Bio Lab 9 MAMMALIAN TISSUE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Flashcards


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1

4 main types of tissues

epithelial

connective

muscle

nerve

2

epithelial

lines surface

3

connective

joins other tissue types together

4

muscle

contracts and relaxes

involved in movement

5

nerve

generates and conducts nerve impulses

6

epithelium

a layer of closely packed cells that lines an external or internal surface

has no blood supply; it is nourished by diffusion from the blood supply of he connective tissue adjacent to it

chief function is protection but also secretion, absorption secretion, excretion, lubrication, and even sensory perception

7

TYPES OF EPITHELIAL

simple epithelium

stratified epithelium

8

simple epithelium

single layer

squamous cells that are flat in shape: intestinal serosa

cuboidal (cells are cubical): thyroid follicles

columnar (cells are long and narrow): intestinal mucosa

9

simple squamous epithelium

composed of cells shaped like tiles thin and flat with round or oval nuclei.

specialized for exchange of materials.

lines inside walls of blood vessels body cavity and the bowman capsules of the kidney

10

simple cuboidal epithelium

appear square in side view and have a secretory or absorptive function.

found in areas such as kidney tubules and thyroid follicles

11

simple columnar epithelium

composed of cells that are significantly taller than they are wide

appear as a row of rectangles standing on end, with the nuclei frequently all at the same level, usually in the lower part of the cell

may be ciliated

golblet cells specialized for the secretion of mucus

found where a need for secretion or absorption exists and the wear and tear is considerable. lines a large part of respiratory and digestive tracts and oviducts

12

stratified epithelium

composed of two or more layers of epithelial cells. it is not adapted for absorption or secretion but for areas subject to extensive wear and tear.

forms outer layer of skin mouth esophagus, anus, vagina,

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pseudo stratified columnar epithelium

simple epithelium with all the cells resting on a basement membrane

cells have the appearance of a stratified epithelium because they are not all the same height and their nuclei are located at different levels.

lines trachea bronchi male urethra

14

stratified epithelium

2 or more layers thick

human skin

15

types of connective

adipose

cartilage

bone

blood

dermis

16

loose connective tissue (areolar, reticular, adipose)

serves as packing material filling spaces between body parts

17

dense connective tissue (dermis fasciae, ligaments, and tendons)

perform major supportive function

18

blood

derived from a form of loose connective tissue and cartilage and bone

19

fibers

collagenous

elastic

reticular

20

collagenous fibers

appear as thick wavy bundles of finer fibrils. They are flexible but very strong and resistant to stretching

21

elastic fibers

thin branching threads that usually appear straight

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reticular fibers

consist of bundles of small inelastic fibrils.

smaller than collagenous fibers and they branch and reunite extensively

23

adipose connective tissue

fat

24

catilage

most common form is hyaline cartilage

found on the ends of long bones and in the nose trachea

matrix is firm and flexible

lacunae- cavities containing one cell

25

bone

most specialized

bone matrix secreted by bone forming ells called osteocytes and is composed of crystals of calcium phosphate with collagenous fibers between the crystals to reduce the brittleness of the bone

compact bone and spongy bone

26

periosteum

thin layer of dense connective tissue that covers bone

27

enthrocytes

red blood cells

28

leukocytes

white blood cells

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granular leukocytes

neutrophils

eosinophils

basophils

30

neutrophils

finely granular cytoplasm and a polymorphic nucleus with from three to five lobes

MOST ACTIVE PHAGOCYTE

31

eosinophils

bilobed nucleus which amy be partly obscured by bright red spherical granules in the cytoplasm

32

basopils

have an elongate curved nucleus which may be partly obscured by blue granules in the cytoplasm

33

agranular leukocytes

lymphocyetes

monocytes

34

lymphocytes

slightly larger than enthrocytes

have nucleus which is only slightly smaller than the cell itself.

cytoplasm forms thin clear cresent around the cells nucleus

35

monocytes

larger and have a smaller nucleus more cytoplasm visible

MOST ACTIVE PHAGOCYTE

36

blood platelets

disk shaped fragille clot promoting bodies found only in mammal blood

37

smooth muscle

simplist

digestive tract uterus

38

skeletal muscle

long cylindrical blunt ends

have blood vessels and nerves

tongue

39

cardiac muscle

heart

have intercalated discs which mark the boundaries between the ends of adjacent cells

40

nerve tissue

nerve cells called neurons

41

neuron

carry impulses into the nerve cell called dendrites

those that carry impulses away are called axons

42

in what ways does epithelial tissue differ from other tissue types

it has specialized types and is used for absorption, secretion, excretion, lubrication, and sensory perception

43

in what important way does connective tissue differ from other tissue types

connects tissues together provides structure and support and function in metabolism. it is largely composed of extracellular matrix

44

compare and contrast cartilage and bone

bone is specialized in structural support

cart is found at the end of bones in the nose trachea providing cushioning support

both are connective tissues

45

compare and contrast the structures of the three muscle types

skeletal: made of fibers bundles and found in connective muscle tissues; richly supplied by blood vessels and nerves

smoothL found in digestive tract uterus; sustained areas that contract used for involuntary action

cardiac: found in heart; involuntary slow rhythmic contractions

46

parts of neuron

neuron consists of a cell body dendrites axons and mycelian sheath (supportive cell membrane)

47

how does a tissue differ from an organ

group of cells specialized for a particular function is a tissue while an organ is a group of tissues

48

all tissue types in small intestine

mucosa, submucosa, smooth muscle, goblet cells

49

tissues found in c.s of the small intestine from the outside to the lumen

subucosa, smooth tissue, serosa, mucosa, longitudinal muscle, lumen

50

tissue in hamburger in order of abundance

skeletal- support

connective-fats

peripheral nerve tissue- throughout body of cow

bone and cartilage