The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea
Which system has five kingdoms made up of Monera (procaryotes); Protista (eukaryotic, unicellular); Fungi (eukaryotic, multicellular, chitin); Plantae (eukaryotic, multicellular) and Animalia (eukaryotic, multicellular)?
Whittaker's Five-Kingdom System
What is Woese's Three Domains based on?
Comparison of sequence of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
The three domains are above the kingdoms. Name the three domains.
Eubacteria (prokaryotic and contain bacteria)
Archaea (Prokaryotic and contain archaeabacteria)
Eucarya (contains all eukaryotic kingdoms)
How many volumes are contained in Bergey's Manual 1st Edition? Name them.
Four volumes: I. Gram negative
II. Gram positive
III. Other Gram negative bacteria
IV. Actinomycetes and other Gram positive bacteria
What are the division of the volumes in Bergey's Manual 1st edition based on?
How many volumes are contained in Bergey's Manual 2nd edition? Name them.
Five volumes I. Archaea and deeply branching phototrophic bacteria
II. The Proteobacteria (Gram negative)
III. The Firmicutes (Gram positive)
IV. Odd bacteria
What does Low G+C mean?
Less G and C in the DNA
What does High G+C mean?
More G and C in the DNA
What are the groups included in Proteobacteria?
True or False. The firmicutes are gram negative.
True or False. The proteobacteria are gram negative
What is the phylogeny of proteobacteria based on?
Ribosomal RNA studies
Which of the proteobacteria are nitrogen-fixing of which the most common is Rhizobium?
What industrial benefit does the alpha proteobacteria offer?
They produce acetic acid from ethyl alcohol and help to make vinegar
What are obligate intercellular parasites?
Bacteria that must live inside the cell of the host
How are alpha proteobacteria medically important?
Rickettsia, Arthropod-borne, spotted fever
R. prowazekii - Epidemic typhus (Lice on humans)
R. typhi - Endemic murine typhus (fleas on rats)
R. rickettsii - Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Ticks)
Give an example of bacteria - vector - disease in the alpha proteobacteria group.
Ehrlichia - Tick-borne - ehrlichiosis
What cures most patients with alpha proteobacteria infections?
What is the best way to prevent typhus?
Inoculation with the typhus vaccine series before traveling to endemic areas and to avoid contact with lice.
True or False. All proteobacteria is not gram negative.
Alpha proteobacteria are chemoautotrophic. What does it mean?
They oxidize nitrogen for energy (lose electron or breakdown CO2)
Fix CO2 - carbon source
What is the alpha proteobacteria plant pathogen and what does it do?
Agrobacterium - insert a plasmid into plant cells, inducing a tumor
The Beta proteobacteria are medically important and very dangerous. Why?
Bordetella are chemoheterotrophic and rod-shaped - B. pertussis causes whooping cough
Burkholderia are nosocomial infections - B. cepacia is used for pesticides and dangerous for cystic fibrosis
Neisseria is a beta proteobacteria - which diseases are attributed to this bacteria?
What is the Gram status and shape is Neisseria?
Gram negative cocci
Which two bacteria will never be used in the lab due to its dangerous nature?
Neisseria - beta proteobacteria
Pseudomonas - gamma proteobacteria
When it comes to metabolism - how does alpha proteobacteria differ from beta proteobacteria?
Alpha are chemoautotrophic and beta are chemoheterotrophic
What is the largest subgroup of proteobacteria?
The enterics are included in the gamma proteobacteria - what are they?
Located in the intestines and colon and all are facultatively anaerobic and have peritrichous flagella. Includes: Klebsiella
Which gamma proteobacteria is considered very dangerous due to being an opportunistic pathogen? Why?
Pseudomonas because they can change their genome to use any food product. Found in the burn unit; green in color and smells like grapes.
Which of the pseudomonas are nitrogen fixing?
Azotobacter and azomonas
Which gamma proteobacteria causes pneumonia and where are they found?
Legionellales - in streams, warm-water pipes and cooling towers
Which gamma proteobacteria are found in salt water or raw fish?
Which disease is vibrionales known to cause?
Cholera and gastroenteritis
What is another very dangerous gamma proteobacteria that require heme fraction and NAD cofactor?
Which type of media has to be used with Haemophilus proteobacteria?
Blood agar (TSA + 5% agar) that has been boiled causing the release of X factor -referred to as chocolate agar due to its dark color
Which type of media does Neisseria require?
TSA + 5% agar
Which bacteria infections are caused by Haemophilus influenzae?
Meningitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, septic arthritis, earaches
Which proteobacteria are microaerphilic with helical or vibrioid rods and motile by means of flagella?
Which of the epsilon proteobacteria have one polar flagellum and are gastroenteritis?
Which epsilon proteobacteria causes spontaneous abortion in domestic animals?
Which epsilon proteobacteria is the leading cause of baterial diarrhea?
Which epsilon probacteria causes heartburn, peptic ulcers and stomach cancer?
Helicobacter or helicobacter pylori
Which group are low G + C and gram positive?
Which of the firmicutes are endospore-producing and obligate anaerobes?
Which of the firmicutes are endospore-producing rods and Bacillus?
Which of the bacillales are cocci?
Which are generally aerotolerant anaerobes and lack an electron transport chain?
What are some typical lactobacillales?
Lactobacillus (in yogurt)
Listeria (gram positive rod) - if contracted in pregnancy, 40% chance of miscarriage
Which group are not contagious, wall-less and pleomorphic?
Which bacteria causes "walking" pneumonia?
What are the gram positive and high G + C called?
Which of that actinobacteria are normal flora in the throat?
Corynebacterium causes diphtheria and strep throat but how are they visually different?
In diphtheria, there is a gray layer of infection in the throat and in strep throat, there is a yellow layer of infection.
Which of the nonproteobacteria gram negative bacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs?
What are the basic characteristics of cyanobacteria?
What type of photosynthesis requires no oxygen?
Anoxygenic photosynthesis which is purple and green photosynthetic bacteria
Which nonproteobacteria gram negative bacteria is the longest gram negative bacteria?
Which group do spirochaetes and bacteriodetes fall under?
nonproteobacteria gram negative
Which of the bacteriodetes is found in the mouth and large intestine?