Stimuli for breathing
- Rising CO2 levels
- Arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg
- Arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention
Plasma cells release antibodies that play a role in..
- Humoral immunity
- Immediate hypersensitivity reactions
- Autoimmune disorders
Functions of the inflammatory process
- Prevents spread of injurious agent to nearby tissue
- Disposes of cellular debris and pathogens
- Sets the stage for the repair process
What happens when lymph structures in a limb are blocked by a tumor?
Severe localized edema distal to the blockage
Lymphocytes become immunocompetent due to what?
Thymic hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland
Events needed to supply body with O2 and dispose of CO2
Internal and external respiration and pulmonary ventilation
What is an antigen?
- Substances that can mobilize the adaptive defenses and provoke an immune response
- Ultimate targets of all immune responses
Examples of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction
- Allergic contact dermatitis
- Skin test for TB
What are Natural Killer (NK) cells?
- Police body, blood and lymph
- are a unique group of defensive cells that can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the adaptive immune system is activated
- Sometimes called the “pit bulls” of the defense system, NK cells are part of a small group of large granular lymphocytes.
- Not specific and not phagocytic
What is required for T cell activation?
Signal 1: TCR:MHC
Signal 2: CD28:CD80/86
What is chemotaxis?
- Chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes
- Pinpoint areas of tissue damage and infection and gather there in large numbers to destroy foreign substances and dead cells
What type of cells secrete surfactant?
Type II alveolar cells
What determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
Partial pressure gradient
What is a sentinel node?
The first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
Types of T Cells
- Cytotoxic T Cell: The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
- Helper T Cell: Play a central role in adaptive immunity, mobilizing both its humoral and cellular arms
- Regulatory T Cell: dampen the immune response, they act either by direct contact or by releasing inhibitory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β, important in preventing autoimmune diseases
What is involved in lymph transport?
Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles
What is the respiratory rate in newborns?
40 - 80 respirations per minute
What type of cells are capable of killing both cancer and viral cells?
What role do interferons play against disease?
Protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
What is vasodilation?
Redness and heat of an inflamed area due to a local hyperemia
What is Boyle's Law?
The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume of its container. Increase the volume, pressure decreases. Decrease the volume, pressure increases.
What are some functions of the nose?
- provides an airway for respiration
- moistens & warms entering air filters
- cleans inspired air
- serves as a resonating chamber for speech
- houses the olfactory receptors
What is Tidal Volume?
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions (500ml)
Where are the tonsils located?
Found at the entrance to the pharynx
Most inspired particles never reach the lungs due to what?
Ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Which cell is most critical in our immunity?
Helper T Cell
What primarily makes up lymph tissue?
Reticular connective tissue
What is intrapulmonary pressure?
Pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
Where do you find Peyer's patches?
The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles
What are some causes of hypoxia?
- Too little oxygen in the air
- Too few RBCs (anemic hypoxia)
- Blocked Blood Circulation (stagnant hypoxia)
What is the most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing?
Increase of CO2
Some facts about phagocytes
- Neutrophils are most abundant, become phagocytic on encountering infectious material in tissue
- Macrophages (big eaters) derive from monocytes that leave blood stream, enter tissues, eat cellular debris and foreign invaders
What are haptens?
Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances
Normal components of lymph
Water, plasma, ions
Where are the lingual tonsils?
Base of the tongue
What is Vital Capacity?
The total amount of exchangeable air, it's what you have control over. Tidal volume plus Inspiratory reserve volume plus Expiratory reserve volume. TV t IRV t ERV which equals 4800 ml.
What cells release cytokines in order to mobilize immune cells?
Activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area
What interferes with viral replication within cells?
What is opsonization?
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism
Where are respiratory control centers located?
Medulla and pons
Why do RBCs increase temporarily when moving to a higher altitude?
Any prolonged period of oxygen deprivation will result in a higher RBC count
Complement Activation Pathways
Classical pathway: Activated by antibodies coating target cell
Lectin pathway: Activated by lectins binding to specific sugars on microorganism's surface
Alternative pathway: Activated spontaneously, lack of inhibitors on microorganism's surface allows process to proceed
Where are lymph capillaries found?
Which cells may prevent autoimmune reactions?
Regulatory T cells
Air moves in and out of lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is what?
Greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
What are bubos?
Infected lymph nodes
Characteristics of Adaptive Immune System
- It has memory
What determines lung compliance?
Alveolar surface tension
What are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells?
Cytotoxic T Cells
How are O2 and CO2 exchanged in the lungs?
Diffusion through cell membranes
IgG passing from mother to fetus is what type of immunity?
Naturally acquired passive immunity
What makes the thymus different from all other lymphoid organs?
All, except the Thymus, are composed of reticular connective tissue.
How do antibodies work?
- Neutralize antigen
- Enhance phagocytosis
- Agglutination and precipitating antigen
The respiratory membrane should be how thick?
0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
What is immunocompetence?
The ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
What methods help maintain lymph flow?
- Skeletal muscle contraction
- Valves in lymph vessel walls
Where do B cells develop their immunocompetence?
Structures associated with MALT
- Peyer's patches
Four Types of Tissue Grafts
- Autograft: Taken from the patient
- Xenograft: Taken from another animal species
- Allograft: Taken from individuals who are not genetically identical but belong to the same species
- Isograft: Taken from someone genetically identical to the patient (identical twin)
What is the main site of gas exchange?
Respiratory zone - respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, & alveoli
Functions of lymph nodes
Filtering and protection
Forms of lung cancer
- Small cell carcinoma
- Squamous cell carcinoma
Functions of lymph nodes
- Act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
- Produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs
- Serve as antigen surveillance areas
Examples of digestive tract lymph tissue
- Peyer's patches
- Palatine tonsils
- Lingual tonsils
What is Inspiratory Capacity?
The total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
When is the thymus most active?
Functions of lymph system
- Draining excess interstitial fluid
- Carrying out immune responses
- Transporting dietary fats
Helper T Cells are part of what system?
Where is thyroid cartilage found?
Attached to the hyoid bone
In the fetus, where does respiratory exchange take place?
Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
What is involved in phagocyte mobilization?
Mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
The predominate cell at sites of chronic infections
What areas does the right lymphatic duct drain?
- Right upper arm
- Right side of the head
- And the throrax
What is Inspiratory Reserve?
After a normal inhalation, if you force in air ( suck in air), that is the inspiratory reserve volume which is about 3100 ml.
Actions of T and B Cells
T cells and B cells become fully immunocompetent when they bind with recognized antigens
Where does the auditory tube drain into?
Functions of the spleen
- Removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood
- Storage of blood platelets
- Storage of iron
What is responsible for determining which cells will be cloned?
Large clusters of lymph nodes are found where?
- Inguinal region
- Cervical region
- Axillary region
Therapeutic management of an anaphylactic reaction
Therapeutic management includes speed in recognition of signs and symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction because death can occur within minutes. Maintaining an open airway is critical, because the bronchioles constrict, making it difficult to breathe.
Why is the prognosis of cancer best when there has been no metastasis?
The lymphatic system consists of a meandering network of lymphatic vessels. Cancer cells that break free from the primary tumor can metastasize via the lymph system.