Systems Biology is mainly an attempt to:
Understand the behavior of entire biological systems
The illustration above most probably represents:
a map of a network of protein interactions within a eukaryotic cell
Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. For example, Plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight into
The potential energy of chemical bonds
The application of scientific knowledge for some specific purpose is known as
Which of the following categories of organisms is least likely to be revised?
Which of the following best describes a model organism?
It is well studied, easy to grow, and results are widely applicable.
When a hypothesis cannot be written in an "if...then" format, what does this mean?
It does not represent deductive reasoning
Through time, the lineage that led to modern whales shows a change from four- limbed land animals to aquatic animals with two limbs that function as flippers. this change is best explained by:
Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning?
Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and are all photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic.
In a high school laboratory. which of the following constitutes an experiment?
We can represent atoms by listing the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for example, 2p+; 2n0; 2e- for helium. Which of the following represents the 18O isotope of oxygen?
8p+, 10n0, 8e-
If a salamander relied on hydrogen bonds to cling to surfaces, what type of surface would cause the most problems for this animal?
The surface of hydrocarbons
What coefficients must be placed in the following blanks so that all atoms are accounted for in the products?
which of these systems is least likely to be at chemical equilibrium?
a test tube of living cells
How many electron pairs are shared between carbon atoms in a molecule that has the formula C2H4?
About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
Which of the following molecules contains the most polar covalent bond?
In comparing covalent bonds and ionic bonds, which of the following would you expect?
Covalent bonds and ionic bonds occupy opposite ends of a continuous spectrum, from nearly equal to completely unequal sharing of electrons
What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?
Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms, ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between atoms.
Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities. Which of the following is a trace element that is required by humans and other vertebrates, but not by other organisms such as bacteria or plants?
what does this picture and the mother of pearl (the plant of front of your textbook) have in common?
adaptions to conserve water
A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a
Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because
protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack.
A water sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single-celled organism that had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is its most likely classification?
Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
The fish swam in a zigzag motion
Why is a scientific topic best discussed by people of varying points of view, a variety of subdisciplines, and diverse cultures?
Robust and critical discussion between diverse groups improves scientific thinking
In a hypothetical world, every 50 years people over 6 feet tall are eliminated from the population before they reproduce. Based on your knowledge of natural selection, you would predict that the average height of the human population will
Charles Darwin proposed a mechanism for descent with modification that stated that organisms of a particular species are adapted to their environment when they possess
inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment
Based on electron configuration, which of these elements in the figure above would exhibit a chemical behavior most like that of oxygen?
A covalent chemical bond is one in which
outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron shells of both atoms.
Atoms whose outer electron shells contain 8 electrons tend to
be both chemically inert and gaseous at room temperature.
Electrons exist only at fixed levels of potential energy. However, if an atom absorbs sufficient energy, a possible result is that
an electron may move to an electron shell farther away from the nucleus
Which drawing in the figure above depicts the electron configuration of an element with chemical properties most similar to Helium (2He)?
The atomic number of sulfur is 16. Sulfur combines with hydrogen by covalent bonding to form a compound, hydrogen sulfide. Based on the number of valence electrons in a sulfur atom, predict the molecular formula of the compound:
What is the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that can be covalently bonded in a molecule containing two carbon atoms?
In the methane molecule shown in the figure above, bonds have formed that include both the s orbital valence electrons of the hydrogen atoms and the p orbital valence electrons of the carbon. The electron orbitals in these bonds are said to be
The organic molecules in living organisms have a measurably lower ratio of carbon-13/carbon-12, two stable isotopes of carbon that comprise approximately 1.1% and 98.9% of atmospheric carbon, respectively. What is a reasonable explanation for this phenomenon?
Photosynthesis preferentially uses carbon dioxide molecules with carbon-12, and the lower carbon-13/carbon-12 ratio propagates through the food chain
An atom has 6 electrons in its outer shell. How many unpaired electrons does it have?
Knowing just the atomic mass of an element allows inferences about which of the following?
The number of protons plus neutrons in an element
Oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and a mass number of 16. Thus, what is the atomic mass of an oxygen atom?
approximately 16 Daltons
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common?
A controlled experiment is one in which
there are at least two groups, one of which does not receive the experimental treatment.
Use the following information to answer the questions below.
Golden algae are a group of protists whose color is due to carotenoid pigments: yellow and brown. Most have two flagella and all are photosynthetic. A group of students was given a significant sample of one of these (Dinobryon) that is colonial. Their instructions for the project were to design two or more experiments that could be done with these organisms.
The students decide that for one of their experiments, they want to see whether the organisms can photosynthesize. Which of the following is the best hypothesis?
The organisms are photosynthesis
Given the cooperativity of science, which of the following is most likely to result in an investigator being intellectually looked down upon by other scientists?
Being found to have falsified or created data to better fit a hypothesis.
The following is a list of biology themes discussed in Chapter 1. Use them to answer the following questions.
I and II
What are archaea?
prokaryotes characterized as extremophiles that share some bacterial and some eukaryotic traits
Once labor begins in childbirth, contractions increase in intensity and frequency until delivery. The increasing labor contractions of childbirth are an example of which type of regulation?
The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. What is the formula for magnesium chloride?
A covalent bond is likely to be polar when
one of the atoms sharing electrons is much more electronegative than the other atom
Which statement is true of all atoms that are anions?
The atom has more electrons than protons
Which of the following best describes the relationship between the atoms described below?
They are isotopes
All the organisms on your campus make up
The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is:
4) Which of the following types of cells utilize DNA as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope:
To understand the chemical basis of inheritance, we must understand the molecular stand of DNA. This is an example of the application of which concept to the study of biology?
When the body’s blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secrets glucagon and the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of:
Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?
Bacteria and Archaea
Global warning, as demonstrated by observation such as melting of glaciers, increasing CO2 levels, and increasing average ambient temperatures, has already had many effects on living organisms. Which of the following might best offer a solution to this problem?
Limit the burning of fossil fuels and regulate the loss of our forested areas
A filamentous organism has been isolated from decomposing organic matter. The organism has a cell but no chloroplast. How would you classify this organism?
Domain Eukarya, kingdom fungi
Which of these provides evidence of the common ancestry of all life?
Near universality of genetic code
Which of the following is true about natural selection:
It requires genetic variation, results in decent with modification, and involves differential reproductive success
Which of these individuals is likely to be most successful in an evolutionary sense?
An organism that dies after five days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce
What is the major difference between a kingdom and a domain?
All eukarya belong to one domain
One difference between carbon -12 (12/6 C) is that carbon -14 (14/6 C) has
two or more neutrons
A group of molecular biologists is trying to synthesize a new artificial compound to mimic the effects of a known hormone that influences sexual ___ for advice. Which of the following compounds is most likely to mimic the effects of a hormone?
A compound with the same three- dimensional shape as part of the hormone
Carbon- 12 is the most common isotope of carbon, and has an atomic mass of 12 Daltons a mole of carbon in natural occurring carbon however weighs slightly more than 12 grams. Why?
Some carbon atoms in nature have a different valence electron distribution