BIO 202 Unit 2 Test Review

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1

Stimuli for breathing

  • Rising CO2 levels
  • Arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg
  • Arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention
2

Plasma cells release antibodies that play a role in..

  • Humoral immunity
  • Immediate hypersensitivity reactions
  • Autoimmune disorders
3

Functions of the inflammatory process

  • Prevents spread of injurious agent to nearby tissue
  • Disposes of cellular debris and pathogens
  • Sets the stage for the repair process
4

What happens when lymph structures in a limb are blocked by a tumor?

Severe localized edema distal to the blockage

5

Lymphocytes become immunocompetent due to what?

Thymic hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland

6

Events needed to supply body with O2 and dispose of CO2

Internal and external respiration and pulmonary ventilation

7

What is an antigen?

  • Substances that can mobilize the adaptive defenses and provoke an immune response
  • Ultimate targets of all immune responses
8

Examples of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction

  • Allergic contact dermatitis
  • Skin test for TB
9

What are Natural Killer (NK) cells?

  • Police body, blood and lymph
  • are a unique group of defensive cells that can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the adaptive immune system is activated
  • Sometimes called the “pit bulls” of the defense system, NK cells are part of a small group of large granular lymphocytes.
  • Not specific and not phagocytic
10

What is required for T cell activation?

Signal 1: TCR:MHC

Signal 2: CD28:CD80/86

11

What is chemotaxis?

  • Chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes
  • Pinpoint areas of tissue damage and infection and gather there in large numbers to destroy foreign substances and dead cells
12

What type of cells secrete surfactant?

Type II alveolar cells

13

What determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

Partial pressure gradient

14

What is a sentinel node?

The first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

15

Types of T Cells

  • Cytotoxic T Cell: The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
  • Helper T Cell: Play a central role in adaptive immunity, mobilizing both its humoral and cellular arms
  • Regulatory T Cell: dampen the immune response, they act either by direct contact or by releasing inhibitory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β, important in preventing autoimmune diseases
16

What is involved in lymph transport?

Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles

17

What is the respiratory rate in newborns?

40 - 80 respirations per minute

18

What type of cells are capable of killing both cancer and viral cells?

NK cells

19

What role do interferons play against disease?

Protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

20

What is vasodilation?

Redness and heat of an inflamed area due to a local hyperemia

21

What is Boyle's Law?

The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume of its container. Increase the volume, pressure decreases. Decrease the volume, pressure increases.

22

What are some functions of the nose?

  • provides an airway for respiration
  • moistens & warms entering air filters
  • cleans inspired air
  • serves as a resonating chamber for speech
  • houses the olfactory receptors
23

What is Tidal Volume?

Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions (500ml)

24

Where are the tonsils located?

Found at the entrance to the pharynx

25

Most inspired particles never reach the lungs due to what?

Ciliated mucous lining in the nose

26

Which cell is most critical in our immunity?

Helper T Cell

27

What primarily makes up lymph tissue?

Reticular connective tissue

28

What is intrapulmonary pressure?

Pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

29

Where do you find Peyer's patches?

The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles

30

What are some causes of hypoxia?

  • Too little oxygen in the air
  • Too few RBCs (anemic hypoxia)
  • Blocked Blood Circulation (stagnant hypoxia)
31

What is the most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing?

Increase of CO2

32

Some facts about phagocytes

  • Neutrophils are most abundant, become phagocytic on encountering infectious material in tissue
  • Macrophages (big eaters) derive from monocytes that leave blood stream, enter tissues, eat cellular debris and foreign invaders
33

What are haptens?

Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances

34

Normal components of lymph

Water, plasma, ions

35

Where are the lingual tonsils?

Base of the tongue

36

What is Vital Capacity?

The total amount of exchangeable air, it's what you have control over. Tidal volume plus Inspiratory reserve volume plus Expiratory reserve volume. TV t IRV t ERV which equals 4800 ml.

37

What cells release cytokines in order to mobilize immune cells?

Activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area

38

What interferes with viral replication within cells?

Interferons

39

What is opsonization?

Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism

40

Where are respiratory control centers located?

Medulla and pons

41

Why do RBCs increase temporarily when moving to a higher altitude?

Any prolonged period of oxygen deprivation will result in a higher RBC count

42

Complement Activation Pathways

Classical pathway: Activated by antibodies coating target cell

Lectin pathway: Activated by lectins binding to specific sugars on microorganism's surface

Alternative pathway: Activated spontaneously, lack of inhibitors on microorganism's surface allows process to proceed

43

Where are lymph capillaries found?

Digestive organs

44

Which cells may prevent autoimmune reactions?

Regulatory T cells

45

Air moves in and out of lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is what?

Greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

46

What are bubos?

Infected lymph nodes

47

Characteristics of Adaptive Immune System

  • Antigen-specific
  • Systemic
  • It has memory
48

What determines lung compliance?

Alveolar surface tension

49

What are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells?

Cytotoxic T Cells

50

How are O2 and CO2 exchanged in the lungs?

Diffusion through cell membranes

51

IgG passing from mother to fetus is what type of immunity?

Naturally acquired passive immunity

52

What makes the thymus different from all other lymphoid organs?

All, except the Thymus, are composed of reticular connective tissue.

53

How do antibodies work?

  • Neutralize antigen
  • Enhance phagocytosis
  • Agglutination and precipitating antigen
54

The respiratory membrane should be how thick?

0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

55

What is immunocompetence?

The ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

56

What methods help maintain lymph flow?

  • Skeletal muscle contraction
  • Breathing
  • Valves in lymph vessel walls
57

Where do B cells develop their immunocompetence?

Bone marrow

58

Structures associated with MALT

  • Appendix,
  • Tonsils
  • Peyer's patches
59

Four Types of Tissue Grafts

  • Autograft: Taken from the patient
  • Xenograft: Taken from another animal species
  • Allograft: Taken from individuals who are not genetically identical but belong to the same species
  • Isograft: Taken from someone genetically identical to the patient (identical twin)
60

What is the main site of gas exchange?

Respiratory zone - respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, & alveoli

61

Functions of lymph nodes

Filtering and protection

62

Forms of lung cancer

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
63

Functions of lymph nodes

  • Act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
  • Produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs
  • Serve as antigen surveillance areas
64

Examples of digestive tract lymph tissue

  • Peyer's patches
  • Palatine tonsils
  • Lingual tonsils
65

What is Inspiratory Capacity?

The total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

66

When is the thymus most active?

Childhood

67

Functions of lymph system

  • Draining excess interstitial fluid
  • Carrying out immune responses
  • Transporting dietary fats
68

Helper T Cells are part of what system?

Immune System

69

Where is thyroid cartilage found?

Attached to the hyoid bone

70

In the fetus, where does respiratory exchange take place?

Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.

71

What is involved in phagocyte mobilization?

Mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

72

The predominate cell at sites of chronic infections

Macrophages

73

What areas does the right lymphatic duct drain?

  • Right upper arm
  • Right side of the head
  • And the throrax
74

What is Inspiratory Reserve?

After a normal inhalation, if you force in air ( suck in air), that is the inspiratory reserve volume which is about 3100 ml.

75

Actions of T and B Cells

T cells and B cells become fully immunocompetent when they bind with recognized antigens

76

Where does the auditory tube drain into?

Nasopharynx

77

Functions of the spleen

  • Removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood
  • Storage of blood platelets
  • Storage of iron
78

What is responsible for determining which cells will be cloned?

Antigens

79

Large clusters of lymph nodes are found where?

  • Inguinal region
  • Cervical region
  • Axillary region
80

Therapeutic management of an anaphylactic reaction

Therapeutic management includes speed in recognition of signs and symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction because death can occur within minutes. Maintaining an open airway is critical, because the bronchioles constrict, making it difficult to breathe.

81

Why is the prognosis of cancer best when there has been no metastasis?

The lymphatic system consists of a meandering network of lymphatic vessels. Cancer cells that break free from the primary tumor can metastasize via the lymph system.