bio 1442 ch. 40-44

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* 13) Fat digestion yields fatty acids and glycerol, whereas protein digestion yields amino acids; both digestive processes

C) add a water molecule to break bonds (hydrolysis).

2

* 14) Ingested dietary substances must cross cell membranes to be used by the body, a process known as

D) absorption.

3

*10) A mineral that is especially important for preventing anemia is

B) iron.

4

*11) Folic acid supplements have become especially important for pregnant women because

D) folic acid deprivation is associated with neural tube abnormalities in a fetus.

5

*12) Excessive iron absorption and accumulation to toxic levels is associated with

D) the genetic disorder known as hemochromatosis.

6
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*82) According to the graph, naive B cells will produce effector cells

A) between 0 and 7 days.

7
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*83) According to the graph, naive memory cells will be produced

E) both between 0 and 7 days and between 28 and 35 days.

8
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*84) According to the graph, antibodies will be produced

E) both between 3 and 7 days and between 28 and 35 days.

9
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*85) Study the table. The mother could exhibit an anti-Rh-factor reaction to the developing fetus in

A) Case 1 only.

10
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*86) In Cases 1 and 2 in the table, the mothers would be able, if needed, to supply blood to the newborn even seven to nine months after birth; the same would not be true for Case 3. This is because

B) the newborn in Case 3 would soon be able to make antibodies to the B antigen of the mother.

11
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*87) Study the table. Giving the mother anti-Rh antibodies before delivering her baby would be a wise precaution in

A) Case 1 only.

12

*88) After a long and cold winter, Jim was excited to start exploring the woods behind his new home. His first adventure included exposure to poison ivy without any reaction. A month later, though, a second walk through the woods was not so great, since two days later Jim had a terrible rash that lasted for weeks. The fact that the rash took two days to develop indicates that this immune response was an example of

B) cell-mediated immunity.

13

*89) Her immune system's recognition of the second infection involves the

D) cytotoxic T cells.

14
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*9) The most likely reason that some of the vitamins and minerals in this supplement are found at less than 100% is

D) it is dangerous to overdose on fat-soluble vitamins such as A and K.

15

*90) The EBV antigen fragments will be presented by the virus-infected cells along with

C) class I MHC molecules.

16

*91) Select the description that likely indicates a child with Bruton's disease.

C) baby boy Jeff, with no plasma cells following infection by bacterial pneumonia

17

*92) Bruton's disorder will likely include

A) the failure of heavy-chain gene rearrangement in B cells.

18

*93) Assume that a DGS-like phenotype was produced in a specific "gene-knockout" mouse, one lacking expression of HA3, a Hox gene known to be involved in developmental regulation in the mouse.

The phenotype of the HA3 knockout can be ascertained by

19

1) Gas exchange in the aquatic salamander known as the axolotl is correctly described as

D) simple diffusion of oxygen into the salamander from the water.

20

1) In a well-fed human eating a Western diet, the richest source of stored chemical energy in the body is

A) fat in adipose tissue.

21

1) Innate immunity

A) is activated immediately upon infection.

22

1) When the temperature of the outside air exceeds their internal body temperature, jackrabbits living in hot, arid lands will

B) constrict the blood vessels in their large ears to reduce transfer of external heat to the blood in their ears.

23

10) The complement system is

D) a group of antimicrobial proteins that act together in a cascade fashion.

24

10) The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the

C) fishes.

25

10) To increase the effectiveness of exchange surfaces lining the lungs and the intestines, evolutionary pressures have

A) increased the exchange surface area with folds and branches.

26

100) Which of the following would not help a virus avoid triggering an adaptive immune response?

C) producing proteins very similar to those of other viruses

27

11) Antihistamine treatment reduces

A) blood vessel dilation.

28

11) The specialized function shared by the cells that line the lungs and those that line the lumen of the gut is that both types of cells

B) provide abundant exchange surface.

29

11) To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n)

E) four-chambered heart.

30

12) A portal system is

E) a vessel or vessels connecting two capillary beds.

31

12) Cave art by early humans recognized the existence of the major signs of inflammation. The most inclusive set of symptoms of inflammation that might appear in such early human art is

E) swelling, heat, redness, and pain.

32

12) Interstitial fluid is

D) the route for the exchange of materials between blood and body cells.

33

13) Ancient peoples sought to identify the indicators of inflammation because

D) the presence of these signs suggests that healing was taking place; otherwise, the patient would likely die.

34

13) Multicellular organisms must keep their cells awash in an "internal pond" because

B) an aqueous medium is needed for the cellular exchange of nutrients, gases, and wastes.

35

13) Which of the following develops the greatest pressure on the blood in the mammalian aorta?

C) systole of the left ventricle

36

14) The cells and signaling molecules that initiate inflammatory responses are

D) the mast cells and the histamines.

37

14) Tissues are composed of cells, and tissues functioning together make up

A) organs.

38

14) Which of the following pairs of mammalian blood vessels has blood that is the least similar in its gas content?

A) the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein

39

15) After several weeks of exercise, a human athlete's resting heart rate is typically lower than before because

C) the stroke volume has increased.

40

15) An exchange surface in direct contact with the external environment is found in the

A) lungs.

41

15) In marine sponges, intracellular digestion of peptides is usually immediately preceded by

B) endocytosis.

42

15) Inflammatory responses typically include

B) increased activity of phagocytes in an inflamed area.

43

16) A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery in the arm to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through

B) two capillary beds.

44

16) Bacteria entering the body through a small cut in the skin

E) activate a group of proteins called complement.

45

16) Of the following choices, the epithelium with the shortest diffusion distance is

A) simple squamous epithelium.

46

16) The large surface area in the gut directly facilitates

B) absorption.

47

17) An advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity is that the complete system

B) allows specialized functions in specialized regions.

48

17) An invertebrate, such as an insect, has innate immunity activity in its intestine that likely includes

B) lysozyme.

49

17) The absorptive epithelia in the gut are considered "polarized" because

E) the structures on the apical surface are different than those on the basal surface.

50

17) Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in reptiles and mammals?

D) vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary circuit

51

18) A patient with a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/minute, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/minute will have a cardiac output of

D) 2,800 mL/minute.

52

18) Earthworms, grasshoppers, and birds all have a

C) crop.

53

18) In some insects, such as Drosophila, fungal cell wall elements can activate the protein Toll, which

A) acts as a receptor that, when activated, signals synthesis of antimicrobial peptides.

54

18) Most of the exchange surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with

D) epithelial tissue.

55

19) An example of a connective tissue is the

C) blood.

56

19) Because the foods eaten by animals are often composed largely of macromolecules, this requires the animals to have mechanisms for

C) enzymatic hydrolysis.

57

19) Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans

D) would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions.

58

19) Mammals have Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that can recognize a kind of macromolecule that is absent from vertebrates but present in/on certain groups of pathogens, including viral

C) double-stranded RNA.

59

2) Acidity in human urine is an example of

E) innate immunity.

60

2) Animals that migrate great distances would obtain the greatest energetic benefit of storing chemical energy as

E) fats.

61

2) Circulatory systems have the primary benefit of overcoming the shortcomings of

B) the slow rate at which diffusion occurs across cells.

62

2) If thermoregulation is considered to be a secondary function of the large ears of jackrabbits, then the primary function of the ears is

C) to detect predators by using the large size and flexible positioning of the external ears to channel sound waves into the ear canal.

63

20) A stroke volume in the heart of 70 mL/cycle, with a pulse of 72 cycles per minute, results in a cardiac output of

A) 5 L/minute.

64

20) Histamines trigger dilation of nearby blood vessels as well as an increase in their permeability, producing

D) redness, heat, and swelling.

65

20) In the digestive system, peristalsis is

E) smooth muscle contractions that move food along the esophagus.

66

20) Stratified cuboidal epithelium is composed of

A) several layers of boxlike cells.

67

21) After ingestion by humans, the first category of macromolecules to be chemically digested by enzymes in the mouth is

B) carbohydrates.

68

21) Coordinating body functions via chemical signals is accomplished by

B) the endocrine system.

69

21) Septic shock, a systemic response including high fever and low blood pressure, is a response to

A) certain bacterial infections.

70

21) The semilunar valves of the mammalian heart

D) prevent backflow of blood in the aorta and pulmonary arteries.

71

22) Connective tissues typically have

D) relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix.

72

22) Infection by a bacterium that has elements on its surface that enhance its resistance to lysozyme will likely result in

B) successful reproduction of the bacterium and continued progression of the disease.

73

22) Salivary amylase digests

B) starches.

74

22) The material present in arterioles that is not present in capillaries is

D) circular smooth muscle cells that can alter the size of the arterioles.

75

23) Adaptive immunity depends on

B) pathogen-specific recognition.

76

23) Among mammals, it is generally true that

C) the epiglottis prevents swallowed food from entering the trachea.

77

23) The fibers responsible for the elastic resistance properties of tendons are

C) collagenous fibers.

78

23) The set of blood vessels with the slowest velocity of blood flow is

D) the capillaries.

79

24) Bacterial infection in a previously uninfected house cat would most quickly activate its

A) Toll-like receptors that bind to lipopolysaccharides.

80

24) Digestive secretions with a pH of 2 are characteristic of the

B) stomach.

81

24) If you gently twist your earlobe, it does not remain distorted because it contains

B) elastin fibers.

82

24) The set of blood vessels with the lowest blood pressure driving flow is

E) the veins.

83

25) A key part of the humoral immune response is

B) the production of antibodies by plasma cells.

84

25) An increased concentration of nitric oxide within a vascular bed is associated with

B) vasodilation.

85

<p>25) Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that</p> D) begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach.

D) begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach.

86

25) The nourishment, insulation, and support for neurons is the result of activity by the

E) glial cells.

87

26) Among the following choices, which organism likely has the highest systolic pressure?

E) giraffe

88

26) Fibroblasts secrete

E) proteins for connective fibers.

89

26) The receptors on T cells and B cells bind to

B) antigens.

90

26) Upon activation by stomach acidity, the secretions of the parietal cells

A) initiate the digestion of protein in the stomach.

91

27) An epitope is

D) that part of an antigen that actually binds to an antigen receptor.

92

27) Breathing is accomplished via the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of

B) skeletal muscle.

93

27) Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with

A) increased activity of the immune system.

94

27) The bile salts

C) emulsify fats in the duodenum.

95

28) B cells have antigen receptors that bind to antigens that are either freely dissolved or present on the surface of invading/foreign cells. T cells have antigen receptors that

D) bind to antigens presented on major histocompatability complexes by host cells.

96

28) Blood is best classified as connective tissue because

A) its cells are separated from each other by an extracellular matrix.

97

28) Complex nutrients are digested and then absorbed into the lymph or bloodstream as

C) monomers.

98

28) The velocity of blood flow is the lowest in capillaries because

E) the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system.

99

29) An enzyme with high activity in an acidic environment is

B) pepsin.

100

29) Muscles are joined to bones by

B) tendons.

101

<p>29) The blood pressure is lowest in the</p> E) venae cavae.

E) venae cavae.

102

29) Within a differentiated B cell, the rearrangement of DNA sequences between variable regions and joining regions is accomplished by

E) recombinase.

103

3) A fruit fly, internally infected by a potentially pathogenic fungus, is protected by

D) its antimicrobial peptides.

104

3) Certain nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of some animals because

C) these animals are not able to synthesize these nutrients.

105

3) To become bound to hemoglobin for transport in a mammal, atmospheric molecules of oxygen must cross

E) five membranes - in and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining the pulmonary capillary, and into the red blood cell - to bind with hemoglobin.

106

3) Which choice best describes a reasonable mechanism for animal structures becoming better suited over evolutionary time to specific functions?

C) Animals with mutations that give rise to effective structures will become more abundant.

107

<p>30) Clonal selection of B cells activated by antigen exposure leads to production of</p> E) short-lived plasma cells that secrete antibodies for the antigen.

E) short-lived plasma cells that secrete antibodies for the antigen.

108

30) Fluid is filtered out of the bloodstream into the surrounding interstitial fluid at the arteriole end of systemic capillaries because

C) the hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood.

109

30) Most types of communication between cells utilize

C) the release of chemical signals by the cell sending the message.

110

30) The absorption of fats differs from that of carbohydrates in that the

D) most absorbed fat first enters the lymphatic system, whereas carbohydrates directly enter the blood.

111

31) A nutritional monomer that can be transported in the blood after a typical meal is

C) fatty acid.

112

31) Antigens are

D) foreign molecules that trigger the generation of antibodies.

113

31) If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then

B) fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues.

114

31) With its abundance of collagenous fibers, cartilage is an example of

A) connective tissue.

115

32) A matrix of connective tissue is apparent in

A) chondroitin sulfate of cartilage.

116

32) A newborn who is accidentally given a drug that destroys the thymus would most likely

D) be unable to differentiate and mature T cells.

117

32) For a nondiabetic person, the glucose concentration in this part of the vasculature varies more than in any other part.

D) hepatic portal vessel

118

32) What will be the long-term effect of blocking the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed?

C) the accumulation of more fluid in the interstitial areas

119

33) A species that has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of >260 mm Hg is likely to be

D) an animal that has a very long distance between its heart and its brain.

120

33) Clonal selection implies that

B) antigens increase mitosis in specific lymphocytes.

121

33) Glandular secretions that are released initially as inactive precursors of digestive enzymes are the

A) protein-digesting enzymes.

122

33) In a typical nerve cell, the nucleus is found in the

A) cell body.

123

34) All types of muscle tissue have

E) interactions between actin and myosin.

124

34) Because adult lampreys attach onto the surface of large fish for long periods of time to feed on body fluids, they can accomplish nutritional balance without need for a

D) stomach.

125

34) Clonal selection is an explanation for how

C) an antigen can provoke production of high levels of specific antibodies.

126

34) Dialysis patients, who will have blood withdrawn, dialyzed, then replaced, are always weighed when they enter the facility and then weighed carefully again before they leave, because

A) even small changes in body weight may signify changes in blood volume and therefore

127

35) All skeletal muscle fibers are both

C) striated and under voluntary control.

128

35) Constipation can result from the consumption of a substance that

B) promotes water reabsorption in the large intestine.

129

35) Large proteins such as albumin remain in capillaries rather than diffusing out, resulting in the

B) development of an osmotic pressure difference across capillary walls.

130

35) Secondary immune responses upon a second exposure to a pathogen are due to the activation of

A) memory cells.

131

36) Cardiac muscle cells are both

A) striated and interconnected by intercalated disks.

132

36) Historically inaccurate diagnosis of acid reflux disorders and gastric ulcers has been improved by

C) the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection.

133

36) The MHC is important in a T cell's ability to

A) distinguish self from nonself.

134

36) Vasoconstriction in the gut is a likely response when an individual is

C) stressed and secreting stress hormones.

135

37) A hiatal hernia that disrupts the functional relationship between the smooth muscle in the esophagus and that in the stomach would be most likely to increase the frequency of

A) gastric reflux.

136

37) A patient who can produce antibodies against some bacterial pathogens, but not against viral infections, probably has a disorder in his

D) T cells.

137

37) The diagnosis of hypertension in adults is based on the

D) blood pressure being greater than 140 mm Hg systolic and/or >90 diastolic.

138

37) The type of muscle tissue surrounding internal organs, other than the heart, is

E) smooth muscle.

139

38) A significant contribution of intestinal bacteria to human nutrition is the benefit of bacterial

D) production of vitamin K.

140

38) Among these choices, the biggest set that includes only those "cells" that lack nuclei is

B) platelets and erythrocytes.

141

38) Food moves along the digestive tract as the result of contractions by

B) smooth muscle.

142

38) The activation of helper T cells is likely

A) when an antigen is displayed by a dendritic cell.

143

39) An immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule, of whatever class, with regions symbolized as C or V, H or L, has a light chain made up of

A) one C region and one V region.

144

39) In a healthy human, the typical life span of a red blood cell is

D) four months.

145

39) The cells lining the air sacs in the lungs make up a

B) simple squamous epithelium.

146

39) The cells that secrete acidic fluid in the stomach are

D) in the lumen of the stomach.

147

4) Engulfing-phagocytic cells of innate immunity include all of the following except

D) natural killer cells.

148

4) Penguins, seals, and tuna have body forms that permit rapid swimming, because

D) the shape is a convergent evolutionary solution to the need to reduce drag while swimming.

149

4) The fluid that moves around in the circulatory system of a typical arthropod is

E) the interstitial fluid.

150

4) To maintain adequate nutrition, animals require dietary access to certain amino acids. An amino acid that is referred to as "nonessential" would be best described as one that

A) can be made by the animal's body from other substances.

151

40) Stomach cells are moderately well adapted to the acidity and protein-digesting activities in the stomach by having

B) a thick, mucous secretion and active mitosis of epithelial cells.

152

40) The ability of one person to produce over a million different antibody molecules does not require over a million different genes; rather, this wide range of antibody production is due to

C) DNA rearrangements.

153

40) The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal internal environment is termed

C) homeostasis.

154

40) The hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, and the organ where this hormone is synthesized, are

B) erythropoietin and kidney, respectively.

155

41) An example of a properly functioning homeostatic control system is seen when

B) the kidneys excrete salt into the urine when dietary salt levels rise.

156

41) Dissolved proteins in human plasma include which of the following?

I. fibrinogen and III.immunoglobulin only

157

41) Immunological memory accounts for

D) the ancient observation that someone who had recovered from the plague could safely care for those newly diseased.

158

41) The molar teeth of herbivorous mammals are especially effective at

C) grinding.

159

42) A group of animals among which a relatively long cecum is likely to be found is the

B) herbivores.

160

42) An example of effectors' roles in homeostatic responses is observable when

A) an increase in body temperature results from involuntary shivering.

161

42) The function of antibodies is to

E) mark pathogenic cells for destruction.

162

42) The plasma proteins in humans

A) maintain the blood's osmotic pressure.

163

43) Cyanide poisons mitochondria by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. Human red blood cells placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide are likely to

E) be unaffected.

164

43) Positive feedback has occurred when

C) uterine contractions needed for the birthing process are expedited by the pressure of a moving baby in its mother's uterus.

165

43) The adaptations suited to a carnivorous diet include

D) bile salts.

166

43) This type of immunity is present only when a newborn infant is being fed by actively nursing on its mother and ends when nursing ends.

C) passive immunity

167

44) Cattle are able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of plant material because

E) they have cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs.

168

44) Heart rate will increase in the presence of increased

D) epinephrine.

169

44) Positive feedback differs from negative feedback in that

<p>B) the positive feedback's effector responses are in the same direction as the initiating stimulus rather than opposite to it.</p> 44) Yearly vaccination of humans for influenza viruses is necessary because

170

44) Yearly vaccination of humans for influenza viruses is necessary because

D) rapid mutation in flu viruses alters the surface proteins in infected host cells.

171

45) Analysis of jawbones from the skeletal remains of a vertebrate animal reveal its dietary patterns owing to

B) the prevalence of specific kinds of teeth.

172

45) The cell-mediated immunity that destroys virally infected cells involves

A) cytotoxic T cells.

173

45) The production of red blood cells is stimulated by

C) erythropoietin.

174

45) To prepare flight muscles for use on a cool morning, hawkmouth moths

C) rapidly contract and relax these muscles to generate metabolic warmth.

175

46) An enlarged cecum is typical of

A) rabbits, horses, and herbivorous bears.

176

46) In a survivably cold environment, an ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized endotherm because the ectotherm

C) invests little energy in temperature regulation.

177

46) The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot is

B) fibrin.

178

46) Which of the following cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity and also respond to class I MHC molecule-antigen complexes?

<p>A) cytotoxic T cells</p> 47) A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the

179

47) A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the

C) activation of prothrombin to thrombin.

180

47) Coprophagy, the nutrition-boosting ingestion of fecal material, is important for the nutritional balance of

C) rabbits and their relatives.

181

47) Humans can lose, but cannot gain, heat through the process of

D) evaporation.

182

47) The cells involved in innate immunity, whose absence increases the chances of developing malignant tumors, are

B) natural killer cells.

183

48) An example of an ectothermic organism that has few or no behavioral options when it comes to its ability to adjust its body temperature is a

B) sea star, a marine invertebrate.

184

48) PKU (phenylketonuria) is a hereditary condition in which infants and young children who ingest the amino acid phenylalanine risk serious neurological damage. However, the risk of damage can be substantially reduced by the severe restriction of phenylalanine in the diet. Which of the following is the nutritional concept that forms the basis for this preventive treatment?

B) essential nutrients

185

48) Select the pathway that would lead to the activation of cytotoxic T cells.

B) body cell becomes infected with a virus → new viral proteins appear → class I MHC molecule-antigen complex displayed on cell surface

186

48) When the air in a testing chamber is specially mixed so that its oxygen content is 10% and its overall air pressure is 400 mm Hg, then PO₂ is

C) 40 mm Hg.

187

49) Among the last line of defenses against prolonged exposure to an extracellular pathogen is

C) antibody production by plasma cells.

188

49) An overheated and sick dog in a hot environment will have an impaired thermoregulatory response when its

C) body temperature increases to match the environmental temperature.

189

49) The sun shining on a tidal pool during a hot day heats the water. As some water evaporates, the pool becomes saltier, causing

B) a decrease in its oxygen content.

190

49) When the digestion and absorption of organic molecules results in more energy-rich molecules than are immediately required by an animal, the excess is

C) stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles.

191

5) Circulatory systems in molluscs

D) are open in species of small-sized molluscs and are closed in species of large-sized molluscs.

192

5) Evolutionary adaptations that help diverse animals directly exchange matter between cells and the environment include

B) an external respiratory surface, a small body size, and a two-cell-layered body.

193

5) The lymphatic fluid

A) is a filtrate of the blood, as is urine.

194

5) Which pair correctly associates a physiological process with the appropriate vitamin?

B) normal vision and vitamin A

195

50) Arrange these components of the mammalian immune system as it first responds to a pathogen in the correct sequence.

III. Antigenic determinants from pathogen bind to antigen receptors on lymphocytes. --> IV. Lymphocytes specific to antigenic determinants from pathogen become numerous. --> II. Lymphocytes secrete antibodies. --> I. Pathogen is destroyed. --> V. Only memory cells remain.

196

50) Endothermy

B) is a characteristic of animals that have a fairly constant body temperature.

197

50) Hypoglycemia, or low levels of glucose in the blood of a healthy human, is "corrected" by a(n)

B) increase in the secretion of glucagon.

198

50) Sponges, cnidarians, and flatworms lack a specialized gas exchange surface because

E) nearly all of their cells are in direct contact with the external environment.

199

51) A cell type that interacts with both the humoral and cell-mediated immune pathways is a

E) helper T cell.

200

51) A fasting animal whose energy needs exceed those provided in its diet draws on its stored resources in which order?

C) liver glycogen, then muscle glycogen, then fat

201

51) Flying insects do all of the following except

B) switch from diffusion of tracheal gases to active transport during flight.

202

51) The panting responses that are observed in overheated birds and mammals dissipates excess heat by

E) evaporation.

203

52) A nonfunctional CD4 protein on a helper T cell would result in the helper T cell being unable to

E) interact with a class II MHC-antigen complex.

204

52) An example of an organism that has only behavioral controls over its body temperature is the

A) green frog.

205

52) Obesity in humans is most clearly linked to

D) type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

206

52) The epiglottis of a human covers the glottis when he or she is

C) swallowing.

207

53) CD4 and CD8 are

D) molecules present on the surface of T cells where they interact with MHC molecules.

208
card image

53) Examine the digestive system structures in the figure above. The agents that help emulsify fats are produced in

E) 9

209

53) In mammals, most gas exchange between the atmosphere and the pulmonary blood occurs in the

E) alveoli.

210

53) Most land-dwelling invertebrates and all of the amphibians

<p>A) are ectothermic organisms with variable body temperatures.</p> 54) Examine the digestive system structures in the figure above. The highest rate of nutrient absorption occurs at location(s)

211
card image

54) Examine the digestive system structures in the figure above. The highest rate of nutrient absorption occurs at location(s)

B) 4 only.

212

54) Gas exchange is more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs because

<p>B) water contains much less O₂ than air per unit volume.</p> 54) T cells of the immune system include

213

54) T cells of the immune system include

B) cytotoxic and helper cells.

214

54) The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in the

C) hypothalamus.

215

55) A female Burmese python incubating her eggs can warm them using

E) shivering thermogenesis.

216

55) B cells interacting with helper T cells are stimulated to differentiate when

E) helper T cells release cytokines.

217

55) Countercurrent exchange is evident in

A) the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills.

218
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55) Examine the digestive system structures in the figure above. Most of the digestion of fats occurs in section(s)

B) 4 only.

219

56) Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize

C) diffusion.

220
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56) Examine the digestive system structures in the figure above. Bacteria that produce vitamins as products are residents of location

C) 5.

221

56) In mammals this response is known as fever, but it is known to raise body temperature in other bacterially infected animals, including lizards, fishes, and cockroaches.

D) a change in the body's thermostat "set point"

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56) Normal immune responses can be described as polyclonal because

D) diverse antibodies are produced for different epitopes of a specific antigen.

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57) Air-breathing insects carry out gas exchange

D) across the membranes of their cells.

224

57) Antibodies of the different classes IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE differ from each other

B) in their heavy-chain structure.

225

57) Ingested foods inside the digestive tract of snakes are typically digested by

B) enzymatic hydrolysis.

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57) Leptin is a product of adipose cells. Therefore, a very obese mouse would be expected to have

D) mutation of ob or db.

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58) An oil-water mixture works as an insecticidal spray against mosquitoes and other insects because it

B) blocks the openings into the tracheal system.

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58) Many obese humans produce normal or increased levels of leptin without satiety, so the search for healthy regulation of food intake should focus on

D) eliminating carbohydrates from the diet.

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58) Seasonal changes in snake activity are due to the fact that the snake

D) is more active in summer because it can gain body heat by conduction.

230

58) When antibodies bind antigens, the clumping of antigens results from

A) the multivalence of the antibody having at least two binding regions.

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59) Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to a column of 760 mm Hg. Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume. The partial pressure of oxygen (PO₂) in such conditions is

A) 160 mm Hg.

232

59) Phagocytosis of microbes by macrophages is enhanced byD) the binding of antibodies to the surface of microbes and antibody-mediated agglutination of microbes only.

D) the binding of antibodies to the surface of microbes and antibody-mediated agglutination of microbes only.

233

59) Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are

E) both measured in animals in a resting and fasting state.

234

59) Which of the following animals is incorrectly paired with its feeding mechanism?

A) lion --> substrate feeder

235

6) An inflammation-causing signal released by mast cells at the site of an infection is

C) histamine.

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6) The circulatory system of bony fishes, rays, and sharks is similar to

B) the portal systems of mammals, where two capillary beds occur sequentially, without passage of blood through a pumping chamber.

237

6) The fat-soluble vitamins include

A) vitamin A.

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6) The similar fusiform body shape of diverse animals, such as sharks, penguins, and aquatic mammals, has evolved because

C) this is the body shape that makes it possible for aquatic animals to swim rapidly.

239

60) For adult human females, the metabolic "costs" of pregnancy and lactation are

C) 5-8% more than when she was nonpregnant.

240

60) Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure because of

D) lung collapse due to inadequate production of surfactant.

241

60) The mammalian trachea and esophagus both connect to the

C) pharynx.

242

60) The primary function of humoral immunity is

D) to protect the body against extracellular pathogens.

243

61) Among these choices, the least reliable indicator of an animal's metabolic rate is the amount of

E) water consumed in one day.

244

61) Naturally acquired passive immunity results from the

C) placental transfer of antibodies.

245

61) Of the following choices, impairment of a mammal's breathing cycle is most likely following neural damage in

B) the medulla oblongata and the pons.

246

61) Which of the following organs is incorrectly paired with its function?

C) large intestine --> bile production

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62) Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because

A) the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume.

248

62) During its months-long hibernation in its burrow, the body temperature of a ground squirrel

C) varies between 5°C and 37°C, depending on the frequency of arousals from hibernation.

249

62) In active immunity, but not passive immunity, there is

D) the requirement for direct exposure to a living or simulated pathogen.

250

62) Which of the following is not a major activity of the stomach?

D) nutrient absorption

251

63) "Winter acclimatization" in cold-zone mammals can include

C) hibernation for several weeks.

252

63) After surgical removal of an infected gallbladder, a person must be especially careful to restrict dietary intake of

D) fat.

253

63) Jenner's successful use of cowpox virus as a vaccine against the smallpox virus is due to the fact that

D) there are some antigenic determinants common to both pox viruses.

254

63) The exhalation of air from human lungs is driven by

A) a decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity.

255

64) An individual who has been bitten by a poisonous snake that has a fast-acting toxin would likely benefit from

B) injection of antibodies to the toxin.

256

64) As a person goes from rest to full-effort exercise, there is an increase in the

A) tidal volume.

257

64) Hibernation and estivation during seasons of environmental stress are both examples of

B) torpor.

258

64) If you were to jog 1 km a few hours after lunch, which stored fuel would you probably tap?

B) muscle and liver glycogen

259

65) A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of

D) 5,000 mL.

260

65) For the successful development of a vaccine to be used against a pathogen, it is necessary that

A) the surface antigens of the pathogen not change.

261

65) Panting by an overheated dog achieves cooling by

C) evaporation.

262

66) A diseased patient is exposed to an unknown agent while out of the country. The patient's blood is found to have a high proportion of lymphocytes with CD8 surface proteins in her blood, a likely result of

D) a viral infection eliciting proliferation of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells.

263

66) Catabolism of specialized brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during

D) nonshivering thermogenesis.

264

66) During most daily activities, the human respiration rate is most closely linked to the blood levels of

D) carbon dioxide.

265

67) A moth preparing for flight on a cold morning warms its flight muscles via

E) shivering thermogenesis.

266

67) Breathing is usually regulated by

D) CO₂ and O₂ concentration and pH-level sensors.

267

67) The switch of one B cell from producing one class of antibody to another antibody class that is responsive to the same antigen is due to

E) the rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain C region DNA.

268

68) At an atmospheric pressure of 870 mm Hg of 21% oxygen, the partial pressure of oxygen is

D) 182 mm Hg.

269

68) The number of MHC protein combinations possible in a given population is enormous. However, an individual in that diverse population has a far more limited array of MHC molecules because

C) each of the MHC genes has a large number of alleles, but each individual only inherits two for each gene.

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68) The thin horizontal arrows in the figure above show that

C) the warmer arterial blood transfers heat to the cooler venous blood.

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69) A bone marrow transplant may not be appropriate from a given donor (Jane) to a given recipient (Jane's cousin Bob), even though Jane has previously given blood for one of Bob's needed transfusions, because

A) even though Jane's blood type is a match to Bob's, her MHC proteins may not be a match.

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69) At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. Oxygen gas is approximately 21% of the total gases in the atmosphere, so the approximate partial pressure of oxygen is

D) 160.0 mm Hg.

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69) Examine the figure above. Near a goose's abdomen, the countercurrent arrangement of the arterial and venous blood vessels causes

A) the temperature difference between the contents of the two sets of vessels to be minimized.

274

7) A significant increase in the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of a human's lungs will cause

C) a decrease in the amount of oxygen moving from the lungs into the blood.

275

7) A systemic inflammatory response that is often life-threatening is

C) septic shock.

276

7) The specialized structures of complex animals have evolved because

D) they permit adjustments to a wide range of environmental changes.

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7) Which pair correctly associates a biochemical process with the appropriate mineral associated with its use in animals?

A) maintenance of bone and calcium

278

70) At the summit of a high mountain, the atmospheric pressure is 380 mm Hg. If the atmosphere is still composed of 21% oxygen, then the partial pressure of oxygen at this altitude is

<p>B) 80 mm Hg.</p> 70) Imagine that you are a biologist who is attempting to get an accurate measure of an animal's basal metabolic rate. The best time to measure the metabolic rate is when the animal

279

70) Imagine that you are a biologist who is attempting to get an accurate measure of an animal's basal metabolic rate. The best time to measure the metabolic rate is when the animal

A) is resting and has not eaten its first meal of the day.

280

70) Infection with HIV typically

A) increases the level of helper T cells for the first year after infection.

281

71) Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect its pH. This enables the organism to sense a disturbance in gas levels as

B) the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.

282

71) The body tissue that consists largely of material located outside of cells is

B) connective tissue.

283

71) The transfusion of type A blood to a person who has type O blood would result in

B) the recipient's anti-A antibodies clumping the donated red blood cells.

284

72) An immune response to a tissue graft will differ from an immune response to a bacterium because

A) MHC molecules of the donor may stimulate rejection of the graft tissue, but bacteria lack MHC molecules.

285

72) An increase from pH 7.2 to pH 7.4 around hemoglobin causes

B) an increase in the affinity of hemoglobin to bind oxygen molecules.

286

72) Which of the following would increase the rate of heat exchange between an animal and its environment?

C) wind blowing across the body surface

287

73) An "internal reservoir" of oxygen in rested muscle is found in oxygen molecules bound to

E) myoglobin.

288

73) Consider the energy budgets for a human, an elephant, a penguin, a mouse, and a snake. The ________ would have the highest total annual energy expenditure, and the ________ would have the highest energy expenditure per unit mass.

<p>A) elephant; mouse</p> 73) In the human disease known as lupus, there is an immune reaction against a patient's own DNA from broken or dying cells, which categorizes lupus as

289

73) In the human disease known as lupus, there is an immune reaction against a patient's own DNA from broken or dying cells, which categorizes lupus as

C) an autoimmune disease.

290

74) A patient who undergoes a high level of mast cell degranulation, dilation of blood vessels, and acute drop in blood pressure is likely suffering from

E) anaphylactic shock immediately following exposure to an allergen.

291

74) Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has

B) less surface area per unit of volume.

292

74) Hemoglobin and hemocyanin

D) both transport oxygen.

293

75) An animal's inputs of energy and materials would exceed its outputs

D) if it is growing and increasing its mass.

294

75) An example of a pathogen that undergoes rapid changes resulting in antigenic variation is

A) the influenza virus, which expresses alternative envelope proteins.

295

75) The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in

E) pH.

296

76) Most of the carbon dioxide produced by humans is

A) converted to bicarbonate ions by an enzyme in red blood cells.

297

76) The ability of some viruses to remain inactive (latent) for a period of time is exemplified by

B) herpes simplex viruses (oral or genital) whose reproduction is triggered by physiological or emotional stress in the host.

298

76) You are studying a large tropical reptile that has a high and relatively stable body temperature. How would you determine whether this animal is an endotherm or an ectotherm?

C) You subject this reptile to various temperatures in the lab and find that its body temperature and metabolic rate change with the ambient temperature. You conclude that it is an ectotherm.

299

77) Hydrogen ions produced within human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering plasma pH because they bind to

A) hemoglobin.

300

77) Most newly emerging diseases result in

C) the waning of the disease, due to evolutionary selection for resistant hosts and milder pathogens.

301

77) Which of the following animals uses the largest percentage of its energy budget for homeostatic regulation?

E) a desert bird

302

78) Preventing the appearance of the symptoms of an allergy attack would be the likely result of

A) blocking the attachment of the IgE antibodies to the mast cells.

303

78) The hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals in that

C) hemocyanin has protein coupled to copper rather than iron.

304

79) A patient complaining of watery, itchy eyes and sneezing after being given a flower bouquet as a birthday gift should first be treated with

<p>D) antihistamines.</p> 79) In an animal species known for endurance running rather than fast sprinting, you would expect to find

305

79) In an animal species known for endurance running rather than fast sprinting, you would expect to find

E) a much higher rate of oxygen consumption for its size.

306

8) A general rule relating the capacity of a specific animal's digestive system to provide adequate access to substrates for biosynthesis of cellular components, as well as fuel molecules needed for ATP production, is that the animal should have access to

D) a diet that matches the "food pyramid" for the species.

307

8) All animals, whether large or small, have

E) each living cell in contact with an aqueous medium.

308

8) Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have

B) a closed circulatory system.

309

8) The eyes and the respiratory tract are both protected against infections by

D) the secretion of lysozyme onto their surfaces.

310

80) A patient who has a parasitic worm infection and another patient responding to an allergen such as ragweed pollen have which of the following in common?

E) an increase in the levels of IgE

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80) For this unusual capillary bed,

E) fluids will leave the capillaries on the arterial side of the bed and re-enter on the venous side.

312

81) An anthropologist discovers the fossilized heart of an extinct animal. The evidence indicates that the organism's heart was large, well-formed, and had four chambers, with no connection between the right and left sides. A reasonable conclusion supported by these observations is that the

B) animal was endothermic and had a high metabolic rate.

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81) The results shown in the graphs support the hypothesis that

B) adding the drosomycin gene to such mutants protects them from fungal infection.

314

82) A group of students was designing an experiment to test the effect of smoking on grass frogs. They hypothesized that keeping the frogs in a smoke-filled environment for defined periods would result in the animals developing lung cancer. However, when they searched for previously published information to shore up their hypothesis, they discovered they were quite wrong in their original assessment. Even though they were never going to go ahead with their experiment (so as not to harm frogs needlessly), they knew that a more likely outcome of putting carcinogens in the air would be the development of

B) skin cancer.

315

83) Which of the following respiratory systems is not closely associated with a blood supply?

C) the tracheal system of an insect

316

84) Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the

B) left atrium.

317

85) Pulse is a direct measure of

D) heart rate.

318

86) When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?

<p>C) rising CO₂</p> 87) One feature that amphibians and humans have in common is

319

87) One feature that amphibians and humans have in common is

D) the number of circuits for circulation.

320

88) If a molecule of CO₂ released into the blood in your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following except

A) the pulmonary vein.

321

89) Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these cells in arteries has a

A) higher PO₂.

322

9) As body size increases in animals,

<p>A) there is a decrease in the surface-to-volume ratio.</p> 9) In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

323

9) In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

D) frogs

324

9) Salmonella bacterial poisoning can be initiated when

A) the microbe survives the acidic environment of the stomach and resists lysosomal degradation in macrophages.

325

90) Which of the following reactions prevails in red blood cells traveling through alveolar capillaries? (Hb = hemoglobin)

A) Hb + 4 O₂ → Hb(O₂)₄

326

94) Which of these is not part of insect immunity?

B) activation of natural killer cells

327

95) An epitope associates with which part of an antigen receptor or antibody?

C) variable regions of a heavy chain and light chain combined

328

96) Which statement best describes the difference in responses of effector B cells (plasma cells) and cytotoxic T cells?

C) B cells secrete antibodies against a pathogen; cytotoxic T cells kill pathogen-infected host cells.

329

97) Which of the following statements is not true?

D) A lymphocyte has receptors for multiple different antigens.

330

98) Which of the following should be the same in identical twins?

<p>B) the set of MHC molecules produced</p> 99) Vaccination increases the number of

331

99) Vaccination increases the number of

B) lymphocytes with receptors that can bind to the pathogen.

332

The phenotype of the HA3 knockout can be ascertained by

D) the measurement of the proportion of CD4 cells to total lymphocytes.