Human Anatomy & Physiology: Anatomy & Physiology II Final Exam Flashcards


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Endocrine, Blood, Cardiovascular System, Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Organs and Tissue
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1

The major controlling systems of the body.

Nervous System

Endocrine System

2

Exerts rapid controls via nerve impulses

Nervous System

3

Exerts a more prolonged effect via hormones

Endocrine System

4

Hormonally regulated processes

Reproduction

Growth & Development

Maintaining electrolytes

Water & Nutrient balance

Cellular metabolism

Energy balance

Mobilizing body defenses

5

Ductless, well-vascularized glands that release hormones directly into the blood or lymph.

Endocrine organs

6

Endocrine organs

pituitary gland

thyroid gland

parathyroid gland

adrenal gland

pineal gland

7

Organs that contain endocrine tissue

Pancreas

gonads

placenta

8

Neuroendocrine organ

Hypothalamus

9

Chemical messengers that act on cells that secrete them

Autocrine

10

Chemical messengers that act on different cell types nearby

Paracrines

11

There are two types of hormones.

Steroid base

Amino acid base

12

How do hormones alter cell activity?

Stimulating or inhibiting characteristic cellular process of target cells

13

Cells respond to hormone stimulation by either of the following:

Changes in membrane permeability

Enzyme synthesis

Activation or inhibition

Secretory activity

Mitosis

14

Amino acid-based hormones interact with target cells by:

Second-messenger mechanism

Cyclic AMP system

PIP2-Calcium Signaling mechanism

Cyclic GMP

15

Cyclic AMP System

Hormone binds to a plasma membrane receptor that couples a G protein. When the G protein is activated, it couples to adenylate cyclase, which catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP initiates reactions that activate protein kinases and other enzymes leading to a cellular response.

16

PIP Calcium Mechanism

involves phosphatidyl inositol and calcium

17

Hormones that enter target cells and effect responses by activating DNA, which initiates messenger RNA formation leading to protein synthesis

Steroid Hormones

Thyroid Hormones

18

A target cells response depends on

Presence of receptors on the plasma membrane or within the cell to which the hormone can bind.

19

What controls hormone receptors numbers

High or low levels of stimulating hormones

20

Causes activation of sebaceous glands in the skin

Androgens

21

Increases skin hydration

Estrogen

22

Skin produces (provitamin D) or

Cholecalciferol

23

Regulates calcium blood levels

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

24

Necessary for normal skeletal development

Growth Hormone

T3, T4

Sex Hormones

25

Essential for normal muscular development

Growth Hormone

26

Hormones that influence muscle metabolism

Thyroxine

Catecholamines

27

Hormones that influence normal maturation and function of the nervous system.

Growth Hormone

Thyroxine

Sex Hormones

28

Controls anterior pituitary function and produce ADH and Oxyctoxin

Hypothalamus

29

Hormone that stimulates red blood cell production

Erythropoietin

30

Hormone that the heart produces

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

31

Depresses immune response and inflammation

Glucocorticoids

32

The immune system stimulates the release of

Cortisol

ACTH

33

Transports hormones through the body

Lymph

34

Hormone that influence ventilation (dilates bronchioles)

Epinephrine

35

The lungs converts Angiotensin I into

Angiotensin II

36

Hormone that influence digestive motility and secretory activity

Catecholamines

37

Hormones that influence renal function

Aldosterone

Anti-diuretic Hormone

38

Kidneys activate which vitamin

Vitamin D

39

Hormones direct reproductive system development and function

Hypothalamic

Anterior pituitary

Gonadal Hormones

40

Hormones involved in birth and breast feeding

Oxytocin

Prolactin

41

Three ways endocrine organs are activated

Humoral

Neural

Hormonal

42

Only system that can override or modulate hormonal effects

Nervous system

43

Major organs that degrade hormones; products are excreted in urine and feces

Liver

Kidneys

44

Hormone must be present in order for another hormone to exert its full effects

Permissiveness

45

Two or more hormones produce the same effects in a target cell and results are amplified

Synergism

46

Hormone opposes or reverses the effects of another hormone

Antagonism

47

A gland that synthesizes two hormones that is exported to the posterior posterior pituitary for storage and release.

Regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary via releasing and inhibiting hormones

Hypothalamus

48

Stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones

Which hormones are released

Posterior pituitary

Oxytocin

Anti-diuretic Hormones

49

Stimulates powerful uterine contractions

Triggers labor and deliver of infants

ejects milk in nursing women

Oxytocin

50

Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb and conserve water

Anti-diuretic Hormone

51

Released in response to high solute concentrations in the blood and inhibited by low solute concentrations in the blood

Anti-diuretic Hormone

52

Hyposecretion of this hormone results in diabetes insipidus

Anti-diuretic Hormone

53

Hormones that regulate the function of other organs

Tropic Hormones

54

Hypersecretion of the growth hormone in children causes what disease.

Gigantism

55

Hypersecretion of the growth hormone in adults causes what disease

Acromegaly

56

Hyposecretion of the growth hormone in children.

Pituitary dwarfism

57

Hormone that promotes normal development and activity of the thyroid gland

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

58

Hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids

Adrenocorticotropic Hormones

59

The gonadotropin produces two sex hormones

FSH - Follicle-stimulating hormones

LH - Luteinizing hormone

60

Hormone that stimulates the sex cell production

FSH

61

Stimulates gonadal hormone production

LH

62

Promotes milk production in humans

Prolactin

63

Hyperthyroidism causes this disease.

Graves' disease

64

Hypothyroidism causes this disease in children.

Cretinism

65

Hypothyroidism causes this disease in adults

Myxedema

66

Hyperparathyroidism results in

Hypercalcemia and bone wasting

67

Hypoparathyroidism results in

hypocalcemia

68

The two functional portions of the adrenal glands

Cortex

Medulla

69

Steroid Hormones are formed by

Cholesterol

70

Hormone that regulates sodium ion reabsorption and potassium ion excretion by the kidneys

Mineralocorticoids

71

Hormones that increase blood glucose, fatty acid and amino acid levels and blood pressure

Glucocorticoids (cortisol)

72

High levels of this hormone depress the immune system and inflammatory response

Glucocorticoids

73

Hypoactivity of the adrenal cortex results in

Addison's disease

74

Hyperactivity can result in the following diseases

Aldosteronism

Cushing's Syndrome

Adrenogenital Syndrome

75

Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) are produced in which gland

Adrenal medulla

76

Hormone that enhance and prolong the fight or flight response

Catecholamines

77

This hormone is produced in the pineal gland

Melatonin

78

This organ releases insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

79

This hormone stimulates the liver to release glucose in the blood

Glucagon

80

This hormone increases the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by body cells

Insulin

81

The ovaries releases these two hormones

FSH

LH

82

Hormone that stimulates maturation of the female reproductive system and development of the secondary sex characteristics

Estrogen

83

This hormone responds to the high blood level of LH

Progesterone

84

The testes produce what hormone

Testosterone

85

This hormone promotes maturation of the male reproductive organs, produce sperm and development of secondary sex characteristics

Testosterone

86

What hormone does the heart produce

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

87

What hormones do the gastrointestinal tract organs produce

Gastrin

Secretin

88

What hormones do the kidneys produce

Erythropoietin

89

What hormones do the skin produce

Cholecalciferol

90

What hormones do the adipose tissue produce

Leptin

Resistin

Adiponectin

91

What hormone does bone produce

Osteocalcin

92

What hormone does the thymus produce

Thymulin

Thymosins

Thymopoietins