Water-Soluble Vitamins Flashcards


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1

How many essential vitamins are there?

13

2

How are vitamins classified?

Solubility (fat soluble and water soluble)

3

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Dissolve in water.

Absorbed mostly in small intestine & stomach.

4

How many vitamin B's are there? C?

8 B and 1 C

5

Bioavailability

The extent to which a nutrient is absorbed.

6

Bioavailability of Water-Soluble Vitamins

It is NOT all the same for vitamins. The bioavailability is different depending on nutritional status, other nutrients/substances in food, medications, age and illness.

7

How are water-soluble vitamins circulated?

Via the blood to the liver.

8

How can you name vitamins?

1. Either vitamin A or B

2. Common names

3. Chemical names.

9

Mnemonic for B Vitamins

The Romans Never Painted Pyramids Before College

Thiamin

Riboflavin

Niacin

Panthothenic Acid

Pyridoxine

Biotin

Cobalamin

10

B1

Thiamin

11

B2

Riboflavin

12

B3

Niacin

13

B5

Pantothenic Acid

14

B6

Pyridoxine

15

B7

Biotin

16

B12

Cobalamin

17

Fortification

Nutrients added to food.

18

Enrichment

Fortification of a select group of foods with FDA-specified levels of thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, folate & iron.

19

How are water-soluble vitamins easily destroyed in cooking/storage?

Water

Heat

Light

pH

Air

20

Primary function of B Vitamin

Energy Metabilism

21

Folate (Folacin)

Consists of nitrogen-containing double/single ring structures & glutamic acid.

22

Folic Acid

Synthetic form of folate.

Found in fortified foods and supplements.

23

Folate is more bioavailable than folic acid. T/F

False

24

All cereal products in the US are fortified with folic acid. T/F

True

25

Bioavailability of folate is dependent on _______.

Form

26

Influences on the bioavailability of folate are ________ and ________.

Genetic factors and drugs

27

Absorption of folate is higher with ______ and ______.

Fortified foods and supplements.

28

Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFE)

Allow you to see how much folate you're getting in your food (adjusts food to folate).

29

Two functions of Folate

1. Single Carbon Transfer

2. Prevents defect of neural tube (not closing of neural tube properly)

30

Single-Carbon Transfers

Folate is a coenzyme involved in transfer of single-carbon groups to form organic substances.

ie. Homocysteine to methionine

31

Why did the FDA mandate Folic Acid?

Women of childbearing age are in danger if they are deficient of folate. So, they need to get an adequate folate consumption so they don't have problems with the neural tube before they even know that they are pregnant.

32

ION recommends:

That women capable of becoming pregnant take folic acid supplements and/or consume folic acid-fortified foods in addition to a varied diet.

33

When deficient of folate, you're more likely to:

1. Be lethargic because you can't take energy from foods and use that energy in energy metabolism.

2. Prone to anemia (altered blood cells).

34

Macrocytic Anemia

RBC remain immature.

Cells are large & contain organelles not found in mature RBC.

35

Who gets folate deficiency?

Alcoholics

People with intestinal diseases

People taking certain medications

Elderly

Genetic variations

36

Vitamin B12 dietary sources include mostly animal products. T/F

True, because B12 is made my microorganisms, so you either need to eat those microorganisms or eat animals that eat the microorganisms.

37

If you are vegan, the probability of being deficient in vitamin B12 decreases. T/F

False

38

Regulation of B12 in the Body

Bound to R proteins and intrinsic factor.

Must be cleaved before absorption.

Circulates to liver via blood.

Stored in liver.

39

Functions of Vitamin B12

Coenzyme that catalyzes:

1. Production of succinyl CoA

2. Conversion of homocysteine to methionine

40

What are most sources of Vitamin C?

Fruits and vegatables, especially those with bright colors.

41

Regulation of Vitamin C in Body

Absorption in small intestine.

Glucose transport protein.

Circulates to liver via blood.

Excess excreted in urine.

42

Functions of Vitamin C

1. Antioxidant

2. Accepts & Donates electrons to allow enzymes to work properly.

4. Enhances bioavailability of other nutrients (ie. iron, copper, chromium)

3. Involved in variety of redox reactions.

43

Antioxidants

Quenches free radicals and gives electrons to free radicals so they stop damaging.

44

Free Radicals

Charges substances that have unpaired electrons in their outer shells.

Break DNA and oxidize fatty acids found in cell membranes.

45

Vitamin C destroys free radicals. T/F

True

46

It is not suggested that vitamin C benefit the immune system. T/F

False

47

Deficiency in Vitamin C could lead to:

Scurvy

Bleeding gums

Skin irritations

Bruising

Poor wound healing.

Toxicity