Which of the following structures are considered to be part of the cardiac conduction system?
purkinjie fibers, AV node, SA node
The _____ are the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lungs and to the body.
List in order the three layers of the heart wall from deep to superficial
The ____ side of the heart supplies blood to the systemic circuit
Which of the following are components of the cardiovascular system?
heart, capillaries, veins, arteries
The _____ circuit of the cardiovascular system carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the left atrium of the heart.
The blunt inferior point or tip of the heart is known as the ____
The broad flat superior top portion of the heart is known as the ____
Place the following chambers in the correct order to best represent the flow of blood
List the correct order the major phases of the cardiac cycle following ventricular filling
1) isovolumetric contraction
2) ventricular ejection
3) isovolumetric relaxation
The depolarization of the SA node (from threshold to peak) is due to the inflow of ____ and _____ ions
calcium and sodium
The study of the heart and its disorders is known as
As a chamber, such as a cardiac ventricle, contracts just prior to reducing its volume, the pressure of the fluid within would ____
The term _____ refers to contraction of the heart
The ____ is the layer that lines the inner chambers of the heart
When a normal heart rate is established by the appropriate firing of the SA node, this is known as a _____ rhythm.
The term ____ refers to relaxation of the heart
What are the functions of the fibrous skeleton?
provides structural support for the heart
anchors the cardiocytes and give them something to pull against
provides electrical insulation between the atria and ventricles
Carrying the action potentials the _____ _____ spread throughout the ventricular myocardium to excite the ventricles
The volume of blood ejected by the ventricles per minute is the
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle is ____ the amount of blood pumped by the right ventricle
The alternate name for the left atrioventriular valve is the ____ valve
Cardiac output is equal to stroke volume _____ heart rate
The surface indentation that separates the atria from the ventricle is known as the _____ sulcus
Indicate which of the chemicals an cause an increase in HR
When ventricles are relaxed and their pressure is low, the ____ valves are open
The ____ wave of an ECG is a recording of the depolarization of the atrial myocardium
_____ is the process of listening to sounds made by the body
The branch of the left coronary artery that continues around to the posterior of the heart leading to the coronary sulcus is the _____ branch
The _____ of the heart is the amount of tension in the ventricular myocardium immediate before it begins the contract
The _____ sac is the outer wall of the pericardium consisting of a fibrous layer lined by a serous layer also called the parietal pericardium
The heart receives innervation from
both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
The left and right ventricles are separated by the ____ _____
The opening between the atria and the ventricles is regulated by the
A resting heart rate below 60 bpm is known as
The blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen only to the heart muscle make up the specific type of circulation called the _____ circulation
One specific type of arrhythmia is _____ _____, which is failure of the cardiac conduction system to transmit signals
The blood vessel that collects venous drainage from the anterior side of the heart and travels alongside the anterior interventricular artery is the _____ vein
The cardiocytes are described as _____ because individual cells can depolarize on their own without outside stimulation
The difference between maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is referred to as the cardiac
The fibrous structure indicated in the figure i the ____ sac
The contraction of a cardiocyte occurs during the ____ phase of its action potential
The ____ is a double-walled sac enclosing the heart
When a portion o the hear wall other than the SA or AV node spontaneously depolarize, this is known as
The heart has 3 layers. The outermost layer of the heart is called the _____
An abnormal cardiac rhythm is considered an
arrythemia, arrhthmia, arrythmia
Another name for the epicardium is the _____ pericardium
The amount of blood ejected by a ventricle is ____ the amount of blood received during ventricular filling
the same as
With the onset of ventricular contraction, the pressure within the ventricles
Closing of the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves produces the ____ heart sound
During which phase of the cardiac cycle does blood flow through the coronary circulation?
The QRS wave of an ECG represents the _____ of the ventricular myocardium
When ventricles contract, blood surging against the ____ valves forces them closed
A ____ is the instrument used to measure blood pressure
Which arterial branch of the left coronary artery travels down to the apex of the heart?
The role of the papillary muscles is to do what?
tense the tendinous cords just prior to ventricular contraction
The opening and closing of heart valves are governed by changes in ____ within chambers
The valve between the right atrium and ventricle is specifically called the ____ valve
The outermost layer of the heart wall is the
The strength of contraction for a given preload is defined as the ____ of the myocardium
In the posterior coronary sulcus is a large vein called the _____, which collects venous drainage from all of the coronary veins and drains into the right atrium
A patient presents with a persistently elevated heart rate over 100 bpm. The clinical condition is known as
Cardiostimulatory effects of the cardiac center are transmitted to the heart via fibers of the ____ branch of the autonomic nervous system
When the volume of blood within a heart chamber is decreased (leaving the chamber), the pressure within that chamber is
The closing of the atrioventricular valves produces which of the heart sounds?
The semilunar valves will open when the pressure within the ____ exceeds the pressure within the ______
ventricles, greater arteries
Depolarization of a cardiocyte is due to the opening of _____ channels
Stimulatuon of the SA node by the ____ nervous system raises the heart rate
Which of the following best describes what happens in the cardiac cycle during the T-wave of an ECG?
the ventricles repolarize
The ____ center of the medulla oblongata initiates autonomic output to the heart
The groove that extends downward from the coronary sulcus on the front of the heart is the anterior _____ sulcus
The right and left coronary arteries arise from the
When the AV node acts as pacemaker, the slower heartbeat is called a _____ rhythm
The blood vessel within the posterior interventricular sulcus on the back of the heart that collects venous drainage from the posterior portion of the heart is the posterior _____ vein
If the volume of blood pumped by the right side of the heart is less than that pumped by the left side of the heart, the result would be