Chapter 28 Pregnancy

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1

1) Cells on the dorsal surface of the twolayered
embryonic disc migrate to form a raised
groove known as the ________.

D) primitive streak

2

2) The result of polyspermy in humans is ________.

B) a nonfunctional zygote

3

3) It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after ________.

C) they undergo capacitation

4

4) Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by which of the following hormones
associated with pregnancy?

B) oxytocin

5

5) Estrogen and progesterone maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and prepare the
mammary glands to secrete milk. Which of the following structures makes this possible
during the first three months of pregnancy?

C) corpus luteum

6

6) The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made up of a contribution from
mother and fetus. Which portion is from the fetus?

A) chorion

7

7) Relaxin is a hormone produced by the placenta and ovaries. The function of this hormone
is to ________.

C) relax the pubic symphysis

8

8) Proteases and acrosin are enzymes. How do they function in reproduction?

.

C) They act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to
penetrate

9

9) Which of the following is not a germ layer?

C) epiderm

10

10) The formation of endodermal and ectodermal germ layers occurs at ________.

C) gastrulation

11

11) Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?

C) human chorionic gonadotropin

12

12) Which of the following is a highly unlikely method of producing a child?

B) ectopic implantation

13

13) Which of the following is not a correct matching of a fetal structure with what it
becomes at birth?

B) ductus arteriosus

14

14) Implantation involves ________.

D) embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall

15

15) The umbilical arteries carry ________.

A) waste products to the placenta

16

16) The correct sequence of preembryonic structures is ________.

C) blastocyst, morula, zygote

17

17) Which of the following is not assessed as part of the Apgar score?

D) temperature

18

17) Which of the following is not assessed as part of the Apgar score?

D) temperature

19

18) Hormones concerned with events of lactation include ________.

B) oxytocin

20

19) Initially, the implanted embryo obtains its nutrition by ________.

D) digestion of endometrial cells

21

20) Onset of labor may be a result of all of the following factors except ________.

C) aspirin and similar drugs

22

21) Select the correct statement about fertilization.

B) Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment.

23

22) Shortly after implantation ________.

C) the trophoblast forms two distinct layers

24

23) The dorsal surface cells of the inner cell mass form ________.

C) the primitive streak

25

26) The trophoblast is mostly responsible for forming the ________.

C) placental tissue

26

27) The cardiovascular system of a newborn must be adjusted after the infant takes its first
breath. Which of the following is also true?

D) The ductus arteriosus constricts and is converted to the ligamentum arteriosum.

27

28) Sperm move to the uterine tube through uterine contractions and the energy of their
own flagella. What other factor is involved in sperm movement?

B) reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes

28

29) At which stage of labor is the "afterbirth" expelled?

C) placental

29

30) Which hormone is not produced by the placenta?

D) inhibin

30

31) During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?

B) expulsion stage

31

32) Implantation of the blastocyst is the result of all of the following except ________.

A) phagocytosis by the trophoblast cells

32

33) Cleavage as part of embryonic development is distinctive because it involves ________.

A) cell division by mitosis with little or no growth between successive divisions

33

34) Which of the following is true in reference to what may pass through the placental
barriers?

C) nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and alcohol

34

35) Which of the following is not usually considered a teratogen?

A) aspirin

35

36) Derivatives of the ectoderm include ________.

C) epithelium of the pineal and pituitary glands

36

37) Derivatives of the mesoderm include ________.

B) endothelium of blood and lymph vessels

37

38) Derivatives of the endoderm include ________.

A) epithelium of the respiratory tract

38

39) Developmental events during weeks 912
include ________.

A) sex readily detected from the genitals

39

40) Which of the choices below occurs if fertilization of the ovum occurs and implantation
takes place?

A) The corpus luteum is maintained until the placenta takes over its hormoneproducing
functions.

40

41) Select the correct statement about the special fetal blood vessels.

C) The umbilical vein becomes the ligamentum teres.

41

42) Which of the following statements about the events of fertilization is not true?

A) The two pronuclei divide.

42

43) The decidua basalis is ________.

B) located between the developing embryo and the myometrium