Chp. 17 Study questions - Blood

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Neutrophil

  • Most common WBC found in whole blood
  • Main bacteria killer during acute infection.

Monocyte

  • Mounts an immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies.
  • Becomes a macrophage.

Eosinophil

  • Kills parasitic worms.

Lymphocyte

NEVER LET MONKEYS EAT BANANA'S

  • Neutrophils
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils
2

Nucleus has two lobes; functions as a phagocyte; contains five indistinct granules.

Neutrophil

3

Largest of the WBC's; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections

Monocyte

4

Contains a U- or an S- shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin

Basophil

5

Transports CO2 and oxygen

Erythrocyte

6

Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.

Eosinophil

7

Albumin

  • The major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure.
  • Makes up most of plasma protein
8

Fibrinogen

  • Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma.
  • Forms the structural framework of a blood clot.
9

Necessary for coagulation

Fibrinogen

10

Transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins

Alpha and Beta globulins

11

Main contributor to osmotic pressure

Albumin

12

Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune respone

Gamma globulins

13

Protein capable of changing shape and color in the presence of O2

Hemoglobin

14

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte

Neutrophil

15

Adverse reaction of donor blood cells with recipient plasma

Agglutination

16

Lacking in hemophilia type A

Factor VIII

17

White blood cell without cytoplasmic granules

Monocyte

18

Hormone that stimulates production of RBC's

Erythropoietin

19

A fibrous protein that gives shape to an RBC plasma membrane

Spectrin

20

Produced by platelets

Prostaglandin derivates such as Thromboxane A2

21

Stimulates WBC production

Interleukins and CSF's

22

Natural anticoagulant found in basophils

Heparin

23

Cancerous condition involving WBC's

Leukemia

24

Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity

Anemia

25

Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity

Polycythemia

26

Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream

Embolism

27

Platelet deficiency resulting in spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels

Thrombocytopenia

28

What is not a functional characteristic of WBC's

Granulosis

29

What is the average normal pH range of blood

7.35-7.45

30

Special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is___

Hemoglobin F

31

What is a parent cell for all formed elements of blood?

Hemocytoblast

32

What blood type is the Universal donor?

O

33

What is not a distribution function of blood?

transport of salts to maintain blood volume

34

What is a protective function of blood?

prevention of blood loss

35

TRUE OR FALSE.........

Blood typing for the Kell, Lewis, and Duffy factors is always done before a blood transfusion?

FALSE

36

What might trigger erythropoiesis?

hypoxia of EPO- producing cells

37

Blood reticulocyte counts provide information regarding _____

rate of erythrocyte formation

38

Blood type AB negative can _______

receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen

39

What does not describe blood?

Blood carriers body cells to injured areas for repair

40

When neither anti-A serum nor anti-B serum clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ______

O

41

What is not true regarding blood cell formation?

Platelets are formed from myeloblasts

42

What does Blood volume restorers not include?

packed cells

43

James has a Hgb measurement of 16g/100ml blood. This is ___

within normal range

44

What plasma protein is the major contributor to osmotic pressure is?

Albumin

45

What can not be expected with polycythemia?

low blood viscosity

46

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in _____

monocytes

47

What is not a phase of hemostasis?

fibrinolysis

48

What is not a structural characteristic that contributes to erythrocyte gas transport functions?

mitotically active

49

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of Vitamin B12 and causing an appearance of large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of _______

pernicious anemia

50

What is the slowest step in the clotting process?

formation of prothrombin activator

51

Thromboembolic disorders include _____

embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system

52

What is not a cause of bleeding disorders?

excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

53

What is characteristics of all leukocytes?

they are nucleated

54

What is true about blood plasma?

It is 90% water

55

What sticks to the damaged area of a blood vessel and helps seal the break?

Platelets

56

CORRECT SEQUENCE

  • Formation of thromboplastin
  • prothrombin-thrombin
  • fibrinogen- fibrin
  • clot retraction

...

57

Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.

58

What would not be a possible cause of sickling of RBC's in someone with sickle-cell anemia?

sleeping in a well ventilated room

59

What does not impair coagulation?

vascular spasm

60

When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in a child of an Rh negative mother?

if the father is Rh-

61

Blood is a ________

suspension

62

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

kidney

63

What element can kill parasitic worms?

Eosinophils

64

What is a committed granular leukocyte stem cell that produces neutrophils?

Myeloblast

65

What is the rarest leukocyte?

basophil

66

What is the universal recipient blood type?

AB-

67

When monocytes migrate into the interstitial spaces, they are called?

macrophages

68

What is the stage of development in the life of an erythrocyte during which the nucleus is ejected?

normoblast

69

How many polypeptide chains make up Hgb?

4

70

List the general factors that limit normal clot growth

removal of coagulation factors and inhibition of activated clotting factors

71

When are whole blood transfusions routinely given?

  • substantial blood loss
  • severe anemia
  • thrombocytopenia
72

LIFE CYCLE OF RED BLOOD CELLS

  1. Low O2 levels in blood stimulate kidneys to produce erythropoietin.
  2. Erythropoietin levels rise in blood.
  3. Erythropoietin and raw materials in blood promote erythropoiesis in red bone marrow.
  4. New erythrocytes enter bloodstream; function about 120 days.
  5. Aged and damaged RBC's are engulfed by macrophages of spleen, liver, and bone marrow: the Hgb is broken down.
  6. Raw materials are made available in blood for erythrocyte synthesis.

...

73
  • Erythrocytes(RBC'S) - biconcave, anucleate disc, salmon colored. (4-6 million) development ( duration -15 days) ( life span - 100-120 days) Transport O2 and CO2.
  • Leukocytes (WBC'S) spherical, nucleated cells. ( 4800-10,800 cells)
  • Granulocytes
    • Neutrophil - multilobed nucleus; inconspicuous cytoplasmic granules. (3000-7000 cells) (Duration 14 days) (lifespan 6 hours to a few days) Phagocytize bacteria.
    • Eosinophil - Bilobed nucleus; red cytoplasmic granules. (100-400 cells) (Duration 14 days) (lifespan 6 hours to a few days) kill parasitic worms; complex role in allergy & asthma.
    • Basophil - bilobed nucleus; large purplish-black cytoplasmic granules, (20-50 cells) (Duration 1-7 days) (lifespan a few hours to a few days) Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain Heparin, an anticoagulant.

Agranulocytes

  • Lymphocyte - spherical or indented nucleus; pale blue cytoplasm. (1500-3000 cells) (duration days to weeks) (lifespan months) mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies.
  • Monocyte - U-or kidney- shaped nucleus; gray-blue cytoplasm, (100-700 cells) (duration 2-3 days) (lifespan months) phagocytosis; develop into macrophage in the tissues.

Platelets

  • Discoid cytoplasmic fragments containing granules, stain deep purple, (150,000-400,000 cells) (duration 4-5 days) (lifespan 5-10 days) seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental in blood clotting.

...