Campbell Biology: BSC 1010C SSC Exam 3: Chapters 8-9-10 Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
Chapters 8-10
Exam 3: Chapters 8-9-10
updated 8 years ago by pamela71167
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1

Catabolism

Breakdown pathways - breaking down of complex molecules to simpler compounds

IE: Cellular respiration

2

Metabolism

An emergent property of life.

The totality of all an organism's chemical reactions

*It is never at equilibrium. If it were, we'd be dead

3

Anabolism

consume energy to build complicated pathways from simpler ones.

IE: synthesis of protein from an amino acid

4

dehydration reaction

a chemical reaction in which 2 molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule

5

metabolic pathway

begins with a specific product and ends with a product.

It is catalyzed by a specific enzyme @ each step

6

synthesis reaction

a type of chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a more complex product

7

catalyst

chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

8

Exergonic Reaction

Energy is released in the reaction.

Delta G is (-).

Occurs spontaneously if energetically favorable.

9

Endergonic Reaction

Energy is absorbed from surroundings

Delta G is (+)

Non Spontaneous reaction

10

Spontaneous Reaction

Reactions that are going to happen anyway. Like water falling downhill. Does NOT mean quickly!!

Goes without an input of energy

11

Nonspontaneous Reaction

process that leads to a decrease in energy. Like water being pumped uphill.

12

Entropy

measure of disorder or randomness in the universe

13

enzymes

is a catalytic protein. Speed up metabolic reactions that would happen anyways by lowering energy barriers. Enzymes end in -ase

DO NOT affect the change in free energy (Delta G)

14

Feedback Inhibition

the end product of a metabolic pathway shuts down the pathway.

Prevents a cell from wasting chemical resources by synthesizing more product than is needed.

15

Allosteric Inhibition

stabilizes the inactive form of an enzyme

16

cooperative inhibition

form of allosteric regulation that can amplify enzyme activity

17

noncooperative inhibition

the inhibitors exert their effects independently.

18

free energy

Energy that can do work when temperature and pressure are uniform as in a living cell.

(-) Delta G is Spontaneous

19

change in free energy formula

Delta G = Delta H - T(Delta S)

Delta H = total energy

Delta S = change in entropy

T = temperature in Kelvin

20

Enthalpy

is the amount of heat content used or released in a system at constant pressure.

21

substrate

reactant that an enzyme acts on

22

active site

region on the enzyme where the substrate binds

23

cofactors

nonprotein enzyme helpers

24

Coenzyme

organic cofactors. Vitamins

25

Proton Motive Force

generated by an electron transport chain which acts as a proton pump, using the energy of electrons from an electron carrier (Gibbs free energy of redox reactions) to pump protons (hydrogen ions) out across the membrane, separating the charge across the membrane.

26

autotrophs

organisms capable of generating their own food. IE: Plants

Use photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

*Producers!

27

heterotrophs

obtain all of their organic material from other organisms.

IE: Animals, fungi

*Consumers of the biosphere

28

substrate level phosphorylation

ATP made by direct transfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate and ADP by an enzyme

29

oxidative phosphorylation

Electron transport & chemiosmosis. Produces 90% of ATP in cellular respiration. Powered by Redox Reactions

30

alkaline

pH greater than 7

31

1st Law of Thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created nor destroyed

32

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.

*Ergo, heat is disorganized form of energy

33

Oxidation

removing electrons

34

reduction

addition of electrons

35

Purpose of Oxygen in Cellular Respiration

Final Electron Acceptor