Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: The Endocrine System (Part 1) Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by Rae_Harrison
998 views
Based mainly on hormones
updated 8 years ago by Rae_Harrison
Subjects:
anatomy & physiology 2, medical, physiology, science, life sciences, anatomy & physiology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

The endocrine system regulates long term processes such as what?

Growth

Development

Reproduction

2

What does the endocrine system use to relay information between cells?

Chemical messengers called hormones

3

The exchange of ions and molecules between adjacent cells across gap junctions that occurs between two cells of the same type is known as what?

Direct communication

4

This uses chemical signals to transfer information from cell to cell within a single tissue and is the most common form of intracellular communication.

Paracrine Coimmunication

5

This is when endocrine cells release hormones into the bloodstream and alters metabolic activities of many tissues and organs simultaneously.

Endocrine Communication

6

These are specific cells that possess receptors needed to bind and read hormonal signals.

Target cells

7

These stimulates synthesis of enzymes or structural proteins, can increase or decrease rate of synthesis, or turn existing enzyme or membrane channel "on" or "off".

Hormones

8

This is ideal for crisis management, occurs across synaptic clefts, chemical message is "neurotransmitter" and is limited to a very specific area.

Synaptic communication

9

What are the three classes of hormones?

Amino acid derivatives

Peptide hormones

Lipid derivatives

10

What are the two ways that hormones travel in the body?

they can circulate freely or travel bound to special carrier proteins

11

These are small molecules structurally related to amino acids and are derivatives of tyrosine.

Amino Acid Derivatives

12

Give examples of amino acid derivatives.

Epinephrine

Norepinephrine

Dopamine

Serotonin

Melatonin

13

These are a chains of amino acids and most are synthesized as prohormones.

Peptide Hormones

14

These proteins are more than 200 amino acids long and have carbohydrates side chains.

Glycoproteins

15

Give an example of short chain polypeptides.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

OXT (oxytocin)

each 9 amino acids long

16

Give an example of peptide hormones with small proteins.

GH (growth hormone) - 191 amino acids

PRL (prolactin) - 196 amino acids

17

What glands secret short chain polypeptides and small proteins?

Hypothalamus

thymus

heart

GI tract

others

18

These are steroid hormones derived from cholesterol.

Lipid derivatives

19

Lipid derivatives are released by what?

reproductive organs

cortex of adrenal glands

kidneys

20

Why do circulating steroid hormones remain in circulation longer than secreted peptide hormones?

they are bound to specific transport proteins in the plasma

21

What kind of hormones remain functional for less than 1 hr?

Free Hormones

22

Free hormones are broken down and absorbed by cells of the what?

Liver or Kidneys

Enzymes in plasma or interstitial fluids

23

Why do thyroid and steroid hormones remain in circulation for so long?

Because they are bound`

24

The thyroid and steroid hormones, upon entering the bloodstream, become attached to what?

Transport Protiens

25

The blood stream contains substantial reserves of bound what?

Hormones

26

This is a protein molecule to which a particular molecule binds strongly and responds to several different hormones.

Hormone Receptors

27

In regards to hormone receptors, different tissues have different combinations of what?

Receptors

28

In regards to hormone receptors, presence or absence of specific receptor determines what?

Hormonal sensitivity

29

These kinds of hormone are NOT lipid soluble and unable to penetrate plasma membranes. Rather, they bind to receptor proteins at outer surface of plasma membrane.

Catecholamines and Peptide Hormones

30

These hormones ARE lipid soluble and diffuse across the plasma membrane to reach receptor proteins.

Eicosanoids

31

What are the rules with first and second messengers?

bind to receptors in plasma membrane

cannot have direct effect on activities inside target cell

use intracellular intermediary to exert effects.

32

The first messenger leads to the second messenger. The first messenger may act as an enzyme what?

Activator

inhibitor

cofactor

33

The first messenger results in change in rates of what?

metabolic reactions

34

Give three examples of important Second Messengers.

Cyclic - AMP (cAMP)

Cyclic - GMP (cGMP)

Calcium ions

35

Cyclic - AMP (cAMP) is a derivite of what?

ATP

36

Cyclic - GMP (cGMP) is a derivative of what?

GTP

37

This is the binding of a small number of hormone molecules to membrane receptors and leads to thousands of second messenger cells.

The process of Amplification

38

The process of amplification magnifies effects of hormone on what?

Target Cell

39

The presence of a hormone triggers a decrease in the number of hormone receptors.

Down-regulation

40

In down-regulation, when levels of particular hormones are high, cells become more or less sensitive to it?

Less

41

The absence of a hormone trigger increases in number of hormone receptors. This is known as?

Up- regulation

42

In up-regulation, when levels of particular hormones are low, cells become more or less sensitive to it?

More

43

This enzyme complex couples to a membrane receptor and is involved in the ling between the firs messenger and second messenger.

G Protien

44

Adenylate cyclase is activated when hormones bind to receptor at membrane surfaces and what else happens?

Changes concentration of second messenger cyclic - AMP within the cell

45

Opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane, release of calcium ions from intracellular stores are triggered by what?

Activated G proteins

46

The building bricks of a peptide bond are what?

Amino acids

47

Hormones and intracellular receptors alter the rate of DNA what in the nucleus?

Transcription

48

How is it possible for the hormones and intracellular receptors to change the rate of DNA transcription in the nucleus?

Changes the patterns of proteins synthesis

49

Hormones directly affect what part of the target cell?

Metabolic activity and structure

50

These are a functional counterpart of neural reflexes, and in most cases controlled by negative feedback.

Endocrine Reflexes

51

Endocrine Reflexes can be triggered in what three ways?

Humoral stimuli

Hormonal stimuli

Neural stimuli

52

What is humoral stimuli?

Changes in composition of extracellular fluid.

53

What is a hormonal stimuli?

Arrival or removal of specific hormone

54

What is neural stimuili?

arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions

55

This kind of endocrine reflex involves only one hormone and controls hormone secretion by the heart, pancreas, parathyroid gland, and digestive tract.

Simple Endocrine Reflex

56

This kind of endocrine reflex involves one or more intermediary steps and has two or more hormones.

Complex Endocrine Reflex

57

This gland provides the highest level of endocrine control.

They hypothalamus

58

Reflexes that have pathways that include both neural and endocrine components are known as what?

Neuroendocrine Reflexes

59

Complex commands are issued by changing what two things?q

The amount of hormones secreted and the pattern of hormones release

60

What two hormones tend to be released in sudden bursts?

Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones