This circuit carries blood to and from gas exchange surfaces of the lungs.
The pulmonary circut
This circuit carries blood to and from the body and the blood alternates between this system and the pulmonary system.
The Systemic circuit
List the 4 chambers of the heart.
Right and Left Ventricle
Right and Left Atrium
This heart chamber collects blood from systemic circuit.
This heart chamber pumps blood to pulmonary circuited.
This heart chamber collects blood from the pulmonary circuit.
This heart chamber pumps blood to systemic circuit.
The pericardium has how many layers?
What are the two layers of the pericardium?
Visceral Layer (epicardium)
The two layers of the pericardium are separated by what?
fluid-filled pericardial cavity (to decrease friction)
This layer of the pericardium lines internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
This layer other pericardium is on the external surface of the heart.
The visceral layer (epicardium)
What are the three layers of the heart wall?
The atrioventricular (AV) valves do what two things?
Connect R. atrium to R. Vertical and L. Atrium to L. ventrical
Permit blood to flow in one direction (from atria to ventricles)
The right atrium receives blood from the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest from what vein?
Superior vena cava
The right atrium receives blood from trunk, viscera, and lower limbs from what vein?
Inferior vena cava
The superior and inferior vena cava return blood to what sinus?
Coronary sinus that opens into the right atrium.
In the right ventricle, valve free edges attach to __________ __________ from __________ _________ of ventricles.
What prevents the valve in the right ventricle from opening backwards?
The chorea tendinaea
What is another name for the right atrioventricular (AV) valve?
Blood from the L atrium passes to the ______ ______ through the _______ _______ ________.
Left Atrioventricular (AV) valve
What are two other names for the L AV valve?
The L vertical holds the same volume as the _____ ______.
Which muscle wall in the heart is thicker and more powerful?
Left vertical wall
While the left ventricle sis similar internally to the right ventricle, it lacks what?
The AV valves are located between the _______ and the ________.
The AV valves are closed by ______ _______ during ventricular contraction
The ________ muscles tense ______ _______ to prevent valves from swinging into atria.
These valves have three cups support like a tripod, have no muscular support, and prevent backflow from the pulmonary trunk and aorta into the ventricles.
The blood supply to the heart tissue is via the __________ _____________.
Coronary circulation (coronary arteries and veins)
Heart disease is also known as _______ ________ ______.
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
CAD happens when areas of partial or complete blockage of what happens?
When reduced circulatory supply happens, ______ ______ results from partial or complete blockage of coronary arteries.
Reduction in blood flow to heart muscle produces a corresponding reduction in __________ __________.
CAD's usual cause is what?
formation of a fatty deposit or atherosclerotic plaque, in the wall of the coronary vessel
Another name for a plaque clot is what?
Spasms in smooth muscles of the vessel wall can further ________ or stop ________ ________.
One of the first symptoms of CAD is commonly _______ _________.
Define angina pectoris
Even though an individual may feel comfortable at rest, what things can produce the sensation of pressure, chest constriction, and radiating pain?
Exertion or emotional stress
What is another term for a heart attack?
Myocardial infarction (MI)
What happens to the heart in a myocardial infarction?
Part of the coronary circulation becomes blocked and cardiac muscle cells die from lack of oxygen
Heart attacks most commonly result from what?
The death of affected tissue creates a nonfunctional area known as what?
What determines the consequences of a heart attack?
The site and nature of the circulatory blockage
If the site of the blockage of a heart attack occurs near the start of one of the coronary arteries, what can be the results?
The damage will be widespread and the heart may stop beating
If the site of the blockage of a heart attack involves one of the smaller arterial branches, what re the most common results?
The individual may survive the immediate crisis but may have complications such as reduced contractility and cardiac arrhythmias
Define coronary thrombosis.
Thrombus formation of plaque in a heart vessel
If a heart vessel is already narrowed by plaque formation, it may also become blocked by a sudden spasm of what?
The smooth muscles of the vascular wall
How is the pain experienced in a myocardial infarction (MI) different from that experienced in pectoral angina?
It is persistent, even at rest
Why are some myocardial infractions never diagnosed?
Pain does not always accompany a heart attack.
If no pain is present, what can be used to diagnose a heart attack?
An ECG and blood studies
How do blood studies assist in helping to diagnose a heart attack?
Damaged myocardial cells release enzymes into the circulation that can be picked up in blood tests