How many essential vitamins are there?
How are vitamins classified?
Solubility (fat soluble and water soluble)
Dissolve in water.
Absorbed mostly in small intestine & stomach.
How many vitamin B's are there? C?
8 B and 1 C
The extent to which a nutrient is absorbed.
Bioavailability of Water-Soluble Vitamins
It is NOT all the same for vitamins. The bioavailability is different depending on nutritional status, other nutrients/substances in food, medications, age and illness.
How are water-soluble vitamins circulated?
Via the blood to the liver.
How can you name vitamins?
1. Either vitamin A or B
2. Common names
3. Chemical names.
Mnemonic for B Vitamins
The Romans Never Painted Pyramids Before College
Nutrients added to food.
Fortification of a select group of foods with FDA-specified levels of thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, folate & iron.
How are water-soluble vitamins easily destroyed in cooking/storage?
Primary function of B Vitamin
Consists of nitrogen-containing double/single ring structures & glutamic acid.
Synthetic form of folate.
Found in fortified foods and supplements.
Folate is more bioavailable than folic acid. T/F
All cereal products in the US are fortified with folic acid. T/F
Bioavailability of folate is dependent on _______.
Influences on the bioavailability of folate are ________ and ________.
Genetic factors and drugs
Absorption of folate is higher with ______ and ______.
Fortified foods and supplements.
Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFE)
Allow you to see how much folate you're getting in your food (adjusts food to folate).
Two functions of Folate
1. Single Carbon Transfer
2. Prevents defect of neural tube (not closing of neural tube properly)
Folate is a coenzyme involved in transfer of single-carbon groups to form organic substances.
ie. Homocysteine to methionine
Why did the FDA mandate Folic Acid?
Women of childbearing age are in danger if they are deficient of folate. So, they need to get an adequate folate consumption so they don't have problems with the neural tube before they even know that they are pregnant.
That women capable of becoming pregnant take folic acid supplements and/or consume folic acid-fortified foods in addition to a varied diet.
When deficient of folate, you're more likely to:
1. Be lethargic because you can't take energy from foods and use that energy in energy metabolism.
2. Prone to anemia (altered blood cells).
RBC remain immature.
Cells are large & contain organelles not found in mature RBC.
Who gets folate deficiency?
People with intestinal diseases
People taking certain medications
Vitamin B12 dietary sources include mostly animal products. T/F
True, because B12 is made my microorganisms, so you either need to eat those microorganisms or eat animals that eat the microorganisms.
If you are vegan, the probability of being deficient in vitamin B12 decreases. T/F
Regulation of B12 in the Body
Bound to R proteins and intrinsic factor.
Must be cleaved before absorption.
Circulates to liver via blood.
Stored in liver.
Functions of Vitamin B12
Coenzyme that catalyzes:
1. Production of succinyl CoA
2. Conversion of homocysteine to methionine
What are most sources of Vitamin C?
Fruits and vegatables, especially those with bright colors.
Regulation of Vitamin C in Body
Absorption in small intestine.
Glucose transport protein.
Circulates to liver via blood.
Excess excreted in urine.
Functions of Vitamin C
2. Accepts & Donates electrons to allow enzymes to work properly.
4. Enhances bioavailability of other nutrients (ie. iron, copper, chromium)
3. Involved in variety of redox reactions.
Quenches free radicals and gives electrons to free radicals so they stop damaging.
Charges substances that have unpaired electrons in their outer shells.
Break DNA and oxidize fatty acids found in cell membranes.
Vitamin C destroys free radicals. T/F
It is not suggested that vitamin C benefit the immune system. T/F
Deficiency in Vitamin C could lead to:
Poor wound healing.