List the diseases caused by viruses
AIDS, hepatitis, encephalitis, rabies, colds, warts, or chicken pox.
Bacteria are helpful to humans in what ways?
it helps digest our foods, and its used to treat some bacterial infections
Viruses and bacteria both contain what?
the bubonic plaque epidemic was induced by?
from animals, rats with fleas.
Once a prion enters a nerve cell, it essentially becomes?
self-propagating, one prion produces another and so on.
what is the function of the lymph nodes?
they remove microorganisms, cellular debris, and abnormal cells from the lymph before returning it to the cardiovascular system.
what is located in the tonsils that filters out many of the microorganisms that enter the throat?
skin is able to prevent most microorganisms from entering the body by?
its structure, the fact that it is constantly being replaced, and its acidic pH and the production of an antibiotic by sweat glands
why do doctors advise patients with a bladder infection to drink cranberry juice?
because its acidic and will kill the bacteria.
physical and chemical berriers that form the bodys first line of defense against pathogens include?
defenses include, tears, saliva, earwax, digestive and vaginal acids and mucus
antibodies are generated by?
the release of chemicals from injured cells triggers histamine release from?
it binds to the IgE antibodies on mast cells and basophils which causes them to release histamine. mast cells
what are the steps involved in the process of phagocytosis?
a phagocyte first captures a bacterium with its cytoplasmic extensions
then it draws the bacterium in, engulfing it. and enclosing it in a membrane-bound vesicle.
the vesicle fuses with lysosomes, and the powerful enzymes in the lysosomes dissolve the bacterial membranes.
once digestive is complete, the phagocyte jettisons the bacterial wastes by exocytosis.
what leukocytes are most likely to be directly involved in the destruction of flukes?
what leukocyte kills its target cells by releasing chemicals that break down the target cell membrane?
what is the common type of immunoglobin?
what type of cell is responsible for producing and releasing antibodies is?
once a macrophage engulfs a bacterium what is the fate of the foreign cell?
its destroyed or dies
what antibody would most likely be involved with the immune response against microorganism entering the digestive or reproductive tract?
during cytotoxic T cells attack of a target cell, what is released to pierce the cell membrane of the foreign cell, which ultimately kills the target cell?
what T cell is a critical component of the immune system because it stimulates and enhances the activity of other components of the immune system?
helper T cell
what chemical is released by cytotoxic T cells is used to treat hepatitis C?
what antibody activates the inflammatory response by causing the release of histamine?
dead or weakened pathogens
any substance that produces an inappropriate response of the immune system is referred to as?
passive immunity differs from active immunity in the passive immunity?
protection is not as long lasting. it cant confer long-term immunity against a second exposure because the persons own b cells aren't activated and so memory cells for the pathogen do not develop.
HIV is classified as a retrovirus because it makes?
a copy of its self
what body fluid does not transmit HIV from human to human?
what best describes phase 1 of HIV infection?
flu like symptoms are present. t cells population may decline. it is undetected in most cases.
what antiviral drug is used to cure HIV/AIDS
lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks?
its own connective tissue