The thymus is most active during _____ ?
The Lymphatic capillaries are _______ .
more permeable than blood capillaries
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ___
Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?
Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the _____ ?
Which of the following is NOT a type of T Cell?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the inflammatory response?
replaces injured tissue with connective tissue
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by _____ ?
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?
chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
interfere with viral replication within cells
Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.
Isografts are between identical twins
Which of the statements below does NOT describe antigens?
Antigens only come from microbes
Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
reactivity with an antibody
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ____ .
John is a 28 year old male who has an elevated white blood cell count after running. The elevated count is most likely due to .....
An increased neutrophil count
Jane is infected with a parasitic infection. Her _______ count may elevate in response to this infection.
An increase in the number of white blood cells due to an increase in basophils is _______.
Leukocytosis with a basophilia
The cell that produces the granulocytes is a
The most likely first cellular responder in a primary bacterial infection would be
An obstruction of the _________ could cause major swelling (edema) in 75% of the body.
The ______ is a primary lymphoid organ.
A white blood cell is termed that because it _____ .
None of the above
One function NOT of the lymphatic system is to ________ .
Carry proteins to the bloodstream after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract
The compliment cascade is in the _____________ line of defense, and to get the full effect ________ must be split.
Macrophages were once
A NK cell is a type of
A COX inhibitor is a ____________ and blocks the formation of certain ______ .
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), Eicosanoids
Once a _____ infected cell produces and secretes interferons - they provide some protection for neighboring cells that receive the interferons against ____ .
None Of The Above
The adaptive immune system
Is Systemic, Is specific
The antibody involved in ABO incompatibility is _____ .
If an antigen is presented to the T cell or B cell system for the first time (primary response) the defense actions that occur
Lag time differs between T cell system and B cell system
The response of the compliment system
Can work independent of antibody activation
Jane is a 27 year old female who presents complaining of a fever. After performing a history and physical examination, I order lab tests.
The First test I would most likely order is a ______ ?
Importantly regarding a fever - the results of the test in question 36 shows a ______ .
I ask for (if not already on the lab test ordered in question 36) a ______.
The results (of my requested lab in question 38) show an elevated _____ count with a shift to the left.
This finding in question 39 suggests most likely a possible ______ infection.
Betty presents with venereal disease for which the treatment is a penicillin injection. Betty has a reaction to the penicillin within a few minutes. This is an example of a Type _____ hypersensitivity reaction that involves the improper mobilization of _______.
Type I, IgE
Candace unfortunately touches poison ivy. She probably will not see the rash till _____ and the rash is a type _______ hypersensitivity reaction caused by ________ .
3-4 days, IV, the T-cell system
The most active cells that present to a T-helper cell are
The best second line of defense for cancer cells is
One difference between the B-cell system and the T-cell system is that B-cells produce antibodies which react with _______ antigens and the T-cell system reacts to ______ antigens.
Extracellular , intracellular
Mast cells and basophils can produce
_________ decreases the start of inflammation and __________ helps reduce the signs and symptoms of inflammation after it has occurred.
Cold compress and /or an antihistamine, heat and/or some local vasodilator
A partial antigen
The most likely reason a plastic or metal prosthetic device does not generally activate the immune system is
the antigenic determinants are so uniform (little diversity)
The T-cell receptor and the Cell Determinant 4 (CD4) surface markers are
Different surface markers on the T-helper cell
What is the average normal pH range of blood?
7.35 - 7.45
Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?
pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)
Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ____ ?
Which of the following is NOT a phase of hemostasis?
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of _______ .
James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16g/100 ml blood. This is ____
within normal range
Which of the events below does NOT occur when the semilunar valves are open?
Ventricles are in diastole
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ______ .
pump blood with greater pressure
Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ______ .
A lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the
The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the
The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the _____ .
Aldosterone will ______ .
promote an increase in blood pressure
Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?
Vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
Which of the choices below does NOT involve tissue perfusion?
The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called _____ .
Factors that aid venous return include all EXCEPT _______ .
Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.
Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase
The velocity of blood flow is ______
slowest in the capillaries because the total cross - sectional area is the greatest
The Partial Thromboplastin Time measures _____
the intrinsic pathway
Serum is plasma ____
minus the clotting factors
Factor XII is found in the
prevents new clots
The hearts point of maximum impulse is generally found ____
at the 5th intercostal space and midclavicular line
An example of a negative inotropic agent is _____
calcium channel blocker
The cardiac inhibitory center primarily functions using the
parasympathetic nervous system
The QRS complex on an EKG tracing represents _____
Aerobic Exercise is known to ______
Increase the HDL level
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)
Primarily carries Cholesterol away from the liver
The vasoconstrictor center functions primarily through the
sympathetic nervous system
One compensatory mechanism for gram negative shock is
Increased heart rate
The T wave on an EKG tracing represents
The First heart sound is in part due to:
closure of the mitral valve
The splitting of the second heart sound decreases when:
Breathing Out (exhalation)
If the left lateral surface of the left ventricle became ischemic there would be some degree of blockage in the :
anterior interventricular artery
Plasminogen must be converted to _________ to cleave __________
Starlings Law of the Heart states that _______
Heart muscle will contract harder when you stretch it to certain extent
The pericardial cavity is surrounded by _______
A positive inotropic drug is ____
Which of the choices below is NOT a functional process performed by the respiratory system?
transport of respiratory gases
The loudness of a person's voice depends on the
force with which air rushed across the vocal folds
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, Type I and Type II. The function of Type II is to _______
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is ______
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
the recoil of elastic fivers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
Which of the following maintains the potency (openness) of the trachea?
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ______
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ___?
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ______.
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________
interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ____?
0.5 - 1 micrometer thick
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a _____?
decrease in pH(acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ?
increase in carbon doxide
Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
the ventral respiratory group
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is _______ .
only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants
Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
Which of the following does NOT influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?
decrease in lactic acid levels
Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?
Which of the following is NOT an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of Co2?
blood pH adjustment
Which of the following is NOT true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the alveoli?
resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter
Which of the following determines lung compliance?
alveolar surface tension
Tidal Volume in air ______
exchange during normal breathing
Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
partial pressure gradient
possible causes of hypoxia include ______ .
too little oxygen in the atmosphere
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the?
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
rising blood pressure
Respiratory control centers are located in the _________.
medulla and pons
The amount of air that can be inspired about the tidal volume is called _____
Which statement about Co2 is incorrect?
More Co2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
Select the correct statement about the pharynx
the auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx
The larynx contains _____ .
the thyroid cartilage
Which respiratory associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a ballon?
internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?
Which of the choices below in not a role of the pleura?
aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs
Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include _____
voluntary cortical control
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
The respiratory membrane is a combination of _______
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Gas emboli may occur because a
diver holds his breath upon ascent
Inspiratory capacity is
the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
Which center is located in the pons?
pontine respirator group (PRG)
The nose serves all the following functions except _______.
as the initiator of the cough reflex
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by _____
Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?
The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute
Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.
The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration
Which of the choices below is NOT a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
number of red blood cells
The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ___.
surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the _____ .
concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the
ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Which of the following is not possible?
Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance
Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.
As alveolar surface tension increases additional muscle action will be required
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal
Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the _______
loop of Henle
Urine passes through the _________
pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?
A Vasa Recta
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to an _______
increase in the production of ADH
The urinary bladder is composed of __________ epithelium
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin _______
by a decrease in the blood pressure.
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts and heat
Which gland sits atop each kidney?
The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ______
is drained by an efferent arteriole
The defending limb of the loop of Henle _______
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla.
Select the correct statement about the ureters
the ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ______
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
The renal corpuscle is made up of _________
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the
The Juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for
regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?
They are tri-layered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia)
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
the stretching of the bladder wall
The filtration membrane includes all except ________
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ______
Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is _________
hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
The macula densa cells respond to _________.
changes in solute content of the filtrate
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that is does not contain a significant amount of ________.
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it _______.
inhibits the release of ADH
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is _________.
An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ____.
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
3. Nephron 6.collecting duct 2.minor calyx 1.major calyx 5. ureter 4. urethra
Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
Net filtration would decrease.
Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Tubular reabsorption _________
by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and or chemical gradient
Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron?
They are extremely complex molecules
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by
secondary active transport
Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle?
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
Fetal kidneys don not have to work very hard because _________.
the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood.
Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?
Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120mg/100ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230mg/100 ml, the amino acid will _____
appear in the urine
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean?
Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed
Excretion of dilute urine requires _________
impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
by secreting sodium ions
In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the _________
thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
Select the correct statement about urinary system development.
Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges
Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?
ridding the body of bicarbonate ions
Which statement is correct ?
Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled
What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
Which of the choices below is the salt-level-monitoring part of the nephron?
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
angiotensin II and aldosterone
Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?
Macula densa cells