Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: A&P II The Male reproductive system lecture (Part 2) Flashcards


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1

The process of sperm production is known as what?

Spermatogenisis

2

Spermatogenesis begins at the outermost layer in the ????? tubules and proceeds toward the ????.

Seminiferous

lumen

3

These stem cells divide by mitosis to produce two daughter cells.

Spermatogonia

4

When spermatogonia divide to produce two daughter cells, what do the two daughter cells do?

one remains as a spermatogonium

second differentiates into primary spermatocyte

5

A primary spermatocyte begins meiosis and forms a what?

Secondary spermatocytes

6

Secondary spermatocytes differentiate into what?

Spermatids

7

Spermatids differentiate into what?

spermatozoa

8

Spermatozoa lose contact with the wall of the ???? and enter fluid in the ????.

Seminiferous tubule

Lumen

9

The contents of the seminiferous tubules include what?

Spermatogonia

Spermatocytes (at various stages of meiosis)

Spermatids

Spermatozoa

Large nurse cells

10

Spermatogenesis involves three integrated processes. List them.

1. Mitosis

2. Meiosis

3. Spermiogenesis

11

At spermiation, a spermatozoon loses attachments to ???? and enters the ?????? of the seminiferous tubules

Nurse cells

lumen

12

Nurse cells, or sertoli cells, affect what?

Mitosis

Meiosis

Spermiogenesis

13

Nurse cells have 6 major functions. what are the?

1. Maintain a blood-testes barrier

2. Support mitosis and meiosis

3. Support spermiogenesis

4. Secrete inhibin

5. Secrete ABP

6. Secrete MIF

14

The anatomy of a spermatozoon is fairly simple. give the 4 parts.

Head

Neck

Middle piece

Tail

15

A mature spermatozoon lacks many organelles such as?

RER

Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes

peroxisomes

16

The loss of organelles in a mature spermatozoon results in what?

Reduces sperm size and mass

17

Where do mature spermatozoon get their nutrients from?

Fructose from surrounding fluids

18

The testes produce physically mature spermatozoa. Are these cells able to fertilize an oocyte?

No

19

Other parts besides the testes play a role in sperm maturation. What kind of tasks do they preform?

functional maturation

nourishment

storage

transport

20

As sperm mature in the testes they detach from the ????? and become free in the lumen of the ??????.

Nurse cells

seminiferous tubule

21

While the sperm is in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, they are incapable of locomotion. How are the then moved to the next location?

Moved by cilia lining the efferent ductules

22

This is the first organ after the testes that is the start of the male reproductive tract.

Epididymis

23

What are the three parts of the Epididymis?

The head

The body

The tail

24

What is the function of the epididymis?

Monitors and adjusts fluid produced by seminiferous tubules

recycles damaged spermatozoa

Stores and protects spermatozoa

25
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Identify A

Body of the epididymis

26
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Identify B

Tail of the Epididymis

27
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Identify C

Head of the Epididymis

28

Even though the spermatozoa that leave the epididymis are mature, they remain ?????.

Immobile

29

To become motile, spermatozoa undergo what?

Capacitation

30

What are the two steps in capacitation?

1. Spermatozoa become mobilized when mixed with secretions of seminal glands

2. Spermatozoa become capable of fertilization when exposed to female reproductive tract

31

What is another name for the Vas Deferens?

Ductus Deferens

32

The Vas deferens begins at the tail of the ???? and as a part of the spermatic cord, ascends through the ?????.

tail of the epididymis

inguinal canal

33

The vas deferens passes along what two glands that add to the sperm?

prostate gland

seminal gland

34

The lumen of the vas deferens larges into a what?

ampulla

35

The wall of ampulla of the vas deferens contains a thick layer of what?

smooth muscle

36

The ductus deferens is lined by what?

ciliated epithelium

37

Spermatozoa and other fluids are propelled through the ductus deferens by what?

Peristaltic contractions

38

The ductus deferens can store spermatozoa for several months in a state of what?

suspended animation (low metabolic rates)

39

This is a short passageway at the junction of ampulla and the seminal gland duct.

The ejaculatory duct

40

The ejaculatory duct penetrates the wall of what gland?

the prostate gland

41

The urethra is used by what two systems?

Urinary and reproductives

42

The urethra is divided into what three regions?

1. Prostatic

2. Membranous

3. Spongy

43

List the three accessory gland to the male reproductive system.

1. Seminal glands

2. Prostate glands

3. Bulbo-urethral glands

44

The male reproductive accessory glands have 4 main functions. what are they?

1. Activating spermatozoa

2. Providing nutrients

3. Propelling spermatozoa (mainly by peristaltic contractions)

4. Producing buffers

45

The seminal glands produce what kind of secretions?

Very alkaline and makes up about 60% of semen volume

46

The secretion produce by the seminal gland has 4 defining characteristics. what are they?

1. Rich in fructose

2. Contains Prostaglandin

3. Contains fibrinogen

4. Is alkaline

47

Why is the fructose produce by the seminal gland important?

it gives the spermatozoa nutrients

48

Why is the prostaglandin that is produced by the seminal gland important?

It increases smooth muscle contractions

49

Why is the fibrinogen produced the seminal gland important?

It forms a temporary clot in the vagina

50

Why is the alkaline produced by the seminal gland important?

to neutralize acids from the prostate gland and vagina

51

The first step in capacitation is initiated by what?

seminal fluid

52

This gland is a small, muscular organ that encircles the proximal portion of the urethra found below the urinary bladder.

The prostate gland

53

Prostatic fluid, in terms of pH, is very what?

Acidic

54

Prostatic fluid has what effect on sperm?

Helps to activate them

55

Prostatic fluid contains an antibiotic known as what?

Seminalplasmin

56

What is another name for the Bulbo-urethral gland?

Cowpers gland

57

The bulbo-urethral gland secretes what?

Thick, alkaline mucus

58

What is the function of the secretions of the bulbo-urethral gland?

Helps to neutralize acids in urethra

lubricates the glans (penis tip)

59

The typical amount of semen ejaculated is what?

2-5 mL

60

What is the normal range of spermatozoa that is ejaculated

20-100 Million/mL

61

This is the volume of fluid produced by ejaculation

Ejaculate

62

The ejaculate contains what three things?

1. Spermatozoa

2. Seminal fluid

3. Enzymes

63

What is the main external male genitalia and what is its function?

Penis

introduces semen into females vagina

64

These hormones that are released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland play a part in male reproduction.

FSH

LH

65

FSH and LH are released in response to what other hormone?

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)

66

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is synthesized where?

In the hypothalamus

67

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is carried to the pituitary by what?

hypophyseal portal system

68

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is secreted in pulses at ????? minute intervals.

60-90

69

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) controls the rate of secretion of what two hormones?

FSH and LH

70

LH stimulates the release of what hormone?

testosterone

71

FSH and testosterone target what cells of the seminiferous tubules?

The nurse cells

72

Nurse cells promote what two things?

Spermatogenesis

Spermiogenesis

73

Nurse cells secrete what?

androgen-binding protein (ABP)

74

Spermatogenesis is regulated by what three things?

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)

FSH

inhibin

75

As spermatogenesis accelerates, inhibin secretion does what?

Increases

76

Inhibin does what two things?

inhibits FSH production in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

Suppresses secretion of GnRH at the hypothalamus

77

When FSH levels goes up, what happens to inhibin production?

An increase of inhibin production

78

If FSH levels decline, what happens to inhibin production?

Inhibin production falls

79

LH targets what cells of what organs?

Interstitial cells of the testes

80

LH induces the secretion of what hormone?

testosterone and other androgens

81

What is the most important androgen hormone?

Testosteron

82

This testosterone stimulates what?

Spermatogenesis

83

What affect does testosterone on CNS functions?

Increases libido and related behaviors

84

What effect does testosterone have on the metabolism?

stimulates metabolism

especially protein synthesis

stimulates blood cell formation and muscle growth

85

What kind of secondary sex characteristics are started by testosterone?

Distribution of facial hair

Increased muscle mass and body size

Characteristic adipose tissue deposits

86

Around what week of fetal development does the production of testosterone develop and when does it reach prenatal peak?

around the 7th week

6 months

87

The secretion of this factor by nurse cells leads to regression of what ducts?

Mullerian-inhibiting factor

Mullerian ducts

88

An early surge in testosterone levels stimulates differentiation of ??????? system and ????? and affects ????? development.

male duct

accessory organs

CNS

89

Testosterone programs hypothalamic centers that control what three things?

1. GnRH, FSH, and LH

2. Sexual behaviors

3. Sexual drive

90

This hormone is produced in relatively small amounts, 70% is converted from circulating testosterone and the other 30% is secreted by interstitial nurse cells.

Estridol