- Most common WBC found in whole blood
- Main bacteria killer during acute infection.
- Mounts an immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies.
- Becomes a macrophage.
- Kills parasitic worms.
NEVER LET MONKEYS EAT BANANA'S
Nucleus has two lobes; functions as a phagocyte; contains five indistinct granules.
Largest of the WBC's; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections
Contains a U- or an S- shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin
Transports CO2 and oxygen
Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.
- The major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure.
- Makes up most of plasma protein
- Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma.
- Forms the structural framework of a blood clot.
Necessary for coagulation
Transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins
Alpha and Beta globulins
Main contributor to osmotic pressure
Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune respone
Protein capable of changing shape and color in the presence of O2
Adverse reaction of donor blood cells with recipient plasma
Lacking in hemophilia type A
White blood cell without cytoplasmic granules
Hormone that stimulates production of RBC's
A fibrous protein that gives shape to an RBC plasma membrane
Produced by platelets
Prostaglandin derivates such as Thromboxane A2
Stimulates WBC production
Interleukins and CSF's
Natural anticoagulant found in basophils
Cancerous condition involving WBC's
Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity
Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity
Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream
Platelet deficiency resulting in spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels
What is not a functional characteristic of WBC's
What is the average normal pH range of blood
Special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is___
What is a parent cell for all formed elements of blood?
What blood type is the Universal donor?
What is not a distribution function of blood?
transport of salts to maintain blood volume
What is a protective function of blood?
prevention of blood loss
TRUE OR FALSE.........
Blood typing for the Kell, Lewis, and Duffy factors is always done before a blood transfusion?
What might trigger erythropoiesis?
hypoxia of EPO- producing cells
Blood reticulocyte counts provide information regarding _____
rate of erythrocyte formation
Blood type AB negative can _______
receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen
What does not describe blood?
Blood carriers body cells to injured areas for repair
When neither anti-A serum nor anti-B serum clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ______
What is not true regarding blood cell formation?
Platelets are formed from myeloblasts
What does Blood volume restorers not include?
James has a Hgb measurement of 16g/100ml blood. This is ___
within normal range
What plasma protein is the major contributor to osmotic pressure is?
What can not be expected with polycythemia?
low blood viscosity
No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in _____
What is not a phase of hemostasis?
What is not a structural characteristic that contributes to erythrocyte gas transport functions?
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of Vitamin B12 and causing an appearance of large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of _______
What is the slowest step in the clotting process?
formation of prothrombin activator
Thromboembolic disorders include _____
embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system
What is not a cause of bleeding disorders?
excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
What is characteristics of all leukocytes?
they are nucleated
What is true about blood plasma?
It is 90% water
What sticks to the damaged area of a blood vessel and helps seal the break?
- Formation of thromboplastin
- fibrinogen- fibrin
- clot retraction
Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?
There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.
What would not be a possible cause of sickling of RBC's in someone with sickle-cell anemia?
sleeping in a well ventilated room
What does not impair coagulation?
When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in a child of an Rh negative mother?
if the father is Rh-
Blood is a ________
What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?
What element can kill parasitic worms?
What is a committed granular leukocyte stem cell that produces neutrophils?
What is the rarest leukocyte?
What is the universal recipient blood type?
When monocytes migrate into the interstitial spaces, they are called?
What is the stage of development in the life of an erythrocyte during which the nucleus is ejected?
How many polypeptide chains make up Hgb?
List the general factors that limit normal clot growth
removal of coagulation factors and inhibition of activated clotting factors
When are whole blood transfusions routinely given?
- substantial blood loss
- severe anemia
LIFE CYCLE OF RED BLOOD CELLS
- Low O2 levels in blood stimulate kidneys to produce erythropoietin.
- Erythropoietin levels rise in blood.
- Erythropoietin and raw materials in blood promote erythropoiesis in red bone marrow.
- New erythrocytes enter bloodstream; function about 120 days.
- Aged and damaged RBC's are engulfed by macrophages of spleen, liver, and bone marrow: the Hgb is broken down.
- Raw materials are made available in blood for erythrocyte synthesis.
- Erythrocytes(RBC'S) - biconcave, anucleate disc, salmon colored. (4-6 million) development ( duration -15 days) ( life span - 100-120 days) Transport O2 and CO2.
- Leukocytes (WBC'S) spherical, nucleated cells. ( 4800-10,800 cells)
- Neutrophil - multilobed nucleus; inconspicuous cytoplasmic granules. (3000-7000 cells) (Duration 14 days) (lifespan 6 hours to a few days) Phagocytize bacteria.
- Eosinophil - Bilobed nucleus; red cytoplasmic granules. (100-400 cells) (Duration 14 days) (lifespan 6 hours to a few days) kill parasitic worms; complex role in allergy & asthma.
- Basophil - bilobed nucleus; large purplish-black cytoplasmic granules, (20-50 cells) (Duration 1-7 days) (lifespan a few hours to a few days) Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain Heparin, an anticoagulant.
- Lymphocyte - spherical or indented nucleus; pale blue cytoplasm. (1500-3000 cells) (duration days to weeks) (lifespan months) mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies.
- Monocyte - U-or kidney- shaped nucleus; gray-blue cytoplasm, (100-700 cells) (duration 2-3 days) (lifespan months) phagocytosis; develop into macrophage in the tissues.
- Discoid cytoplasmic fragments containing granules, stain deep purple, (150,000-400,000 cells) (duration 4-5 days) (lifespan 5-10 days) seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental in blood clotting.