Anatomy and Physiology mid-term
What is a chain of more than 50 amino acids?
What is HCO3?
Sucrose is a ____________________
Which property of water is demonstrated when we sweat?
High Heat of Vaporation
Salts are always _____________
Stress protiens are a type of protein called ______________________
What is not a uses for the ATP molecule?
What is the major positive ion outside cells?
The basic structural material of the body consists of __________
What protien type is vitally important to cell function in all types of stressful circumstances?
A single most abundent protein in the body is
What would be regarded as an organic molecule?
What element is necessary fro proper conduction of nervous impulses?
The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are:
A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with _____________________
The release of energy
Fibrosis tissue repair involves the formation of ________________
A gene can best be defined as
The blueprint for protein structure
What is the correct base pairing rules for DNA?
Adenine bonds to Thymine
Guanine bonds to Cytosine
What is the powerhouse of the cell?
What is NOT classified as a connective tissue?
A red blood cell placed in an isotonic solution would ______________
Swell and burst
Describe the plasma membrane:
A phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
The two types of endocytosis is
Phagocystosis and pinocytosis
The movement of fluid through the cell membrane from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area is called _________________
A cancer drug interferes with the development of mitotic spindle fibers during cell division. Which phase is directly affected?
The 3 major components of the cytoplasm are the
The function of the centrioles include:
Organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division
What type of tissue conducts electrochemical impulses?
The correct order of the phases of mitosis are:
The main component of cytosol is ________________
Cell that swims and is propelled by a long tail
A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be ________________
Enhancement of labor contractions
____________________ cavities are spaces within joints
______________mechanisims work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body
The dorsal cavity is the site of the ____________
_____________________is considered the cause of most diseases
An oblique cut is one that is cut ______________________
Diagonally between vertical and horizontal planes
The body system in order to simplest to the most complex
What term means toward or at the back of the body, behind?
What is a vertical section through the body dividing it into anterial and posterior regions called?
The heart lies in the ___________________cavity
A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific functions of the body is an ____________
The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60-70% of body weight is ___________________
What is a vertical section through the body dividing it into left and right
Histology is best defined as the study of __________
The body cavities that protect the nervous system are located in the _____________ cavity
What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback?
To maintain homeostasis
The skeletal system is composed of
How many bones are in the body
What is the main function of the skeletal system?
Supports body weight
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Supports body weight
Supports and protects soft organs
With muscles, enables body movement
Stores important minerals
Contains bone marrow
What does bone marrow in the skeletal system do?
Produces blood cells
What important minerals does the skeletal system store?
calcium and phosphorus
What organ stimulates red blood cell production?
Name the two types of Ossification
Replacement of thin connective tissue membrane with bone
Located in flat bones
Replacement of fetal cartilage skeleton with bone
Located in long, irregular and short bones
What occurs at the epipyseal disk?
Oseoblasts invade cartilage in disc and they mature inot osteocytes (bone)
What can affect bone growth?
What is the sculptor of hollow bones called
What is the builder of deposits bone on outer surface of the bones
What is Osteoclastic activity called
What is the name of the joint also known as the suture line in the skull called _____________ and it is _______________?
Slightly movable joint
Freely movable joint
Types of Joints
Name the bones of the foot
What does the arch of the foot form?
Structure of freely movable joints
Some joints also have - Bursae and Ligments
Types of freely movable joints
Hinge - Elbows, knees
Ball-and-socket - shoulders, hips
Pivot - Atlas-axis joint
Saddle - Carpometacarpal
Gliding - Wrist
Condyloid - knuckles
Joint names that articulate bones
Tibiofemoral - tibia and femur
Humeroulnar - Humerus and ulna
Metacarpophalangeal - Metacarpal bone and phalange
Glenohumeral - Glenoid cavity and humerus
Opening, usually a passage for nerves, blood vessels and ligaments
What is the bone marking groove called
Tunnel or tubelike passageway
Cavity or hollow space
Types of fractures
Simple - break in two
Compound - break in two and breaks the skin
Greenstick - Half break (sway)
Skull bone held together by sutures and offer little movement
Only moveable bone
What is a frontanel?
Soft spot not yet converted to bone and is covered with fibrous tissue and allow for cranial growth
Vertebral Column Sections are:
Sacrum and coccyx
Vertebral Column Curves
What bone helps you nod yes
What bone helps you nod no
What disorder of the vertebral column that causes a lateral curve?
What disorder of the vertebral column that causes a hunchback
What disorder of the vertebral column that causes a swayback
Name the parts of the sternum
How many ribs do we have
How many ribs are true ribs?
How many false ribs do we have?
How many of the false ribs are floating ribs?
Parts of the Coxal bones?
Function of the coxal bones in the pelvic girdle
attachment for lower limbs
protection of organs
Bones in the pectoral girdle
Bones in the upper limb
radius (thumb side) - ulna (pinky side)
U-shaped bone located in the neck region which is suspended in musculature and does not articulate with any other bone. It supports the tongue through muscle attachment to the styloid process on the temporal bone and the upper vertebra
The false ribs only connect to the _______________
Sternum via cartilage
Floating ribs only connect to the ___________
Attach bone to bone
Attach bone to muscle
Located in the skull
Located in the thorasic cavity
Heart and Lungs
remember to look at your notes because I might not have everything on here!
Only two fused bones in the body
If bones don't fuse what is the body lacking?
Shaft of the long bone
Located at the ends of long bones
Line in spongy area where bones grow from
A layer of cells lining the inner surface of bone in the central medullary cavity
A movement generally in the sagittal plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between the two bones (bending forward at the hip)
A movement that increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones or parts of the body (straightening the knee of elbow)
Movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body, or the fanning movement of fingers or toes when they are spread apart
Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body or drawing the fingers or toes together.
Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement
A combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction commonly observed in ball and socket joints like the shoulder
Movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward-facing position to a posterior or downward facing position (The distal end of the radius moves across the ulna)
Movement of the palm from a posterior position to an anterior position (the anatomical position)
A movement that results in the medial turning of the sold of the foot
A movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot
A movement of the ankle joint in a dorsal direction (standing on one's heels)
A movement of the ankle joint in which the foot is flexed downward (standing on one's toes or pointing the toes)
_________________________________ is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored
________________________a specialized connective tissue covering all bones of the body, and possessing bone-forming potentialities.
Shiny, slipery ends of the bones located near the joints
_____________________is the flexible tissue in the interior of bones. In humans, red blood cells are produced by cores of bone marrow in the heads of long bones in a process known as hematopoiesis
What are the two type of bones
Compact or hard
Spongy or soft
Compact or hard bone have
Osteons and in the shaft of long bones
Spongy or soft bone are located
Trabecular plates - look like swiss cheese and has or contains bone marrow
List the size and shapes of the bones and were they are found
Long - Femur humurs
Short - wrist, feet, ankle
Vertebra - irregular
flat - scapula, skull
What is a joint condition that causes water on the knee, and inflammation of the synovial joint?
What is the joint condition that causes stretching or tearing of ligaments?
What joint condition causes stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons?
What joint condition causes inflammation of the joint and has over 100 variations of the condition?
What joint condition is the most common form and 85% of the population has been affected
What joint condition in known to be a chronic disorder that occurs between 4--50 years of age but can occur at any age.
What joint condition causes uric acid accumaltion in the blood creating needle shaped crystals that cause extreme pain and seen in a single joint. (usually the great toe)
Condition that affects 1/2 of women over 65 and 20% of men over 70
L1- L5 and is the largest vertebra
___________________ are needed to make the head ligher so we can hold our heads up
Weight bearing bone in the body
Non-weight bering bone in the body
Largest bone in the body
located in the elbows and knees
Located in the shoulders and hips
Located in the Atlas-axis joint
Located in carpometacarpal area
Located in the wrist
Located in the knuckles
Location - tibia and femur
Location - humers and ulna
Location - metacarpal bone and phalange
Location - Glenoid cavity and humerus
An opening usually a passage for nerves,blood vessels and ligaments
What is the groves in a bone called
Tunnel or tubelike passageway of the bones
Cavity or hollow spaces of the bones
ribs 8 - 9 - and 10 are called
ribs 11 & 12 are called
How many bones are in the wrist?