Science 6 Trees and Forests

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created 6 years ago by stephaniemackay
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updated 6 years ago by stephaniemackay
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Abiotic

The non-living part of the environment that includes temperature, water (or lack thereof) day/night, etc.

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Adaptation

The modification of alteration of an organism so that it adjusts to a new or altered environment.

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Allowable Cut

The amount of trees which can be taken from the forest annually without significantly altering the balance of the ecosystem.

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Bark

The visible outer covering of a tree which helps to protect the inside of the tree.

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Biodiversity

The many different species living in balance within a specific area or environment.

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Biotic

The living components of an environment.

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Cambium

The growing part of the tree where cells form actual wood.

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Canopy

The top branches and leaves of the trees in a forest.

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Carbon Dioxide

CO2

A gas composed of carbon and oxygen that is produced when humans and living things exhale.

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Carnivore

A meat eating organism.

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Chlorophyll

The green substance found in leaves of plants that traps light energy used in photosynthesis.

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Respiration

The process of releasing energy from sugar and other organic molecules by combining it with O2 to produce CO2 and H2O as waste.

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Clear cutting

A method of harvesting trees where ALL standing trees are removed from a section of forest at one time regardless of whether they are usable or not.

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Cones

Small, woody structures of coniferous trees which produce the seeds (a baby tree).

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Conifer

A tree which bears cones and has needles as leaves. Some examples are pine, spruce, fir or cedars. They are often referred to as evergreens.

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Consumer

An organism which feeds on other organisms in an ecosystem: herbivores, carnivores and omnivores are part of this group.

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Crown

The top of a tree that forms the canopy.

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Deciduous

Trees which lose their leaves every autumn or a broadleaf tree.

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Decomposer

An organism which breaks down material and litter - the forest floor cleaners!

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Direct Seeding

Putting seeds directly into the forest floor rather than planting seedlings.

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Ecosystem

An area of living and non-living components which form an environment.

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Evergreen

A tree which does not lose its leaves and has needles instead of broadleaves.

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Food Chain

A transfer of energy from the sun from one living thing to another.

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Food Web

The feeding relationships in an ecosystem. It shows how all organisms are connected in a specific ecosystem.

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Forest

A group of trees. You had all better get this one CORRECT!!

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Forest Floor

The area around the base of trees, usually covered with leaves, moss and other plants.

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Forest Management

The care and use of forests - it works to protect the forest.

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Forest Products

Things that are made from trees.

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Forestry

The practice of managing, conserving and creating forests.

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Growth Ring

Rings that are present when you look at a tree cookie which are used to determine the age of the tree.

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Habitat

A preferred place where an animal or plant lives. or, in simpler terms, an animal's home.

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Harvesting

The removal of trees for a variety of uses- logging.

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Heartwood

The non-living wood, right in the middle of the trunk, making up most of a tree truck which gives the truck strength.

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Herbivore

A plant eating organism.

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Inner Bark

The inner layer which serves to take food from the leaves to parts of the tree.

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Interdependence

The state of being dependent upon each other for survival - being interconnected.

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Log

The trunk of a tree after its been felled (cut down).

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Logging

The cutting and transporting of trees to the mill to make products. A very important industry in Alberta.

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Omnivore

An organism which eats both plants and animals.

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Park

A specially designated area used for recreation.

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Phloem

The inner bark tissue that transports nutrients down to the roots and back up to the canopy.

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Photosynthesis

The process by which a tree produces its own food (sugar) using sunlight.

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Producer

Any organism which uses energy from the sun to produce its own food. These are generally ALL green.

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Reforestation

The building of a new forest by replanting or reseeding - usually done after an area has been logged or damaged by fire.

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Regeneration

The process of growing back what has been lost. Forests usually do this after a fire with the growth of new seedlings.

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Respiration

When trees "sweat" - trees release water back into the atmosphere.

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Sap

The fluid part of a tree rich in sugar and starch which moves up and down the tree in the phloem tissue of the bark - maple syrup is one of these (yummmy!)

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Sapling

Code word for a young tree.

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Sapwood

The softer outer layer of the wood in the truck between the cambium and heartwood - responsible for nutrient transportation. The live part of the trunk.

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Seedling

Code word for a baby tree.

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Selective Harvesting

A method of harvesting trees where certain trees are slelected for cutting and ONLY these trees are taken.

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Shrub

A low-growing perennial plant.

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Snags

A standing tree which has begun to decay or a tree which has been felled but has caught itself on the way down. These are great for knocking over - but be careful of hornet nests inside the rotting truck.

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Stand

A group of trees in a given area.

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Stomata

Little holes on the underside of leaves which allow the tree to "sweat".

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Strip-Cutting

A method of harvesting a forest in strip-like sections.

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Transpiration

The loss of water through the stomata of the leaves.

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Tree

A perennial plant that has a wood trunk and a self-supporting truck.

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Xylem

Microscopic tubes running throughout the trunk of a tree that transports water and minerals up from the roots.

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Your teacher

The most awesome person you know!