Sociology Final Flashcards
Structural Functional Paradigm
The theoretical paradigm in sociology that assumes society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote stability
During the stock market crash of 1929 and the depression that followed many people lost their jobs and their life savings; their everyday lives were in turmoil. These individuals were likely to suffer:
Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper are
A measurable trait that is subject to change under different conditions
A sociologist decides to study the interactions among college students in a school's computer center to see whether sharing of technical information encourages new social relationships to develop. However, the students realize that they are under observation and become much shyer than they normally would be is an example of
Alvin Gouldner has suggested that sociologists may use objectivity as a sacred justification for remaining uncritical of existing institutions and centers of power.
According to Durkheim, the shared consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks is called:
Goffman's term for the ways in which individuals, in various settings, attempt to control how others perceive them.
The Peter Principle
The notion that every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence
A child spends a lot of time putting objects into his mouth and touching everything in sight.
The way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.
The size and shape of a room, the type of chairs that are used, and the shape of a table may influence a small group's performance.
Looking Glass Self
The term Charles Horton Cooley coined to describe the process by which we develop a sense of self
A college law enforcement major watches the behavior of television police detectives with great admiration and wants to emulate their behavior, these detectives should be considered:
A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated
"If you define a situation as real. it is real in its consequences." If you believe you'll do bad, you probably will.
Tunnies- community, small, rural, primary, homogenous, ascribed.
When someone has to go through something to be somewhere else. A soldiers head being shaved, him being stripped of normal clothes and then given a uniform.
Five Characteristics of Bureaucracy
Division of labor, hierarchy of authority, written rules and regulations, impersonality, employment based on technical qualifications.
Attitude is to Behavior
as prejudice is to discrimination
Most likely suggest that multinational corporations help create social stability within a society by creating jobs and global enterprise.
The intergroup strategy that involves separating minority groups from dominant groups so that minimal contact occurs between them.
Refers to racial, ethnic, or religious minority that a member of the dominant group uses to blame for their failure to achieve desired goals.
The Means of Production
Marx believed that social class depends on this:
a behavior that violates the standards or expectations of a group or society
In strain theory, Merton terms people who overzealously and cruelly enforce bureaucratic regulations
"Patterns of discrimination that are woven into the fabric of society."
Karl Marx called those who work in the factories and other productive enterprises:
Labeling Theory stresses:
relativity of deviance because the same act can be either deviant or not
Feminization of Poverty
the term that refers to a trend in U.S. poverty whereby most poor families are headed by women
Social Control Theory
Developed by sociologist Travis Hirschi to emphasize that we are bonded to our family members, friends, and peers in a way that leads us to follow the mores and folkways of our society, while giving little conscious thought whether we will be sanctioned if we fail to conform.
At one point, the British empire controlled much of North America, including what is now the U.S. is an example of:
Viewing the global economic system as divided between nations who control wealth and those from whom capital is taken, sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein draws on:
Extreme inequality of resources in the world was initiated by:
The continuing economic dependence of former colonies on foreign countries is called:
According to world systems analysis, poor and developing nations are on the:
used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society.
Some sociologists have suggested that in the southern US in the pre-civil rights era, an African-American individual was born into a status that would always be subordinate to the status of all of the white members of the community is an example of:
The ability to exercise one's will over others.
argues that competition for scarce resources results in significant political, economic, and social inequality.
Informal Social Control
a college student interrupts the instructor during a seminar; the instructor responds with an angry glare. This is an example of:
used in the sociological literature to describe a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
the most common and non-deviant adaptation in Robert Merton's anomie theory of deviance
William I. Thomas
sociologist observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them.
Joe grew up in an Italian household in an Italian community in New Jersey. He believes that the traditional Italian celebration of Easter, which includes a large number of family members and mountains of food consumed during a long dinner, is the best way to celebrate this holiday.
The Contact Hypothesis
A colombain woman and an Italian man, working together as members of a construction crew, overcome their initial prejudices and come to appreciate each others talents and strengths is an example of:
The glass Ceiling
an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individuals gender, race, or ethnicity
stresses that the teachings of religion help people adjust to lifes problems and provide guidelines for daily life
Medicalization of Society
refers to the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control
type of medicine refers to therapies in which the health care practitioner considers the persons physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual characteristics.
function performed by American schools stresses making students similar in their speech, appearance, and ways of thinking
the Protestant ethic
Weber called the self-denying approach to life practiced by members of various religions
The hidden curriculum
the process of determining which people will enter what occupations through tracking and placing select students in ability groups and advanced classes
another term for religion
The medicalization of society
the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control
area of study is concerned with the interrelationships among people in their spatial setting and physical environment.
giving meaning to the divine and defining the spiritual world are part of religions:
system used in schools to sort students into different educational programs on the basis of their perceived abilities
a religious organization that is recognized as the national or official religion is known as:
Matrix of domination
refers to the convergance of social forces that contributes to the subordinate status of poor non-White women
used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions.
Assimilation refers to the pattern by which:
minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category
global stratification theory views the economic development of countries as stemming from technological change and will gradually improve the lives of those in developing countries.
Gross National Income
the total output of goods and services produced by residents of a country each year plus the income from nonresident sources, divided by the size of the population
the practice by industrialized nations of controlling the least industrialized nations through debts owed to the most industrialized nations but not through direct political involvement
the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next
changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down in a class ladder
Deviance refers to:
Madeleines position as president of the local university overshadows her work as a wife, mother, and volunteer for the salvation army. The university president is her?
Hunting and Gathering society
a preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to live
According to Durkheim, the shared consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
used to refer to organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture
Bob is on his first with Mary, whom he really likes. He tries to act in the manner that will cause her to like him, too and to want to go out with him again. This is an example of:
used to describe the language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, and material objects shared by members of society that are also passed from one generation to the next
feelings of disorientation and confusion when encountering values, behaviors, and expectations totally different from those to which one is accustomed.
Marshall is exploring how the various aspects of the Lenape Culture fit together, including their religion, family values, agricultural efforts, and customs, without judging those elements as being inferior of superior to modern Western ways
system of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thoughts
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
how our language determines our consciousness and perceptions of objects and events
the expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of groups values
When related values overlap and reinforce one another, as with the values of hard work, education, and achievement
the steps in the research process, including observation, hypothesis testing, etc
everyone in the population has the same chance of being included in the study
the research method referred to as participant observation
Jose in conducting research on organized crime. Rather than going undercover, he is interviewing convicted criminals that have been linked to organized crime.
Reliability of measurement
whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results
a theory that states that increasing a persons formal education results in increased earnings over a lifetime. Formal education is?
refers to any change in a subjects behavior caused by the awareness of being studied.
an apparent, although false, association between two variables that is caused by some third variable
a way of arriving at general conclusions from specific observations
the systematic study of social behavior and human groups
C. Wright Mills
the thinker who introduced the concept of the sociological imagination
the framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates a conflict and change
Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim
the 3 sociologist who played a part in the development of sociologys structural-functional paradigm
Robert Merton's contributions to Society
successfully combing theory and research, producing a theory that is one of the most frequent cited in deviant behavior, an attempt to bring macro and micro level analysis together
described human society as having much in common with the human body