HESI A2- Anatomy & Physiology - Chapter 7- Key Terms

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HESI Book Hints............................................................................................................................ ...(As the epidermal cells move from the deepest layers to the superficial layers, they move away from their blood and nutrient supply; subsequently, they dehydrate and die. To illustrate this, visualize a large transparent container filled with inflated balloons covered with sticky glue. This illustrates the stratum basale. As the balloons deflate, the sides that are stuck together pull the balloons into a spiny shape, much like the stratum spinosum. As the balloons continue to deflate, they become flattened, like the stratum corneum.)... .....(Construct flash cards for learning the names, locations, and other features of bones and bone markings. Time and practice are more successful learning strategies than trying to “get it” on the first or second time through. Use mnemonic devices to recall the names and positions of bones, foramina, and othe
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1

Alimentary canal

The digestive tube that consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus

2

Anatomic position

The position of the body where the body is erect, the feet are slightly apart, the head is held high, and the palms of the hands are facing forward.

3

Anterior

View facing forward

4

Appendicular skeleton

The part of the skeleton that includes the girdles and the limbs. The upper portion consists of the pectoral or shoulder girdle, the clavicle and scapula, and the upper extremity. The bones of the arm are the humerus, the radius and ulna, the carpals (wrist bones), the metacarpals (bones of the hand), and the phalanges (bones of the fingers). The lower portion of the appendicular skeleton is made up of the pelvic girdle or os coxae. Each of the os coxae consists of a fused ilium, ischium, and pubis. Bones of the lower extremity include the femur (thighbone), the tibia and fibula, the tarsals (ankle bones), the metatarsals (bones of the foot), and the phalanges.

5

Arterioles

The smallest type of arteries.

6

Axial skeleton

The 28 bones of the skull. These are separated into the 14 facial bones and the 14 bones of the cranium.

7

Bolus

A ball of food that is formed after the food is broken down by the teeth and saliva.

8

Cell

The basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs.

9

Cerebellum

A part of the brain responsible for muscular coordination.

10

Cerebrum

The part of the brain associated with movement and sensory input.

11

Chyme

The soupy substance that is created by the stomach churning and mixing the bolus food mass.

12

Dermis

The layer of skin that consists of the underlying layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and the associated skin structures.

13

Distal

Term of direction usually used in reference to limbs. Distal refers to further away from the point of attachment.

14

Epidermis

The layer of skin that consists of the outermost protective layer of dead keratinized epithelial cells.

15

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells.

16

External respiration

The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli.

17

Hemopoiesis

Blood cell formation.

18

Histology

The study of tissues

19

Inferior

View from below.

20

Infundibulum

The stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.

21

Internal respiration

The exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells.

22

Lateral

Away from the midline or toward the sides.

23

Leukocytes

White blood cells.

24

Medial

View toward the midline.

25

Medulla oblongata

The part of the brain that controls many vital functions such as respiration and heart rate.

26

Meiosis

Type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction; each daughter cell receives the haploid number of chromosomes.

27

Mitosis

Type of cell division that produces two identical daughter cells; phases include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

28

Neuroglia

Connective tissue cells in nerve tissue.

29

Osteoblasts

The cells that form compact bone.

30

Platelets

An element of blood that is active in the process of blood clotting.

31

Posterior

View toward the back.

32

Progesterone

A hormone secreted by the corpus luteum, which further stimulates development of the endometrium.

33

Proximal

Term of direction usually used in reference to limbs. Proximal means closer to the point of attachment.

34

Sarcomeres

Small units that make up myofibrils, which make up each muscle cell.

35

Superior

View from above .

36

Synergists

Muscles that work in cooperation with the prime mover muscle.