Microbial Disease of the Skin & Eyes

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Microbiology
Chapter 21
updated 6 years ago by Ajh
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1

Perspiration & Sebum contain

nutrients

2

salt inhibits

most microbes

3

Lysozyme hydrolyzes

peptidoglycan

4

fatty acids inhibit

some pathogens

5

Mucous Membranes:

  • line body cavities (epithelial cells)
  • are acidic
  • have cilia
6

The outer portion of the skin (epidermis) contains:

keratin, a waterproof coating

7

Normal microbiota of the skin are gram(+) and salt tolerant:

  • Staphylococci
  • Micrococci
  • Diptheroids
8

These anaerobes grow in hair follicles

Propionibacterium acnes

9

These aerobes grow on the skin surface

Corynebacterium xerosis

10

a yeast that grows on oily skin surfaces; cause of dandruff

Malassezia furfur

11

S. epidermidis

coagulase-negative

*the majority of skin microbiota*

12

S. aureus

coagulase-positive

13

S. aureus resistance:

  • antibiotic-resistant
  • lysozyme resistant
  • resists opsonization (phagocytosis)
14
  • leukocidin
  • exfoliative toxin
  • superantigen

S. aureus

15

Staph skin infections:

  • folliculitis
  • sty
  • furuncle
  • carbuncle
  • impetigo
16

Folliculitis

  • infections of the hair follicle
17

Sty

folliculitis of an eyelash

18

Furuncle

abscess

  • pus surrounded by inflamed skin
19

Carbuncle

inflammation of the tissue under the skin

20

Impetigo

  • crusting sores (nonbullous)
  • spread by autoinoculation
21

Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS)

  • Bullous impetigo / Impetigo of a newborn

S. aureus

22

Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

S. aureus

S. pyogenes

23

Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci

(GAS)

  • S. pyogenes
  • cause severe & rapid tissue destruction
24

S. pyogenes (GAS)

  • hemolysins
  • hyaluronidase
  • streptolysins
  • M proteins
25

Streptococcal TSS

SHOCK & ORGAN DAMAGE

26

Diseases caused by P. aeruginosa

  • Otitis externa
  • dermatitis
  • burn infections
  • respiratory infections
27

P. aeruginosa produces Pyocyanin

produces a blue-green pus

28

Buruli ulcer

Mycobacterium ulcerans

29

Buruli ulcer symptoms

  • deep damaging ulcers
  • exceeds incidence of leprosy
30

Viral disease of the skin:

  • Warts
  • Smallpox
  • Monkeypox
  • Chickenpox
  • Shingles
  • Herpes Simplex
  • Measles (Rubeola)
  • 5th Disease (Erythema Infectiosum)
  • Roseola
31

Warts

Papillomaviruses

32

Treatment for Warts

Removal by:

  • Cryotherapy
  • Electrodessication
  • Salicylic acid

Imiquimod, Bleomycin

33

Smallpox (variola)

orthopox virus

  • erradicated by vaccination
34

Smallpox (variola) major ____% mortality

20% mortality

35

Smallpox (variola) minor ____% mortality

1% mortality

36

Chickenpox (varicella)

Varicella-zoster virus (HHV-3)

37

Chickenpox is transmitted

via respiratory route

38

Chickpox causes

pus filled vesicles

39

Chickenpox virus can lay dormant in

the dorsal root ganglia

40

The zoster-herpes virus, that affects the cutaneous sensory nerves

shingles

41

vaccine given to people who have been vaccinated for Chickenpox

Breakthrough varicella

42

Vaccination for Chickenpox

live attenuated vaccine

43

Herpes Simplex (HSV-1)

  • oral & respiratory routes
  • cold sores
  • fever blisters
44

HSV-1: Herpes gladiatorum

vesicles on skin

45

HSV-1: Herpes whitlow

vesicles on fingers

46

HSV-2: Herpes encephalitis

  • 70% fatality
  • treatment - Acyclovir
47

HSV-1 remains dormant

trigeminal nerve

(facial nerve)

48

HSV-2 remains dormant in

sacral nerve ganglia

49

Measles (Rubeola)

  • Measles virus
  • transmitted via respiratory route
50

A rare complication of Measles:

Subacute Sclerosing PanEncephalitis (SSPE)

  • 1 in 1,000,000 cases
51

Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum)

HPV B19

  • mild flu-like symptoms
  • facial rash
52

List of skin rashes Fifth Disease derived from:

  • Measles
  • Scarlet Fever
  • Rubella
  • Filatov Dukes Disease
53

Roseola

HHV-6 & HHV-7

  • fever, rash
  • lasts 1-2 days
54

Cutaneous Mycoses

(ringworm, tineas)

Dermatomycoses

fungi that grow on keratin

55

Genera of cutaneous mycoses

  • Trichophyton
  • Microsporum
  • Epidermophyton
56

Trichophyton

  • hair
  • skin
  • nails
57

Microsporum

  • hair
  • skin
58

Epidermophyton

  • skin
  • nails
59

Treatment for cutaneous mycoses

  • Miconazole
  • Allylamine
60

Subcutaneous mycoses

Sporotrichosis

sporothrix schenchii

61

a fungus that penetrates the skin thru a wound

sporotrichosis

62

Sporotrichosis is treated with

potassium iodide (KI)

63

Candidiasis

candida albicans (yeast)

64

Candidasis occurs in

skin/ mucous membranes of GU tract & mouth

65

a yeast infection of the mucous in mouth

Thrush

66

Treatments for Candidasis

  • Miconazole
  • Nystatin
67

Systemic Candidasis is called

Fulminating Disease

68

Systemic Candidasis can be treated with

Fluconazole

69

Scabies

(Sarcoptes scabei)

  • burrow in skin to lay eggs
70

Treatment for Scabies

topical insecticides

71

Pediculosis humanus capitas

head lice

72

Pediculosis humanus corporis

body lice

73

Pediculosis feed on

blood

74

Treatment for Pediculosis

topical insecticides

75

Diseases of the Eye:

  • Conjunctivitis
  • Ophthalmia neonatorum
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
76

Conjunctivitis (pinkeye)

H. influenza

  • unsanitary contact lens
77

Ophthalmia neonatorum

N. gonorrhoeae

  • transmitted to baby's eye during birth
  • treated with antibiotics at birth
78

Inclusion conjunctivitis (Chlamydia conjunctivitis)

Chlamydia trachomatis

  • transmitted to baby's eye during birth
  • spread thru swimming water
79

Treatment for conjunctivitis

Tetracycline

80

Trachoma

Chlamydia trachomatis

  • causes permanent scarring of cornea
81

leading cause of worldwide blindness

Trachoma

82

What are the 2 bacterial Diseases of the eye that are transmitted to a newborn's eye during passage of the birth canal

  1. Ophthalmia neonatorum
  2. Chlamydia Conjuntivitis (inclusion)