Chapter 24 Flashcards


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1

1) The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and
blood cells is ________.
A) fat
B) glucose
C) acetyl CoA
D) cellulose

B) glucose

2

2) Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?
A) ATP production
B) lipogenesis
C) amino acid synthesis
D) conversion to a nucleic acid
E) glycogenesis

D) conversion to a nucleic acid

3

3) Dietary fats are important because they ________.
A) keep blood pressure normal
B) help the body absorb fatsoluble
vitamins
C) contribute significantly to the health of the skin
D) help prevent the common cold

A) keep blood pressure normal

4

4) Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it
________.
A) is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid
hormones
B) helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs
C) helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation
D) enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered

A) is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid
hormones

5

5) Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
A) derived from meat and fish only
B) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet
C) derived only from legumes and other plant material
D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

6

6) The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
A) the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats
B) a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories
C) the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day

D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for
energy

D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for
energy

7

7) The term metabolic rate reflects the ________.
A) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
B) loss of organic molecules in urine
C) energy needed to make all organic molecules
D) loss of energy to perspiration

A) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities

8

8) When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is
mostly________.
A) urea
B) ammonia
C) acetyl CoA
D) ketone bodies

A) urea

9

9) It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
A) vitamins provide protection against the common cold
B) very few foods contain vitamins
C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
D) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization

C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

10

10) Oxidationreduction
reactions are catalyzed by which of the following enzymes?
A) dehydrogenases and oxidases
B) kinases and phosphorylases
C) phosphatases and kinases
D) synthetases and lipases

A) dehydrogenases and oxidases

11

11) Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete
oxidation of glucose)?
A) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
B) gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis
C) lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation
D) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain

A) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

12

12) Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
A) carbohydrate utilization increases
B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

C) structural proteins are used as a potential energy source
D) ketone bodies are formed

B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

13

13) Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
A) causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies
B) builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state
C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
D) elevates glucagon levels

C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

14

14) The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.
A) determine the amount of heat needed by the human body
B) provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
C) efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body
D) break down food molecules and generate ATP

D) break down food molecules and generate ATP

15

15) The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as
________.
A) gluconeogenesis
B) fat utilization
C) lipogenesis
D) lipolysis

D) lipolysis

16

16) Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?
A) oxidative phosphorylation
B) substratelevel
phosphorylation
C) oxidationreduction
reactions
D) oxidation reactions

A) oxidative phosphorylation

17

17) Lipogenesis occurs when ________.
A) there is a shortage of fatty acids
B) glucose levels drop slightly
C) excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane
D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

18

18) Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.
A) liver
B) muscles
C) kidneys

A) liver

19

19) Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________.
A) transferred to acetyl CoA
B) converted to urea
C) transferred to a keto acid
D) converted to ammonia

C) transferred to a keto acid

20

20) Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.
A) postabsorptive state
B) absorptive state
C) starvation period
D) period when the metabolic rate is lowest

B) absorptive state

21

21) Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heatpromoting
center?
A) release of epinephrine
B) sympathetic sweat gland activation
C) increase in ADH production
D) vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels

A) release of epinephrine

22

22) Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.
A) glycogen is broken down to release glucose
B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
C) glycogen is formed
D) glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water

B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

23

23) Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.
A) conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water
B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
C) conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water
D) formation of sugar

B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

24

24) What is the outcome of ketosis?
A) water retention and edema
B) metabolic acidosis
C) metabolic alkalosis
D) glycogen buildup

B) metabolic acidosis

25

25) Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?
A) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.
B) Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones.
C) No metabolism occurs.
D) Only glucose metabolism occurs.

A) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.

26

26) In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to
the body for all of the following except ________.
A) production of energy
B) production of some hormones
C) production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
D) formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes

A) production of energy

27

27) The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.
A) cholesterol
B) phospholipids
C) fatty acids
D) triglycerides

D) triglycerides

28

28) Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed ________.
A) radiation
B) convection
C) conduction
D) evaporation

A) radiation

29

29) Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?
A) growth hormone
B) thyroid hormone
C) epinephrine
D) insulin

D) insulin

30

30) Prostaglandins play a role in ________.
A) skeletal muscle contraction
B) control of blood volume
C) noninflammatory responses
D) control of blood pressure

D) control of blood pressure

31

31) Which of the following is the most important function of the liver?
A) carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
B) synthesis of bile salts
C) processing of drugs and hormones and activation of vitamin D
D) protein metabolism

C) processing of drugs and hormones and activation of vitamin D

32

32) As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the
________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to
fatty acids.
A) liver
B) brain
C) pancreas
D) spleen

B) brain

33

33) In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are
converted to glucose.
A) glycerol
B) glycogen
C) glyceraldehyde
D) glucagon

A) glycerol

34

34) In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative
state.
A) glyceraldehyde
B) pyruvic acid
C) ammonia
D) oxaloacetic acid

C) ammonia

35

35) Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production?
A) vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels
B) shivering
C) sweating
D) enhanced thyroxine release

C) sweating

36

36) Heatloss
mechanisms do not include ________.
A) reducing activity
B) the evaporation of sweat
C) behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing

D) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

D) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

37

37) The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in
determining BMR.
A) norepinephrine
B) thyroxine
C) prolactin
D) ADH

B) thyroxine

38

38) When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually
indicates increased metabolism of ________.
A) amino acids
B) fatty acids
C) glycogen
D) lactic acid

B) fatty acids

39

39) Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?
A) the way an individual metabolizes fat
B) the way skeletal muscles break down glycogen
C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body
D) an individual's body weight

C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body

40

40) The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.
A) muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
B) their appetite begins to diminish
C) they have a higher metabolic rate and do not need large amounts of food
D) they spend most of the day at rest, and their food will quickly turn to fat

A) muscle mass and metabolism decline with age

41

41) Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?
A) radiation
B) conduction/convection
C) evaporation
D) shivering

D) shivering