90 notecards = 23 pages (4 cards per page)
The process of sperm production is known as what?
Spermatogenesis begins at the outermost layer in the ????? tubules and proceeds toward the ????.
These stem cells divide by mitosis to produce two daughter cells.
When spermatogonia divide to produce two daughter cells, what do the two daughter cells do?
one remains as a spermatogonium
second differentiates into primary spermatocyte
A primary spermatocyte begins meiosis and forms a what?
Secondary spermatocytes differentiate into what?
Spermatids differentiate into what?
Spermatozoa lose contact with the wall of the ???? and enter fluid in the ????.
The contents of the seminiferous tubules include what?
Spermatocytes (at various stages of meiosis)
Large nurse cells
Spermatogenesis involves three integrated processes. List them.
At spermiation, a spermatozoon loses attachments to ???? and enters the ?????? of the seminiferous tubules
Nurse cells, or sertoli cells, affect what?
Nurse cells have 6 major functions. what are the?
1. Maintain a blood-testes barrier
2. Support mitosis and meiosis
3. Support spermiogenesis
4. Secrete inhibin
5. Secrete ABP
6. Secrete MIF
The anatomy of a spermatozoon is fairly simple. give the 4 parts.
A mature spermatozoon lacks many organelles such as?
The loss of organelles in a mature spermatozoon results in what?
Reduces sperm size and mass
Where do mature spermatozoon get their nutrients from?
Fructose from surrounding fluids
The testes produce physically mature spermatozoa. Are these cells able to fertilize an oocyte?
Other parts besides the testes play a role in sperm maturation. What kind of tasks do they preform?
As sperm mature in the testes they detach from the ????? and become free in the lumen of the ??????.
While the sperm is in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, they are incapable of locomotion. How are the then moved to the next location?
Moved by cilia lining the efferent ductules
This is the first organ after the testes that is the start of the male reproductive tract.
What are the three parts of the Epididymis?
What is the function of the epididymis?
Monitors and adjusts fluid produced by seminiferous tubules
recycles damaged spermatozoa
Stores and protects spermatozoa
Body of the epididymis
Tail of the Epididymis
Head of the Epididymis
Even though the spermatozoa that leave the epididymis are mature, they remain ?????.
To become motile, spermatozoa undergo what?
What are the two steps in capacitation?
1. Spermatozoa become mobilized when mixed with secretions of seminal glands
2. Spermatozoa become capable of fertilization when exposed to female reproductive tract
What is another name for the Vas Deferens?
The Vas deferens begins at the tail of the ???? and as a part of the spermatic cord, ascends through the ?????.
tail of the epididymis
The vas deferens passes along what two glands that add to the sperm?
The lumen of the vas deferens larges into a what?
The wall of ampulla of the vas deferens contains a thick layer of what?
The ductus deferens is lined by what?
Spermatozoa and other fluids are propelled through the ductus deferens by what?
The ductus deferens can store spermatozoa for several months in a state of what?
suspended animation (low metabolic rates)
This is a short passageway at the junction of ampulla and the seminal gland duct.
The ejaculatory duct
The ejaculatory duct penetrates the wall of what gland?
the prostate gland
The urethra is used by what two systems?
Urinary and reproductives
The urethra is divided into what three regions?
List the three accessory gland to the male reproductive system.
1. Seminal glands
2. Prostate glands
3. Bulbo-urethral glands
The male reproductive accessory glands have 4 main functions. what are they?
1. Activating spermatozoa
2. Providing nutrients
3. Propelling spermatozoa (mainly by peristaltic contractions)
4. Producing buffers
The seminal glands produce what kind of secretions?
Very alkaline and makes up about 60% of semen volume
The secretion produce by the seminal gland has 4 defining characteristics. what are they?
1. Rich in fructose
2. Contains Prostaglandin
3. Contains fibrinogen
4. Is alkaline
Why is the fructose produce by the seminal gland important?
it gives the spermatozoa nutrients
Why is the prostaglandin that is produced by the seminal gland important?
It increases smooth muscle contractions
Why is the fibrinogen produced the seminal gland important?
It forms a temporary clot in the vagina
Why is the alkaline produced by the seminal gland important?
to neutralize acids from the prostate gland and vagina
The first step in capacitation is initiated by what?
This gland is a small, muscular organ that encircles the proximal portion of the urethra found below the urinary bladder.
The prostate gland
Prostatic fluid, in terms of pH, is very what?
Prostatic fluid has what effect on sperm?
Helps to activate them
Prostatic fluid contains an antibiotic known as what?
What is another name for the Bulbo-urethral gland?
The bulbo-urethral gland secretes what?
Thick, alkaline mucus
What is the function of the secretions of the bulbo-urethral gland?
Helps to neutralize acids in urethra
lubricates the glans (penis tip)
The typical amount of semen ejaculated is what?
What is the normal range of spermatozoa that is ejaculated
This is the volume of fluid produced by ejaculation
The ejaculate contains what three things?
2. Seminal fluid
What is the main external male genitalia and what is its function?
introduces semen into females vagina
These hormones that are released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland play a part in male reproduction.
FSH and LH are released in response to what other hormone?
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is synthesized where?
In the hypothalamus
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is carried to the pituitary by what?
hypophyseal portal system
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is secreted in pulses at ????? minute intervals.
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) controls the rate of secretion of what two hormones?
FSH and LH
LH stimulates the release of what hormone?
FSH and testosterone target what cells of the seminiferous tubules?
The nurse cells
Nurse cells promote what two things?
Nurse cells secrete what?
androgen-binding protein (ABP)
Spermatogenesis is regulated by what three things?
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)
As spermatogenesis accelerates, inhibin secretion does what?
Inhibin does what two things?
inhibits FSH production in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Suppresses secretion of GnRH at the hypothalamus
When FSH levels goes up, what happens to inhibin production?
An increase of inhibin production
If FSH levels decline, what happens to inhibin production?
Inhibin production falls
LH targets what cells of what organs?
Interstitial cells of the testes
LH induces the secretion of what hormone?
testosterone and other androgens
What is the most important androgen hormone?
This testosterone stimulates what?
What affect does testosterone on CNS functions?
Increases libido and related behaviors
What effect does testosterone have on the metabolism?
especially protein synthesis
stimulates blood cell formation and muscle growth
What kind of secondary sex characteristics are started by testosterone?
Distribution of facial hair
Increased muscle mass and body size
Characteristic adipose tissue deposits
Around what week of fetal development does the production of testosterone develop and when does it reach prenatal peak?
around the 7th week
The secretion of this factor by nurse cells leads to regression of what ducts?
An early surge in testosterone levels stimulates differentiation of ??????? system and ????? and affects ????? development.
Testosterone programs hypothalamic centers that control what three things?
1. GnRH, FSH, and LH
2. Sexual behaviors
3. Sexual drive
This hormone is produced in relatively small amounts, 70% is converted from circulating testosterone and the other 30% is secreted by interstitial nurse cells.