Chapter Ten: Agriculture and the Future of Food

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1

Describe the Green Revolution

  • technologies that resulted in remarkable increases in crop production
2

What was Norman Borlaug's role in the Green Revolution?

  • bred dwarf hybrid wheat with a large head and thick stalk
  • awarded the Noble Peace Prize in 1970
3

Negative impacts of the Green Revolution

  • water shortages are increasing
  • requirement of fertilizer, pesticides, and energy-use mechanized labor
  • has not eradicated hunger or poverty
  • Uneven distribution of land
4

Positive impacts of the Green Revolution

  • decreased deforestation in developing nation
  • preserved biodiversity and ecosystems
  • intensified agriculture saved millions from starvation
5

organisms that have been genetically engineered by recombinant DNA

Genetically modified organisms

6

What is recombinant DNA?

  • DNA created from multiple organisms
7

Genetic engineering involves the

addition, deletion, or modification of DNA

8

What is biotechnology?

  • application of biological science to create products derived from organisms
9

What is a transgenic organism?

  • an organism that contains DNA from another species
10

What are transgenes?

  • the genes that have moved between organisms
11

Biotechnology has created

  • medicines
  • cleaned up pollution
  • dissolved blood clots
12

How are genetic engineering and traditional breeding similar?

  • altering crop genes by artificial selection for thousands of years
  • both approaches modify organisms genetically
13

How are genetic engineering and traditional breeding different?

  • GE can mix genes of very different species
  • GE is in vitro lab work, not with whole organisms
  • GE uses gene combination that didn't come together on their own
14

Name three examples of GMOs

  • broccoli: better taste
  • corn: increase production and exterminate replanting seeds
  • banana: reduce size of seeds and improve sweet flavor
15

What percentage of processed foods in the US contain GMOs?

  • 60%
16

Biological Pests

organisms such as insects or fungi that compete with humans to consume agricultural crops

17

Pesticides

chemicals that kill biological pests

18

What are pesticides?

poisons that target pest organisms

19

What do insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides kill?

insects, plants, and fungi

20

Pest

any organism that damages valuable crops

21

Weed

any plant that competes with crops

22

How many kg of pesticides are applied in the U.S. each year?

  • 400 million
    • 75% is applied to agricultural land
23

High consumption leads to feedlot agriculture. What are feedlots?

Huge warehouses or pens in which high density factory animals such as chickens, pigs, and cows are held.

24

List and describe concerns about GMOs

  • limit biodiversity
  • introduce chemicals
25

Why has our production of food increased over the past 50 years despite the growing population?

  • a) We have become more sustainable in food production
  • b) We have doubled the land used for agricultural production
  • c) Technology in the form of fossil fuels, pesticides, and fertilizers have increased production
  • d) We have not produced more food in the past several decades
  • c) Technology in the form of fossil fuels, pesticides, and fertilizers have increased production
26

Which term means "a shortage of nutrients the body needs"?

  • a) undernourishment
  • b) Overnutrition
  • c) Food security
  • d) Malnutrition
  • d) malnutrition
27

Which of the following is NOT correct about monocultures?

  • a) They are an efficient way to produce food
  • b) They increase biodiversity
  • c) They make crops more susceptible to diseases
  • d) They narrow human diets

b) They increase biodiversity

28

Which of the following is NOT a part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM)?

  • a) No-till farming
  • b) Biocontrol
  • c) Some chemical use
  • d) All are a part of IPM
  • d) All are a part of IPM
29

How does GM food production differ from traditional, selective breeding?

  • a) It does not differ
  • b) It uses genes from different species
  • c) It involves more fieldwork
  • d) It works better in developing countries
  • b) It uses genes from different species
30

What is a "seed bank"?

  • a) an institution that preserves seed types for their genetic diversity]
  • b) a form of banking in developing countries, where people can put their excess seeds up as collateral for a loan
  • c) a form of genetically modified organism
  • d) an areas where livestock are fed high-quality grains
  • An institution that preserves seed types for they genetic diversity
31

Which of the following is the fastest growing type of agriculture?

  • a) Concentrated animal feeding operations
  • b) Sustainable agriculture
  • c) Aquaculture
  • d) Monocultures
  • a) Concentrated animal feeding operations
32

If the average person eats 3 kg of meat per week, how many kg of grain are required if the meat came from a cow?

  • a) 60 kg
  • b) 22 kg
  • c) 3 kg
  • d) 12 kg

a) 60 kg

33

What does the graph tell us about the total food production and per capita food production over the past 50 years?

  • a) Both have increased
  • b) While total food production has increased, there has been about the same amount of food per person for the past 30 years
  • c) They both shrank at the same rate
  • d) Total production has slowed down, but there is more food per person

b) While total food production has increased, there has been about the same amount of food per person for the past 30 years

34

of all human food now comes from only 15 crop species and 8 livestock species

  • 90%
35

What is biological control?

  • uses a pest's predators to control the pest
36

What does biological control do?

  • reduces pest populations without chemicals
  • reduces chemical use
37

Integrated Pest Management may involve:

  • Biocontrol
  • Pesticides
  • Close population monitoring
  • Habitat modification
  • Crop rotation
  • Transgenic crops
  • Alternative tillage
  • Mechanical pest removal