reduction: Loses a charge

Oxidation: Gains a charge

45

Somatic Cells

Diploid

46

Gametes

Haploid

47

Gap 1 Phase

Routine metabolic functions, Organelles reproduce

48

Synthesis Phase

DNA Replication, Histones replicate

49

Gap 2 Phase

Cell prepares for Mitosis, Routine Functions

50

Mitotic Phase

Mitosis: Nuclear Division

Cytokinesis: Cytoplasm division