Nervous System Diseases

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Microbiology
Chapter 22
Bacterial, Viral, Fungal, Protozoan, Prions
updated 6 years ago by Ajh
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1

Meninges & the 3 layers

Protect brain/spinal cord

  • Dura Mater (outermost)
  • Arachoid Mater
  • Pia Mater (innermost)
2

Area that contains the CSF

Subarachnoid space

3

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges

4

Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain

5

Meningoencephalitis

Inflammation of the brain & meninges

6

Bacterial Meningitis cardinal sign

stiff neck

7

How is Bacterial Meningitis diagnosed

spinal tab- CSF fluid

8

Bacterial Meningitis: Treatment

  • Cephalosporin
  • Vancomycin
9

3 kinds of bacterial meningitis

  1. H. influenza
  2. S. pneumoniae
  3. N. meningitides
10

H. influenza Meningitis

H. influenza-B

  • normal throat microbiota
11

H. influenza Meningitis affects what age group

6 month - 4 years old

12

Vaccine for H. influenza meningitis

Hib vaccine

13

S. pneumoniae (pneumococcal) Meningitis

S. pneumoniae

  • nasopharynx carriers
14

S. pneumoniae (pneumococcal) Meningitis affects what age group

1 month - 4 yrs old

15

S. pneumoniae (pneumococcal) Meningitis has a high mortality rate in

elders (80%)

16

Neisseria (meningococcal) Meningitis

vaccine recommended for college students

17

Listeriosis

Listeria monocytogenes

  • foodborne
18

What causes Meningitis in NEWBORNS? (transmitted to fetus)

Listeriosis

19

Tetnus

C. tetani - grows in deep wounds

  • spams, contraction of muscles
20

C. tetani produces a neurotoxin called Tetanospasmin that

blocks the relaxation pathway to muscles

21

Tetnus vaccination

DTP (tetnus toxoid) and dT (booster)

22

Treatment for Tetnus

Tetnus Immune globulin

23

Botulism

Clostridium

24

botulinal toxin blocks the release of neurotransmitter, causing

flaccid paralysis

25

Treatment for botulism

antitoxins

26

Infant botulism

grows in the intestines

27

Wound botulism

growth of botulism in wounds

28

which type of botulinal toxins is most fatal?

A) Type A toxin

B) Type B toxin

C) Type E toxin

Type A toxin = 60-70% fatal

29

Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)

Mycobacterium

  • grows best at cooler temps
30

Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) grows in

peripheral nerves & skin cells

31

Leprosy: Tuberculoid (neural)

loss of sensation in areas on skin;

  • (+) lepro test
32

Leprosy: Lepromatous (progressive)

disfiguring nodules

  • (-) lepro test
33

Which form of Leprosy gives a POSITIVE lepromin test?

Tuberculoid (neural)

34

Which form of Leprosy gives a NEGATIVE lepromin test?

Lepromatous (progressive)

35

Poliomyelitis (Polio)

Poliovirus

  • destroys motor cells
  • paralysis 1% of cases
36

Poliomyelitis (Polio) is transmitted by

ingestion of fecal water

37

Vaccination of Polio

enhanced-Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)

38

Rabies is caused by

Rabies virus

  • hydrophobia
  • muscle spams
39

Rabies is transmitted by

animal bite (raccoon, bat, skunk)

40

Furious Rabies

animals are restless then highly excitable

41

Paralytic Rabies

animals seem unaware of surroundings

42

Pathology of Rabies

  • virus multiplies in skeletal muscle
  • moves from the PNS to the CNS
  • reaches the brain, causing encephalitis
  • virus enters the salivary glands & other organs
43

Pre-exposure prophylaxis for Rabies

Human Diploid Cells Vaccine (HDCV)

44

Post exposure treatment for Rabies

Rabies Immune Globulin (RIG)

45

Arboviral Encephalitis (Arthropod-borne viruses)

Abroviruses

transmitted by mosquitoes

46

Notifiable arboviral infections that cause encephalitis:

  • WWW (western equine) - birds & horses
  • EEE (eastern equine) - birds & horses
  • SLE (St. Louis) - birds
  • CE (California) - mammals
  • WNV (west nile) - birds & mammals
47

Cryptococcus neoformans Meningitis

(Cryptococcosis)

fungal meningitis

48

Cryptococcosis is transmitted by

inhalation of infected bird poop

49

Treatment for Cryptococcosis

  • Amphotericin B
  • Flucytosine
50

2 emerging protozoan diseases

  1. African Trypanosomiasis
  2. Naegleria fowleri
51

African Trypanosomiasis is transmitted from animals to humans by

Tsetse fly

52

Treatment for African Trypanosomiasis blocks an enzyme necessary for the parasite

Eflornithine

53

Protozoan infects nasal mucosa from swimming water

Naegleria fowleri

54

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by

  • prions
55

Typical prion diseases:

(Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies)

  • Sheep scrapie
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
  • Kuru
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
56

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is also called

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)

57

Chronic Fatigue symptoms:

  • unexplained fatigue (at least 6 months) + 4 of these:
    • sore throat
    • tender lymph nodes
    • muscle/joint pain
    • headaches
    • unrefreshed sleep
    • malaise after exercise
    • impaired short-term memory/concentration
58

Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System

  • Bacterial Meningitis:
    • N. meningitis
    • H. influenza
    • S. pneumoniae
  • Listeriosis
  • Tetnus
  • Botulism
  • Leprosy
59

Viral Diseases of the Nervous System:

  • Polio
  • Rabies
  • Abroviruses
60

Fungal Disease of the Nervous System

Cyptococcosis