Anatomy and Physiology mid-term

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1

What is a chain of more than 50 amino acids?

Protein

2

What is HCO3?

Bicarbonate Ion

3

Sucrose is a ____________________

Disaccharide

4

Which property of water is demonstrated when we sweat?

High Heat of Vaporation

5

Salts are always _____________

Ionic compounds

6

Stress protiens are a type of protein called ______________________

Chaperons

7

What is not a uses for the ATP molecule?

Pigment structure

8

What is the major positive ion outside cells?

Sodium

9

The basic structural material of the body consists of __________

Proteins

10

What protien type is vitally important to cell function in all types of stressful circumstances?

Molecular Chaparones

11

A single most abundent protein in the body is

Collagen

12

What would be regarded as an organic molecule?

CH4

13

What element is necessary fro proper conduction of nervous impulses?

Na

14

The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are:

Carbon

Oxygen

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

15

A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with _____________________

The release of energy

16

Fibrosis tissue repair involves the formation of ________________

Scar Tissue

17

A gene can best be defined as

The blueprint for protein structure

18

What is the correct base pairing rules for DNA?

Adenine bonds to Thymine

Guanine bonds to Cytosine

19

What is the powerhouse of the cell?

Mitochondria

20

What is NOT classified as a connective tissue?

Skeletal muscle

21

A red blood cell placed in an isotonic solution would ______________

Swell and burst

22

Describe the plasma membrane:

A phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell

23

The two types of endocytosis is

Phagocystosis and pinocytosis

24

The movement of fluid through the cell membrane from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area is called _________________

Diffusion

25

A cancer drug interferes with the development of mitotic spindle fibers during cell division. Which phase is directly affected?

Prophase

26

The 3 major components of the cytoplasm are the

Cytosol

Organells

Inclusions

27

The function of the centrioles include:

Organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division

28

What type of tissue conducts electrochemical impulses?

Nervous tissue

29

The correct order of the phases of mitosis are:

Profase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

30

The main component of cytosol is ________________

Water

31

Cell that swims and is propelled by a long tail

Flagella

32

A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be ________________

Enhancement of labor contractions

33

____________________ cavities are spaces within joints

Synovial

34

______________mechanisims work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body

Negative feedback

35

The dorsal cavity is the site of the ____________

Brain

36

_____________________is considered the cause of most diseases

Homeostatic imbalance

37

An oblique cut is one that is cut ______________________

Diagonally between vertical and horizontal planes

38

The body system in order to simplest to the most complex

Atoms

Molecules

Cells

Tissues

Organs

39

What term means toward or at the back of the body, behind?

Dorsal

40

What is a vertical section through the body dividing it into anterial and posterior regions called?

Frontal

41

Cranial cavity

Brain

42

The heart lies in the ___________________cavity

pericardial

43

A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific functions of the body is an ____________

Organ

44

The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60-70% of body weight is ___________________

Water

45

What is a vertical section through the body dividing it into left and right

Sagittal

46

Histology is best defined as the study of __________

Tissues

47

The body cavities that protect the nervous system are located in the _____________ cavity

Dorsal

48

What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback?

To maintain homeostasis

49

The skeletal system is composed of

Bones

Joints

Cartilage

Ligaments

50

How many bones are in the body

206

51

What is the main function of the skeletal system?

Supports body weight

52

What are the functions of the skeletal system?

Supports body weight

Supports and protects soft organs

With muscles, enables body movement

Stores important minerals

Contains bone marrow

53

What does bone marrow in the skeletal system do?

Produces blood cells

54

What important minerals does the skeletal system store?

calcium and phosphorus

55

What organ stimulates red blood cell production?

Kidneys

56

Name the two types of Ossification

Intramembranous ossification

Endochondral ossification

57

Replacement of thin connective tissue membrane with bone

Located in flat bones

Intramembranous ossification

58

Replacement of fetal cartilage skeleton with bone

Located in long, irregular and short bones

Endochondral ossification

59

What occurs at the epipyseal disk?

Oseoblasts invade cartilage in disc and they mature inot osteocytes (bone)

60

What can affect bone growth?

Growth horomones

Estrogen

Testosterone

61

What is the sculptor of hollow bones called

Osteoclasts

62

What is the builder of deposits bone on outer surface of the bones

Osteoblasts

63

What is Osteoclastic activity called

Resorption

64

What is the name of the joint also known as the suture line in the skull called _____________ and it is _______________?

Synarthroses

immovable

65

Slightly movable joint

Amphiarthorses

66

Freely movable joint

Diarthroses

67

Types of Joints

Synarthroses

Amphiathroses

Diathroses

68

Name the bones of the foot

Tarsals

Metatarsals

Phalanges

69

What does the arch of the foot form?

The Instep

70

Structure of freely movable joints

Articular cartilage

Joint capsule

Synovial membrane

Synovial fluid

Cartilage

Some joints also have - Bursae and Ligments

71

Types of freely movable joints

Hinge - Elbows, knees

Ball-and-socket - shoulders, hips

Pivot - Atlas-axis joint

Saddle - Carpometacarpal

Gliding - Wrist

Condyloid - knuckles

72

Joint names that articulate bones

Tibiofemoral - tibia and femur

Humeroulnar - Humerus and ulna

Metacarpophalangeal - Metacarpal bone and phalange

Glenohumeral - Glenoid cavity and humerus

73

Opening, usually a passage for nerves, blood vessels and ligaments

Foramen

74

What is the bone marking groove called

Fossa

75

Tunnel or tubelike passageway

Meatus

76

Cavity or hollow space

Sinus

77

Types of fractures

Simple - break in two

Compound - break in two and breaks the skin

Greenstick - Half break (sway)

78

Paranasal Sinuses

Frontal

Ethmoidal

Sphenoidal

Maxillary

79

Skull bone held together by sutures and offer little movement

Cranial

80

Only moveable bone

Mandible

81

What is a frontanel?

Soft spot not yet converted to bone and is covered with fibrous tissue and allow for cranial growth

82

Vertebral Column Sections are:

Cervical

Thoracic

Lumbar

Sacrum and coccyx

83

Vertebral Column Curves

Cervical

Thoracic

Lumbar

Sacral

84

What bone helps you nod yes

Atlas (C1)

85

What bone helps you nod no

Axis (C2)

86

What disorder of the vertebral column that causes a lateral curve?

Scoliosis

87

What disorder of the vertebral column that causes a hunchback

Kyphosis

88

What disorder of the vertebral column that causes a swayback

Lordosis

89

Name the parts of the sternum

Manubrium

Body

Xiphoid process

90

How many ribs do we have

12 pairs

91

How many ribs are true ribs?

seven

92

How many false ribs do we have?

5 pairs

93

How many of the false ribs are floating ribs?

2 pairs

94

Parts of the Coxal bones?

Ilium

Ischium

Pubis

95

Function of the coxal bones in the pelvic girdle

Weight bearing

attachment for lower limbs

protection of organs

96

Bones in the pectoral girdle

Scapulae Clavicles

97

Bones in the upper limb

Humerus

radius (thumb side) - ulna (pinky side)

Carpals

Metacarpals

Phalanges

98

U-shaped bone located in the neck region which is suspended in musculature and does not articulate with any other bone. It supports the tongue through muscle attachment to the styloid process on the temporal bone and the upper vertebra

Hyoid bone

99

The false ribs only connect to the _______________

Sternum via cartilage

100

Floating ribs only connect to the ___________

vertebrae

101

Attach bone to bone

Ligaments

102

Attach bone to muscle

Tendons

103

Vetebral Cavity

Spinal cord

104

Located in the skull

Brain

105

Located in the thorasic cavity

Heart and Lungs

106

remember to look at your notes because I might not have everything on here!

Good Luck!!!

107

Only two fused bones in the body

Maxillary

108

If bones don't fuse what is the body lacking?

Folic Acid

109

Shaft of the long bone

Diaphysis

110

Located at the ends of long bones

Epiphysis

111

Line in spongy area where bones grow from

Epiphyseal disk

112

Endosteum

A layer of cells lining the inner surface of bone in the central medullary cavity

113

A movement generally in the sagittal plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between the two bones (bending forward at the hip)

Flexion

114

A movement that increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones or parts of the body (straightening the knee of elbow)

Extension

115

Movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body, or the fanning movement of fingers or toes when they are spread apart

Abduction

116

Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body or drawing the fingers or toes together.

Adduction

117

Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement

Rotation

118

A combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction commonly observed in ball and socket joints like the shoulder

Circumduction

119

Movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward-facing position to a posterior or downward facing position (The distal end of the radius moves across the ulna)

Pronation

120

Movement of the palm from a posterior position to an anterior position (the anatomical position)

Supination

121

A movement that results in the medial turning of the sold of the foot

Inversion

122

A movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot

Eversion

123

A movement of the ankle joint in a dorsal direction (standing on one's heels)

Dorsiflexion

124

A movement of the ankle joint in which the foot is flexed downward (standing on one's toes or pointing the toes)

Planter flexion

125

_________________________________ is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored

Medullary cavity

126

________________________a specialized connective tissue covering all bones of the body, and possessing bone-forming potentialities.

Periosteum

127

Shiny, slipery ends of the bones located near the joints

Articular cartilage

128

_____________________is the flexible tissue in the interior of bones. In humans, red blood cells are produced by cores of bone marrow in the heads of long bones in a process known as hematopoiesis

Marrow

129

What are the two type of bones

Compact or hard

Spongy or soft

130

Compact or hard bone have

Osteons and in the shaft of long bones

131

Spongy or soft bone are located

Trabecular plates - look like swiss cheese and has or contains bone marrow

132

List the size and shapes of the bones and were they are found

Long - Femur humurs

Short - wrist, feet, ankle

Vertebra - irregular

flat - scapula, skull

133

What is a joint condition that causes water on the knee, and inflammation of the synovial joint?

Bursitis

134

What is the joint condition that causes stretching or tearing of ligaments?

Sprain

135

What joint condition causes stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons?

Strain

136

What joint condition causes inflammation of the joint and has over 100 variations of the condition?

Arthritis

137

What joint condition is the most common form and 85% of the population has been affected

Osteoarthritis

138

What joint condition in known to be a chronic disorder that occurs between 4--50 years of age but can occur at any age.

Rheumatoid arthritis

139

What joint condition causes uric acid accumaltion in the blood creating needle shaped crystals that cause extreme pain and seen in a single joint. (usually the great toe)

Gouty Arthritis

140

Condition that affects 1/2 of women over 65 and 20% of men over 70

Osteoporosis

141

Thorasic vertebra

T1- T12

142

Vetebral column

C1- C7

143

Lumbar spine

L1- L5 and is the largest vertebra

144

___________________ are needed to make the head ligher so we can hold our heads up

Sinuses

145

Weight bearing bone in the body

Tibia (shin-bone)

146

Non-weight bering bone in the body

Fibula

147

Largest bone in the body

Femur

148

Hinge joints

located in the elbows and knees

149

Ball-and-socket joints

Located in the shoulders and hips

150

Pivot joints

Located in the Atlas-axis joint

151

Saddle joint

Located in carpometacarpal area

152

Gliding joint

Located in the wrist

153

Condyloid joint

Located in the knuckles

154

Tibiofemoral

Location - tibia and femur

155

Humeroulnar

Location - humers and ulna

156

Metacarpophalangeal

Location - metacarpal bone and phalange

157

Glenohumeral

Location - Glenoid cavity and humerus

158

An opening usually a passage for nerves,blood vessels and ligaments

Foramen

159

What is the groves in a bone called

Fossa

160

Tunnel or tubelike passageway of the bones

Meatus

161

Cavity or hollow spaces of the bones

Sinus

162

ribs 8 - 9 - and 10 are called

False ribs

163

ribs 11 & 12 are called

Floating ribs

164

How many bones are in the wrist?

8