Botany TEST 3

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1

What requires a transcription factor present at the promoter region of a gene

RNA Plymerase

2

Phylotaxy

pattern of leaf as they attach to the stem

3

Alternate (how many leaves per node)

1

4

Opposite (how many leaves per node)

2

5

Types of Margins

entire/smooth

crenate/serrate

palmate lobed

pinnate lobed

6

Stipules

leaf or scale like appendages

7

Sessile

leaves lacking petioles

8

Sessiles are present where?

In most Monocots and some Eudicots

9

Sheath

leaf base encircles the stem

10

Simple leaves

Blades not divided

11

compound leaves

divided into leaflets

12

Rachis

extension of petiole (leaflets attach to this compound)

13
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type of leaf?

Monocot

14
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Type of leaf

Eudicot

15
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Type of leaf

Eudicot

16
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Type of leaf

Monocot

17

Types of Margins

entire

toothed/serrate

palmate lobed

pinnate lobed

18

Types of Venation

Parallel

Pinnate->Netted->Reticulated

Palmate->Netted->Reticulated

19

What does grass secrete and why?

silicone and to decrease animal consumption

20
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Phyllotaxy?

alternate

21
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Phyllotaxy?

opposite

22
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Phyllotaxy

Whorled

23
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type of margin

Crenate

24
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type of margin

Serrate

25
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type of margin

Smooth

26
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type of margin

palmate

27
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type of margin

Pinnate

28

Types of Margins

entire

toothed->serrate or crenate

palmate lobed

pinnate lobed

29

Where are resin canals distributed in?

Mesophyll

30
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Type of Venation

palmate

31
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complexity

simple

32
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complexity

compound Bi-pinnate

33
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Complexity

Compound Pinnate

34
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Complexity

Compound Palmate

35
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Petiolate?

Petiolate

36
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Petiolate

Sesille

37

On the basis of water requirements, plants are often characterized as? (3 Characteristics)

Mesophytes

Hydrophytes

Xerophytes

38

Mesophytes

Plants that require an environment that is neither too wet or dry

39

Hydrophytes

Plants that require a large supply of water or grow wholly or partly submerged in water.

40

Xerophytes

Plants that are adapted to arid (dry) habitats

41

Stomata Function

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Allows for the exchange of gasses. In leaves

42

Epidermal cells do not contain what?

Chloroplast

43

Bundle Sheaths consist of what?

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large cells surrounding vascular bundle, containing chloroplast.

44

Kranz anatomy

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Vein surrounded by bundle sheath, then surrounded by mesophyll

45

What is Bulliform cell?

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An enlarged epidermal cell

46

Which mesophyll cells are absent in monocots?

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Palisade

47

Palisade mesophylls are primarily present where?

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in Eudicots alone

48

Collenchyma

Unevenly Thickened. Elastic

49

leaves of hydrophytes that float on the surface of the water, will have stomata where?

on the upper epidermis only

50

the submerged leaves of hydrophytes will have stomata where

Will usually lack stomata entirely

51

Leaves of Xerophytes generally contain what quantity of stomata

Contain greater numbers of stomata than those of other plants

52

What is the Mesophyll?

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the ground tissue of the leaf

53

What does the Mesophyll contain?

Numerous chloroplasts specialized for photosynthesis

54
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What "phyte" anatomy is this

Xerophyte

55
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What "phyte" anatomy is this

Hydrophyte

56
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What "phyte" anatomy is this

Mesophyte

57

Which has more Palisade mesophyll cells? Sun or Shade leaf?

Sun leaf

58
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What does this represent?

Kraz Anatomy-

Vascular Bundle, Bundle sheath, and Mesophyll

59

Gene AE

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Sepal

60

Gene ABE

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Petals

61

Gene CBE

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Stamens

62

Gene CDE

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Carpels

63

Gene CDE

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Ovaries

64

Which is smaller? sun or shade leaf?

Sun leaf

65

Which has more Palisade mesophyll cells?

Sun leaf

66
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Sun or Shade leaf?

Shade leaf

67
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Sun or shade leaf?

Sun leaf

68

Which is thicker? sun or shade leaf?

Sun leaf

69

Example of a sheath plant

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Horsetail

70

The non-living wax layer secreted from epidermal cell

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Cuticle

71

Is the cuticle a tissue?

No

72

In regards to water affinity, the cuticle is described as what?

Hydrophobic

73

If plants lose water, what type of environment should they be kept in?

Humid

74

The Vascular bundles in leaves are also known as what?

Veins

75

The Ground tissue of the leaf is?

Mesophyll

76

Describe the arrangement of the Palisade mesophylls

They are tightly arranged. on the upper surface

77

Describe the arrangement of the spongy mesophylls

They are loosely arranged

78

Type of transport the gasses exchanged in the stoma partake in?

diffusion

79

location and role of collenchyma in leaves

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located below the epidermis. assists in photosynthesis as well as supports and strengthens.

80

Which mesophyll absorbs light more efficiently?

Palisade

81

Monocots or Eudicots, which possess bulliform cells?

Monocots

82

What type of photosynthesis does the Kranz anatomy go through

C4

83

Mesophyll refers to

photosynthetic cells in leaves

84

Mesophytes to

plants that function in normal (Dry Vs Wet) environments

85

What act as reinforcements in hydrophytes?

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Sclereids

86

The function of Airspaces in hydrophytes

allow access to oxygen

87

In regards to water, Rice is a

Hydrophyte

88

In Xerophytes, Trichomes break wind to do what?

create a humid environment

89

The non-living wax layer secreted from epidermal cell of leaf

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Cuticle

90

CAM Photosynthesis is what?

Crystallization Acid Metabolism

91

Which Xylem is described as the Non-functional xylem?

the Inner xylem

92

A change in functionality in response to stimuli is known as what?

acclimation

93

a genetic change that results in modified functionality is known as what?

Adaptation

94

what is it called when enzymes break down the cells wall

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leaf abscission

95

In leaf abscission, the separation layer is located where?

petiole side

96

What is the advantage of a sunleaf having a smaller surface area?

it results in the decrease of water loss. it also decrease the leaf's exposure to sun and wind.

97

The detachment of leaf is referred to as what?

leaf Abscission

98

The process of leaf deterioration

senescence

99

A protein that signals for the transcription of protein

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transcription factor

100

Leaf Modification that aids in support. (grabs)

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Tendril

101

Describe the functionality of a "flower pot"

Creates hallow chamber, ants colonize the home. Ant's feces fertilize the plant.

102

Describe the phyllotaxy of a flower pot.

Rosette

103

What type of "phyte" is the flower pot

an epiphyte

104

What is an epiphyte?

a plant that grows on top of another

105

How do window plants grow?

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underground, only "windows" exposed. the stem and roots are located underground

106

High Cytokinin/Low Auxin

Stimulates Stems

107
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Describe the functionality of Leaf Reproduction

Tiny plants form at the edges of their leaves. These plants become new individuals when they are shed from parent leaves.

108

Describe the functionality of a Bract

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Mimics a flower. This protects the development of the flower.

109

What is the function of the blade in the Venus fly trap?

The trap is a part of the blade

110

What are the triggers in the Venus fly trap?

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Trichomes (Hairs)

111

What type of trap does the pitcher plant posses

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A passive trap (no mechanism needed)

112

Describe the functionality of the pitcher plants

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Insects slip inside the long throat, and the trichomes make it difficult for them to climb out.The liquid inside the flower digests the insects via enzymes.

113

Describe the functionality of the sun dew

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The sticky hairs on the sundew traps the insects when the land.

114

Describe the functionality of the Bladderwort

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The bladders posses vacuums that suck insect in.

115

What ground tissue are tendril made of?

Collenchyma

116

Describe a plant with an "annual" lifecycle

Completes lifecycle in one growing year

117

Describe a plant with a "Biennial" lifecycle

it takes two years to complete it's lifecycle

118

Describe a plant with a Perennial lifecycle

It Never dies. It grows back each year and has another reproductive cycle.

119

What is the main tissue in tree cookies?

Vascular tissue

120

What vascular tissue type is wood?

Secondary xylem

121

What vascular tissue type is bark?

Secondary phloem

122

What are the lateral Meristems?

Cork cambium

Vascular cambium

123

Explain the continuity of the rays of a tree cookie

They transcend the xylem and phloem

124

What is the function of the Lenticel?

allows for gas exchange

125

What does the Periderm consist of?

card image

Cork=phellem

Cork Cambium

Perenchyma=phelloderm

126

What tree species is hardwood?

Angiosperm

127

What tree species is softwood?

Gymnosperm

128

In what season does latewood develop?

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Summer

129

In what season does earlywood develop?

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Spring

130

Which leaf modification undergoes apoptosis such that a hollow cavity forms a chamber?

Flower pot

131

Leaves that undergo reproduction stay..

Meristematic

132

Thigmonastic means?

No growth response

133

Venus flytraps are associated with growing in that type of environment

Environments with nitrogen limitations

134

Which leaf modification is initially made of collenchyma for flexibility and then sclerenchyma for hardening

Tendrils

135

Which year does plant undergo vegetative state in Biennial lifecycle?

Year one

136

Which year does plant undergo reproductive stage in Biennial lifecycle?

Year two

137

Girth and thickening that derives from the lateral meristem is?...

Secondary growth

138

Ray initials divide to produce what?

card image

Rays

139

Fusiform initials divide to produce what?

card image

Secondary Xylem and Secondary Phloem

140

Which Bark contains periderm?

outer bark

141

Which bark contains secondary Phloem?

Inner bark

142

Absence of cells where the cells have broken down are known as?

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Resin Canals

143

Where are resin canals distributed in?

Latewood

144

What dictate water flow in Tracheids?

Pits

145

What is the direction of water flow in Tracheids?

Base to Apex

146

What do rings represent?

years of growth

147

Pores formed at the beginning of the growing season are much larger than those farther out in the ring

Ring Porous

148

Pores exhibit little or no variation in size within a growth ring

Diffuse Porous

149

Wood that reacts to new stresses is known as what?

Reaction wood

150

How is Age determined on woody stems?

Number of Bud scale scars

151

Non-Functional xylem refers to which type of wood?

Heart wood

152

Functional xylem refers to which type of wood?

Sapwood

153

Dendrachronology

The study of climate changes and past events by comparing the successive annual growth rings of trees or old timber

154

Two cambiums associated with secondary growth

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Cork and vascular Cambium

155

in the tree cookie, what is the bark composed of?

Secondary Phloem

156

What is wood composed of?

Secondary xylem

157

What in the outer bark makes it protective

wax and Suberin

158

What makes the inner Bark Functional?

The Phloem

159

Which Xylem is described as the functional xylem?

The Outer Xylem

160

Which Xylem is described as the Non-functional xylem?

the Inner bark

161

The cut Perpendicular to the long axis

transverse Cut

162

longitudinal cut that follows the radius

Radial cut

163

longitudinal cut perpendicular to the radius

tangential cut

164

Horizontal transport structure found within the secondary body

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ray

165

How many true hormones are in plants?

6

166

Plant based hormones are called what?

Phytohormones

167

List the six true hormones of a plant

Auxin

Cytokinin

Ethylene

Gibberelic acid (GA)

Abscisic Acid (ABA)

Brassionosteroid

168

Phytohormone with the most physiological roles

Auxin

169

Which two hormones are absolutely required in order for a plant to function

Auxin and cytokinin

170

The only gas based phytohormone

Ethylene

171

Plant based steroid hormone

Brassinosteroid

172

First step in signal transduction

Reception

173

Second step in signal transduction

transfer of chemical information

174

The transfer of chemical information is referred to as what?

relay system

175

Third step in signal transduction

response

176

substances that bind to receptors

Ligands

177

molecule that binds to ligand and receives information

a receptor

178

What is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate to a molecule

A Kinase

179

The process that occurs when a ligand binds to a receptor

Activation

180

What occurs when an enzyme takes away a phosphate from a molecule

Phosphotase

181

What signal transduction pathway occurs after phosphotase

No response

182

Name the three regions of a gene

promoter

open reading frame

terminator

183

What region of a gene does a transcriptional factor bind to?

the promoter region

184

What requires a transcription factor present at the promoter region of a gene in order to be allowed to bind to the same region

RNA Plymerase

185

Region of gene that encodes the transcript/protein

open reading frame

186

Name the five influential factors of hormones

concentration

sensitivity

type of tissue

time of development

other hormones

187

one of the most powerful mutation

Knockout mutants

188

which two phytohormones need to be present for cell division and organismal growth

Auxin and cytokinin

189

Phytohormone with polar transport

Auxin

190

Transport of Auxin is known as what?

Polar auxin transport

191

Aux 1's role

transport protein that allows influx during polar auxin transport

192

Pin 1's role

transport protein that allows efflux during polar auxin transport

193

Transportation in direction of apex to base

Bisipetal

194

Transportation in direction of base to apex

Acropetal

195

Plant that is an example of auxin inhibition

Zea Mays

196

Phytohormone that can stimulate root development,

I.E,

adventitious roots from the stem

secondary roots from tap roots

Auxin

197

Cytokinin found in large amounts of coconut milk

Kinetin

198

Phytohormone important in cell division

cytokinin

199

What does cytokinin regulate?

Organogenesis

200

What Phytohormone delays senesence?

Cytokinin

201

Which process is stimulated by ethylene

Fruit ripening

202

Fruits that respond with ethylene such that

-there is a spike in ethylene production prior to maturation.

Climacteric

203

fruits in which their ripening is non-induced with ethylene?

nonclimacteric

204

Hormone-like compound that undergoes hypersensitive responses with pathogens

Salicylic Acid

205

Hormone-like compound inducible to participate in wound responses.

Jasmonic Acid

206

Hormone like compound with critical role in cell division

Polyamines

207

Hormone like compound undergoing pathogen response by employing reactive oxygen species

Nitric oxide

208

hormon- like compound best described as being an inducible, wound responding, polypeptide signaling molecule

systemin

209

development of fruit in the absence of seeds

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Parthenocarpy

210

Phytohormone stimulating fruit development in parthenocarpy

Auxin

211

If apically dominant plant has two "branches"...this signifies...

Auxin inhibition

212

What stimulates ethylene production?

wind

213

What compounds constitutes Gibberellic acid?

GA3, GA4, GA13

214

Which two gibberellic acid compounds are most active?

GA3 and GA4

215

What feature can GA trigger?

stem elongation

216

Plant with rossette habits posses limitations with what phytohormone?

Geberrellin

217

Which plants posses the advantage of reducing leaf material such that allocated energy goes to the seed

Dwarf plants

218

GA is known to do what to seed germination?

Stimulate

219

ABA is known to do what to seed germination?

Inhibit

220

Seeds from summer are more likely to be..

Nondormant

221

seeds from fall are more likely to be

dormant

222

Hydrolytic Enzyme are described as?

Enzymes that cut

223

Stress phytohormone

Abcisic Acid

224

phytohormone that inhibits germination

ABA

225

Most effective way to hold on to water in plants

Stomatal closure

226

phytohormone triggering stomatal closure

ABA

227

high amount of solutes attracting water in a plant gains..

Turgor

228

Tropic Resonse

Response to a stimulus that result in

-differential growth.

-directional growth.

229

Nastic Respnse

-No differential growth

-No growth at all

-Water related

-Not directional

230

growing towards the stimulus (eg: light or gravity)

positive

231

growing away from the stimulus

Negative

232

What are the types of tropism?

Phototropism-light

Gravitropism-Gravity

Thigmotropism -touch

233

Phototropism

Light response

234

Gravitropism

Gravity response

235

Thigmotropism

Touch response

236

Auxin stimulates what?

Tropic responses

237

is there destruction of Auxin by the presence of light?

No

238

How does Auxin work?

Auxin moves to the shaded side of the plant to stimulate growth toward light

239
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What tropic response does this represent?

Gravitropism

240
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What tropic response does this represent?

Phototropism

241

What part of the plant detects gravity?

rootcap

242

Columella

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cluster of cells within root cap

243

Columella made of?

Statocytes

244

Statocytes made of?

Statolith (Plastid)

245

Statolith (Plastid)

Growth in direction they have moved

246

Heliotropism

Moves with the sun

247

Allurone

Giberralin stimulates hydrolitic enzymes here.

248

High Auxin/Low Cytokinin

Stimulates Roots

249

High Cytokinin/Low Cytokinin

Stimulates Stems

250

What happens to a plant with an absence of Brassinosteriod?

it thinks it is always in the light