Plants and the Conquest of Land Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by kristincannon11
1,794 views
Subjects:
bio ii
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

The Kingdom Plantae arose from:
A.a choanoflagellate
B. a chytrid
C. a charophycean
D. a zygomycete
E. a stramenopile

C. a charophycean

2

Organisms in the same clade are:
A.monophyletic
B. convergent
C. divergent
D. polyphyletic
E. syntopic

A.monophyletic

3

Which of the following do green algae and plants NOT have in common?
A.plastids
B. chlorophyll a
C. chlorophyll b
D. beta-carotene
E. heterocysts

E. heterocysts

4

The ten phyla of living land plants include:
A.(1) liverworts, (2) hornworts, (3) mosses, (4) lycophytes, (5) pteridophytes, (6) cycads, (7) ginkgos, (8) conifers, (9) gnetophytes, and (10) angiosperms
B. (1) liverworts, (2) hornworts, (3) mosses, (4) lycophytes, (5) pteridophytes, (6) cycads, (7) ginkgos, (8) conifers, (9) gnetophytes, and (10) flowering plants
C. (1) Hepatophyta, (2) Anthocerophyta, (3) Bryophyta, (4) Lycopodiophyta, (5) Pteridophyta, (6) Cycadophyta, (7) Ginkgophyta, (8) Coniferophyta, (9) Gnetophyta, and (10) Anthophtya
D. (1) liverworts, (2) hornworts, (3) mosses, (4) lycophytes, (5) ferns, horsetails, and whisk-ferns, (6) cycads, (7) ginkgos, (8) conifers, (9) gnetophytes, and (10) flowering plants
E. all the other choices provided are correct.

E. all the other choices provided are correct.

5

Which of the following are arranged in the sequence in which the various taxa first appeared in time?
A. bacteria, protists, charophyceans, liverworts, lycophytes, gnetophytes, angiosperms
B. Archaea, protists, charophyceans, mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants
C. bacteria, protists, charophyceans, mosses, cycads, angiosperms
D. prokaryotes, protists, charophyceans, mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants
E. All the other choices provided are correct

E. All the other choices provided are correct

6

Which of the following statements best describes the life cycles of charophyceans and mosses?
A.The diploid generation of charophyceans consists of only one cell whereas the diploid generation of mosses is multicellular.
B. The haploid generation of charophyceans consists of only one cell whereas the haploid generation of mosses is multicellular.
C. The haploid and diploid generations of charophyceans both consist of only one cell whereas both generations of mosses are multicellular.
D. The haploid and diploid generations of both charophyceans and mosses are unicellular.
E. All of the choices provided are incorrect.

A.The diploid generation of charophyceans consists of only one cell whereas the diploid generation of mosses is multicellular.

7

Alternation of generations means:
A.One phase of the life cycle takes place on land and the other in water.
B. One phase of the life cycle is photosynthetic and the other is heterotrophic.
C. One phase of the life cycle is diploid and the other is haploid.
D. One phase of the life cycle is unicellular and the other is multicellular.
E. One phase of the life cycle is motile and the other is stationary.

C. One phase of the life cycle is diploid and the other is haploid.

8

A sporic life cycle is NOT characteristic of which of the following groups?
A.ginkgos
B. angiosperms
C. mosses
D. conifers
E. charophyceans

E. charophyceans

9

Which of the following statements best describes the female gamete of mosses?
A.It is haploid.
B. It lacks flagella.
C. It is produced by the gametophyte generation.
D. It is larger than the male gamete.
E. All of the other choices provided are correct.

E. All of the other choices provided are correct.

10

Which of the following is NOT an adaptation of mosses for living on land?
A.delayed meiosis
B. enclosure of gametes in gametangia
C. enclosure of zygotes in the gametophyte
D. wind dispersal of gametes
E. wind dispersal of spores

D. wind dispersal of gametes

11

Moss sperm are produced in:
A.archegonia
B. sporophytes
C. antheridia
D. clamp connections
E. none of the other choices provided

C. antheridia

12

Sporopollenin is:
A. a tough protective covering on spores
B. pollen that is produced in a sporophyte
C. the conversion of pollen to spores
D. a capsule housing pollen
E. All of the other choices provided are incorrect

A. a tough protective covering on spores

13

Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of vascular tissue in plants?
A.physical support of the plant
B. transport of water
C. transport of minerals
D. transport of organic compounds
E. transport of gametes

E. transport of gametes

14

Which of the following is NOT a tracheophyte?
A.a fern
B. a liverwort
C. a horsetail
D. a conifer
E. an oak tree

B. a liverwort

15

A tracheid is:
A. a gametophyte cell
B. a small branch of an insect trachea
C. a seed-bearing stem
D. a specialized vascular cell
E. a reproductive chamber

D. a specialized vascular cell

16

The phloem:
A. transports water from the roots to the stems and leaves
B. transports food between the leaves and the roots
C. transports minerals from the roots to the stems and leaves
D. transports carbon dioxide from the leaves to the stems and roots
E. All of the other choices provided are correct

B. transports food between the leaves and the roots

17

Which of the following statements best describes the function of the xylem?
A.It transports water from the roots to the stems and leaves.
B. It transports food between the leaves and the roots.
C. It transports minerals from the roots to the stems and leaves.
D. It transports both water and minerals from the roots to the stems and leaves.
E. It transports water from roots to leaves and food from leaves to roots.

D. It transports both water and minerals from the roots to the stems and leaves.

18

The polyester polymer on the leaves of vascular plants that protects them from pathogens is called:
A. lignin
B. cutin
C. chitin
D. cellulose
E. All of the other choices offered are incorrect

B. cutin

19

Which of the following statements is NOT true of the stomata on the leaves of vascular plants?
A.They regulate intake of carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis.
B. They regulate release of oxygen to the air.
C. They regulate loss of water.
D. They are open or closed depending on environmental conditions.
E. They regulate the absorption of light by the chlorophyll.

E. They regulate the absorption of light by the chlorophyll.

20

Which of the following comparisons between the moss life cycle and fern life cycle is NOT valid?
A.Both kinds of plants have flagellated sperm that need water to reach the female gamete.
B. The sporophyte generation is much larger than the gametophyte generation in ferns but is smaller than the gametophyte generation in mosses.
C. The spores are produced in capsules on stalks in mosses but in small structure called sori on the underside of leaves in ferns.
D. Both kinds of plants depend on wind for dispersal of spores.
E. The gametes are produced in gametangia in mosses but on the underside of leaves in ferns.

E. The gametes are produced in gametangia in mosses but on the underside of leaves in ferns.

21

Spermatophytes are:
A.all the kinds of plants that produce sperm
B. all the living and fossil seed plants
C. all the plants that have tracheids and phloem
D. all the woody plants
E. all the plants with a sporic life cycle

B. all the living and fossil seed plants

22

Endosperm is:
A.sperm after it has entered the archegonium
B. sperm produced internally within antheridia
C. sperm cells enclosed within pollen grains
D. tissue stored in seeds that provides nutrition for embryos
E. sperm produced at the end of the flowering season

D. tissue stored in seeds that provides nutrition for embryos

23

Endosperm is found in:
A.angiosperms
B. gymnosperms
C. ferns
D. mosses
E. horsetails

A.angiosperms

24

Why are introns important in understanding the evolutionary history of organisms?
A.Transcribed intron sequences are removed during mRNA processing before translation occurs and since selection operates only on expressed traits, introns often change more slowly than do protein-coding genes.
B. Transcribed intron sequences only are expressed in an anoxic environment and hence their presence indicates organisms that evolved before the Earth had oxygen in its environment.
C. Introns respond to natural selection faster than do protein-coded genes and therefore provide information about the rate of evolution.
D. Introns and protein-coded genes operate in the same way but there are more introns than protein-coded genes and consequently introns provide better patterns.
E. All of the other choices provided are incorrect.

A.Transcribed intron sequences are removed during mRNA processing before translation occurs and since selection operates only on expressed traits, introns often change more slowly than do protein-coding genes.

25

25. Which of the following statements is the most accurate description of fruits and seeds?
A. "Fruits" and "seeds" are synonymous terms.
B. Fruits always have fleshy coverings and seeds always have hard ones.
C. Fruits are ripened ovaries containing seeds.
D. Fruits have endosperm but seeds do not.
E. All of the choices provided are incorrect.

C. Fruits are ripened ovaries containing seeds.

26

Which of the following comparisons of the cellular features of complex charophycean algae and land plants is NOT true?
A.Land plants inherited phragmoplasts from complex charophyceans.
B. Land plants inherited plasmodesmata from complex charophyceans.
C. Land plants inherited xyloglucans from complex charophyceans.
D. Land plants inherited the ability to make cellulose from complex charophyceans.
E. Land plants inherited CesA genes from complex charophyceans.

C. Land plants inherited xyloglucans from complex charophyceans.

27

27. The earliest land plants appeared in the fossil record:
A. about 500 million years ago
B. about 300 million years ago
C. about 100 million years ago
D. a billion years ago
E. about 10 million years ago

A. about 500 million years ago

28

The main effect of burning peat, wood, coal, and petroleum on the Earth's climate is:
A.The fires significantly heat the air and cause a rise in global temperature.
B. The smoke blocks sunlight from reaching the Earth and causes a significant lowering of the Earth's temperature.
C. The fires release back into the atmosphere carbon dioxide that was once taken from the atmosphere by plants and stored in their own tissues; the increased carbon dioxide holds in solar heat and causes a rise in temperature.
D. The rising heat from fires produces wind that cools the surface of the Earth.
E. The fires use up oxygen that would otherwise block penetration of ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth; the increased ultraviolet radiation heats the Earth.

C. The fires release back into the atmosphere carbon dioxide that was once taken from the atmosphere by plants and stored in their own tissues; the increased carbon dioxide holds in solar heat and causes a rise in temperature.

29

After a decline to an historic low about 300 million years ago, carbon dioxide levels in the Earth's atmosphere rose again for a while. Hypothesize a reason why this occurred.
A.All the vegetation that had been produced in warmer times decayed and released carbon dioxide.
B. There was an increase in aerobic bacteria that released large amounts of carbon dioxide.
C. There was an increase in oxygen that stimulated respiration and hence greater production of carbon dioxide.
D. The low carbon dioxide levels caused cooling of the Earth, resulting in the decline of ancient vegetation; with less vegetation to absorb carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide levels rose.
E. All of the other choices provided are incorrect.

D. The low carbon dioxide levels caused cooling of the Earth, resulting in the decline of ancient vegetation; with less vegetation to absorb carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide levels rose.

30

Why did the dinosaurs become extinct?
A.A meteorite or comet crashed into the Earth, causing smoke and ash that blocked the sun and caused death of the plants that were food for dinosaurs.
B. The cycads upon which dinosaurs fed were purgatives and when they declined the dinosaurs, unable to digest flowering plants, died of constipation.
C. Increasing carbon dioxide levels produced climates too hot for the incubation of their eggs.
D. Increase in the number of ferns produced so many spores in the atmosphere that dinosaurs suffered from lung irritation.
E. The pollen produced by the rise in flowering plants produced allergenic responses in dinosaurs.

A.A meteorite or comet crashed into the Earth, causing smoke and ash that blocked the sun and caused death of the plants that were food for dinosaurs.

31

All of the following kinds of plants have at least some members that are vascular plants EXCEPT:
A.spermatophytes
B. lignophytes
C. tracheophytes
D. bryophytes
E. embryophytes

D. bryophytes

32

Which of the following best describes the advantages of retaining the young sporophyte as an embryo within the parent?
A.The embryo is protected from desiccation.
B. The embryo grows better because of nutrients supplied by parental tissues.
C. The embryo is protected from pathogens.
D. The embryo is protected from ultraviolet light.
E. All of the choices provided are correct.

E. All of the choices provided are correct.

33

Which of the following statements best characterizes a euphyll?
A.It differs from a lycophyll by having a branched, rather than a single, vascular system.
B. It is believed to have evolved from a branch that flattened and developed photosynthetic tissue between the branches.
C. It is also called a megaphyll because it is large compared to a lycophyll.
D. It evolved separately from the photosynthetic appendages of moss gametophytes.
E. All of the choices provided are correct.

E. All of the choices provided are correct.

34

Double fertilization is:
A.fertilization of two eggs in the same flower
B. fertilization of an egg by two sperm
C. fertilization of an egg by one sperm and of the nucleus of an endosperm-forming cell by another sperm
D. fertilization of two eggs by the same sperm
E. fertilization of an egg and an endosperm-forming cell by the same sperm

C. fertilization of an egg by one sperm and of the nucleus of an endosperm-forming cell by another sperm

35

Which of the following statements describes the differences between pollination and fertilization?
A.Pollination is the transport of pollen from a microsporangium to a stigma whereas fertilization is the fusion of a sperm with an egg.
B. Pollination is the production of pollen whereas fertilization is the fusion of a sperm with an egg.
C. Pollination is the transport of pollen from a microsporangium to an ovule whereas fertilization is the fusion of the pollen with an ovule.
D. There is no difference; the two terms are synonymous.
E. All of the other choices provided are incorrect.

A.Pollination is the transport of pollen from a microsporangium to a stigma whereas fertilization is the fusion of a sperm with an egg.

36

Which of the following statements is NOT a correct description of an advantage that seeds have over spores?
A. Seeds can remain dormant and survive unfavorable conditions.
B. Seeds are produced in greater numbers than spores.
C. Seeds are tougher and can resist abrasion better than spores.
D. Seeds are more resistant to pathogens.
E. Production of seeds does not require water as a medium for sperm transport.

B. Seeds are produced in greater numbers than spores.

37

Which of the following statements is NOT true of megaspores?
A.Megaspores produce female gametophytes.
B. Megaspores are larger than microspores.
C. A megaspore is a kind of spore of a seed plant.
D. The cells of the walls of the megasporangium are diploid but the megaspores themselves are haploid.
E. Megaspores are diploid.

E. Megaspores are diploid

38

Which of the following statements does NOT describe characteristics of heterospory?
A.Heterospory involves production of spores on two different parts of the same plant.
B. Heterospory involves production of two different kinds of spores, one growing into male gametophytes and the other into female gametophytes.
C. Heterospory increases the chance of cross-fertilization.
D. Heterospory increases the potential for genetic variation and aids evolutionary flexibility.
E. Heterospory only occurs in vascular plants.

A. Heterospory involves production of spores on two different parts of the same plant.

39

Gametophytes that are completely enclosed within the walls of a spore are known as:
A.endosperm
B. endosporic gametophytes
C. micropyles
D. rosettes
E. phragmoplasts

B. endosporic gametophytes

40

Seeds appeared in the fossil record by:
A.100 million years ago
B. 365 million years ago
C. 545 million years ago
D. 780 million years ago
E. a billion years ago

B. 365 million years ago

41

Meiosis does not occur in gametophytes

TRUE

42

Although land plants, mosses are still tied to water because of their flagellated sperm.

TRUE

43

The conspicuous green patches of mosses that you see in the woods are mostly sporophytes

FALSE

44

The conspicuous green parts of ferns that you see in the woods are mostly sporophytes

TRUE

45

Woody plants and herbaceous plants are the two major monophyletic clades of the seed plants.

FALSE

46

Flowers, fruits, and endosperm are defining characteristics of the angiosperms.

TRUE

47

Lignophytes are seed plants that have become extinct whereas spermatophytes are those that are still living

FALSE

48

Terminal complexes in the cellular membranes of plants produce cellulose and are known as rosettes

TRUE

49

The K/T event was the transition of plants from water to land.

FALSE

50

Pteridophytes and seed plants collectively are known as euphyllophytes

TRUE