Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: A&P II Lecture review Circulatory System (Part 1) Flashcards


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Anatomy of the heart
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1

This circuit carries blood to and from gas exchange surfaces of the lungs.

The pulmonary circut

2

This circuit carries blood to and from the body and the blood alternates between this system and the pulmonary system.

The Systemic circuit

3

List the 4 chambers of the heart.

Right and Left Ventricle

Right and Left Atrium

4

This heart chamber collects blood from systemic circuit.

Right atrium

5

This heart chamber pumps blood to pulmonary circuited.

Right Ventricle

6

This heart chamber collects blood from the pulmonary circuit.

Left Atrium

7

This heart chamber pumps blood to systemic circuit.

Left ventricle

8

The pericardium has how many layers?

Two layers

9

What are the two layers of the pericardium?

Parental layer

Visceral Layer (epicardium)

10

The two layers of the pericardium are separated by what?

fluid-filled pericardial cavity (to decrease friction)

11

This layer of the pericardium lines internal surface of the fibrous pericardium

Parietal layer

12

This layer other pericardium is on the external surface of the heart.

The visceral layer (epicardium)

13

What are the three layers of the heart wall?

1. Epicardium

2.Myocardium

3. Endocardium

14

The atrioventricular (AV) valves do what two things?

Connect R. atrium to R. Vertical and L. Atrium to L. ventrical

Permit blood to flow in one direction (from atria to ventricles)

15

The right atrium receives blood from the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest from what vein?

Superior vena cava

16

The right atrium receives blood from trunk, viscera, and lower limbs from what vein?

Inferior vena cava

17

The superior and inferior vena cava return blood to what sinus?

Coronary sinus that opens into the right atrium.

18

In the right ventricle, valve free edges attach to __________ __________ from __________ _________ of ventricles.

Charade tendineae

Papillary muscles

19

What prevents the valve in the right ventricle from opening backwards?

The chorea tendinaea

20

What is another name for the right atrioventricular (AV) valve?

Tricuspid valve

21

Blood from the L atrium passes to the ______ ______ through the _______ _______ ________.

Left ventricle

Left Atrioventricular (AV) valve

22

What are two other names for the L AV valve?

Bicuspid valve

Mitral valve

23

The L vertical holds the same volume as the _____ ______.

Right ventricle

24

Which muscle wall in the heart is thicker and more powerful?

Left vertical wall

25

While the left ventricle sis similar internally to the right ventricle, it lacks what?

Moderator band

26

The AV valves are located between the _______ and the ________.

Atria

Ventricles

27

The AV valves are closed by ______ _______ during ventricular contraction

Blood pressure

28

The ________ muscles tense ______ _______ to prevent valves from swinging into atria.

papillary

Chordae tendineae

29

These valves have three cups support like a tripod, have no muscular support, and prevent backflow from the pulmonary trunk and aorta into the ventricles.

Semilunar valves

30

The blood supply to the heart tissue is via the __________ _____________.

Coronary circulation (coronary arteries and veins)

31

Heart disease is also known as _______ ________ ______.

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

32

CAD happens when areas of partial or complete blockage of what happens?

Coronary ciruclation

33

When reduced circulatory supply happens, ______ ______ results from partial or complete blockage of coronary arteries.

Coronary ischemia

34

Reduction in blood flow to heart muscle produces a corresponding reduction in __________ __________.

Cardiac preformance

35

CAD's usual cause is what?

formation of a fatty deposit or atherosclerotic plaque, in the wall of the coronary vessel

36

Another name for a plaque clot is what?

thrombus

37

Spasms in smooth muscles of the vessel wall can further ________ or stop ________ ________.

decrease

blood flow

38

One of the first symptoms of CAD is commonly _______ _________.

angina pectoris

39

Define angina pectoris

Chest pain

40

Even though an individual may feel comfortable at rest, what things can produce the sensation of pressure, chest constriction, and radiating pain?

Exertion or emotional stress

41

What is another term for a heart attack?

Myocardial infarction (MI)

42

What happens to the heart in a myocardial infarction?

Part of the coronary circulation becomes blocked and cardiac muscle cells die from lack of oxygen

43

Heart attacks most commonly result from what?

Severe CAD

44

The death of affected tissue creates a nonfunctional area known as what?

An infarct

45

What determines the consequences of a heart attack?

The site and nature of the circulatory blockage

46

If the site of the blockage of a heart attack occurs near the start of one of the coronary arteries, what can be the results?

The damage will be widespread and the heart may stop beating

47

If the site of the blockage of a heart attack involves one of the smaller arterial branches, what re the most common results?

The individual may survive the immediate crisis but may have complications such as reduced contractility and cardiac arrhythmias

48

Define coronary thrombosis.

Thrombus formation of plaque in a heart vessel

49

If a heart vessel is already narrowed by plaque formation, it may also become blocked by a sudden spasm of what?

The smooth muscles of the vascular wall

50

How is the pain experienced in a myocardial infarction (MI) different from that experienced in pectoral angina?

It is persistent, even at rest

51

Why are some myocardial infractions never diagnosed?

Pain does not always accompany a heart attack.

52

If no pain is present, what can be used to diagnose a heart attack?

An ECG and blood studies

53

How do blood studies assist in helping to diagnose a heart attack?

Damaged myocardial cells release enzymes into the circulation that can be picked up in blood tests