Bio 211

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Anatomy and Physiology
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1

An incision into the wall of the GI tract would cut, in order, from outside to inside:
Amucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa.

serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa.

2

The numerous small elevations on the surface of the tongue that support taste buds are called:

papillae.

3

Which of the following papillae of the tongue lack taste buds?

filiform

4

The substance that forms the outer covering of the neck and root of a tooth is:

cementum.

5

The greatest proportion of the tooth shell consists of:

dentin.

6

A permanent set of teeth normally consists of ______ teeth.

32

7

Which of the following structures controls the opening of the stomach into the small intestine?

pyloric sphincter

8

In the stomach, hydrochloric acid is secreted by the:

parietal cells.

9

Which of the following is not associated with the large intestine?

pyloric sphincter

10

The longest portion of the small intestine is the:

ileum.

11

The contents of the stomach are emptied into the:

cecum

12

The part of the colon that lies in the vertical position, on the left side of the abdomen, extending from a point below the stomach and spleen to the level of the iliac crest is the:

descending colon.

13

The brush border of the intestinal mucosa consists of:

microvilli.

14

All of the following are classified as accessory organs of the digestive system except the:

mouth

15

The fan-shaped projection of peritoneum that connects the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the:

mesentery

16

The hard palate consists of portions of:

four bones: two maxillae and two palatines.

17

Bile salts aid in the absorption of:

fats.

18

Bile is secreted by:

hepatic cells.

19

Which of the following is not a function of the liver?

secretion of insulin

20

Which of the following organs is classified as a dual gland (both exocrine and endocrine)?

pancreas

21

The hormone glucagon is produced by:

alpha cells.

22

Main Organs of the digestive system

Begins with the mouth  pharynx, esophagus  stomach  GI tract small intestine (most of the absorption occurs in small intestine) and Large intestine

23

Major organs that contribute

*Pancreas (exocrine glands)

*Liver (bile)

24

Neural

A.)Enteric Nervous Sytem

B.) Myenteric plexus and submucosal plexus

25

Hormonal

Hormones secreted mainly by endocrine cells scattered in the epithelium of the stomach and small intestine.

◦ Includes secretin, choecystokinin and gastrin.

◦ Still not fully understood.

26

Accessory Organ of the digestive system

a. salivary glands

b.tongue

c.teeth

d.liver

e. gallbladder

f. pancreas

g. appendix

27

Primary Functions

Digestion

breakdown of nutrients ( complex to simple)

28

absoprtion

-passage of nutrients to blood

-majority in SI

29

Elimination

-removal of wastes from digestive system

-functionof LI

30

purposes of digestion

1. absorption

2.metabolism

31

Mouth

MASTICATION, Chewing (MOUTH: TEETH/TONGUE)

Mechanism ◦ Processes:

#1 & 2 Motility (Mixing and moving)

32

SALIVA

◦ Moistens food and lubrication

◦ Digestive enzyme to break down complex carbs (amylase)

◦ Dissolve food

◦ Antibacterial properties

33

DEGLUTITION, Swallowing (MOUTH, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS)

Movement of Food Bolus from Mouth

 Back of Pharynx 

Esophagus

 Stomach

34

3 stages of deglutition ( swallowing)

 ORAL STAGE (MOUTH TO OROPHARYNX)

◦ Voluntary (Cerebral Cortex)

◦ Tongue pushes food bolus

35

3 stages of deglutition ( swallowing)

PHARYNGEAL STAGE (OROPHARYNX TO ESOPHAGUS)

◦ Involuntary (Nervous Reflex: Reflex Center = Deglutition Center)

◦ Requires Closure of 3 Openings:

 1) Fauces (By Tongue)

 2) Nasopharynx (By Soft Palate, Uvula)

 3) Larynx (By Epiglottis)

36

ESOPHAGEAL STAGE (ESOPHAGUS TO STOMACH)

◦ Involuntary (Nervous Reflex)

◦ Involves Peristalsis

37

PERISTALSIS (ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE)

Wavelike Muscle Contractions

◦ Progressive ◦ Organs Involved

◦ Involuntary (Nervous Reflex)

◦ Purpose: Motility (process

38

WALL OF THE GI TRACT (DIGESTIVE TUBE PROPER)

LAYERS ( INNERMOST TO OUTERMOST)

39

MUCOSA

INNERMOST (LINING)

40

SUBMUCOSA

CT ( SUPPORTS; BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES

41

MUSCULARIS

MUSCLE TYPE

SMOOTH

42

MUSCLE LAYERS

CIRCULAR,LONGITUDINAL ( NERVES B/T)

43

SEROSA

OUTERMOST( COVERING ) AKA VISCERAL PERITONEUM

44

MOUTH ( ORAL/ BUCCAL CAVITY)

COMPOSED OF 4 STRUCTURES

COMPOSED OF 4 STRUCTURESA.

45

LIPS- ANTERIOR BOUNDARY OF ORAL CAVITY

1.PHILTRUM-

SHALLOW VERTICAL GROOVE IN MIDLINE ABOVE THE UPPER LIP

2.ORAL FISSURE-

LINE OF CONTACT BETWEEN CLOSED LIPS

46

CHEEKS- LATERAL BOUNDARIES OF THE ORAL CAVITY

1.BUCCINATOR MUSCLE

-MAJOR CHEEK MUSCLE

47

2. BUCCAL GLANDS-

-MUCOUS GLANDS; LOCATED WITHIN CHEEKS

-SECRETE MUCOUS INTO ORAL CAVITY

48

HARD SOFT PALLETE

-ROOF OF THE ORAL CAVITY

49

1. HARD PALATE

-BONE ( 2 MAXILLARY AND 2 PALATINE)

50

SOFT PALATE

- MUSCLE ) BEHIND THE HARD PALATE

51

FAUCES

OPENING BETWEEN ORAL CAVITY AND OROPHARNYX

52

UVULA

CONE SHAPED STRUCTURE SUSPENDED FROM CENTER OF CONE PALATE.

53

TONGUE-

FLOOR OF THE ORAL CAVITY

54

TONGUE MUSCLE

2 TYPES

55

INTRINSIC ( INTERNAL)

-COMPOSE OF THE TONGUE ( ORIGIN AND INSERTION WITHIN TONGUE)

note( the tongue is a solid mass of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane.

function: TONGUE MANEUVERABILITY ( ABILITY TO CHANGE SIZE AND SHAPE; IMPORTANT IN CHEWING AND SPEECH)

56

An incision into the wall of the GI tract would cut, in order, from outside to inside:
Amucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa.

serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa.

57

The numerous small elevations on the surface of the tongue that support taste buds are called:

papillae

58

Which of the following papillae of the tongue lack taste buds?

filiform

59

The substance that forms the outer covering of the neck and root of a tooth is:

cementum

60

The greatest proportion of the tooth shell consists of:

dentin.

61

A permanent set of teeth normally consists of ______ teeth.

32

62

Which of the following structures controls the opening of the stomach into the small intestine?

pyloric sphincter

63

In the stomach, hydrochloric acid is secreted by the:

parietal cells.

64

Which of the following is not associated with the large intestine?

pyloric sphincter

65

The longest portion of the small intestine is the:

ileum.

66

The contents of the stomach are emptied into the:

duodenum.

67

Which of the following is not an anatomical part of the small intestine?

cecum

68

The part of the colon that lies in the vertical position, on the left side of the abdomen, extending from a point below the stomach and spleen to the level of the iliac crest is the:

descending colon.

69

The brush border of the intestinal mucosa consists of:

microvilli.

70

All of the following are classified as accessory organs of the digestive system except the:

mouth

71

The fan-shaped projection of peritoneum that connects the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the:

mesentery

72

The hard palate consists of portions of:

four bones: two maxillae and two palatines.

73

Bile salts aid in the absorption of:

fats.

74

Bile is secreted by:

hepatic cells.

75

Which of the following is not a function of the liver?

secretion of insulin

76

Which of the following organs is classified as a dual gland (both exocrine and endocrine)?

pancreas

77

The hormone glucagon is produced by:

alpha cells.