Chapter 19 - Cardiovascular System, Blood Vessels: Part B

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1

What are the vital signs?

pulse and blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature

2

What is the pressure wave caused by the expansion and recoil of arteries?

pulse

3

What pulse, taken at the wrist, is routinely used?

radial pulse

4

Systemic arterial blood pressure is measured using what?

sphygmomanometer

5

When measuring blood pressure, sounds first occur when the blood ?

starts to spurt through the artery

6

When measuring blood pressure, sounds disappear when?

the artery is no longer constricted and blood is flowing freely

7

What type of pressure is heard first?

systolic

8

What type of pressure is heard when sounds disappear?

diastolic

9

What is the normal range of systolic blood pressure?

110-140 mm Hg

10

What is the normal range of systolic blood pressure?

70-80 mm Hg

11

When does blood pressure peak, and why?

in the morning, due to levels of hormones

12

What is low blood pressure called?

hypotension

13

In hypotension, the systolic blood pressure is below ?

100 mm Hg

14

What alteration in blood pressure is often associated with long life and lack of cardiovascular illness?

hypotension

15

What type of hypotension occurs with a temporary low BP and dizziness when suddenly rising from a sitting or reclining position?

orthostatic hypotension

16

What type of hypotension hints of poor nutrition and is a warning sign of Addison's disease or hypothyroidism?

chronic hypotension

17

What type of hypotension is an important sign of circulatory shock?

acute hypotension

18

What is high blood pressure called?

hypertension

19

Hypertension requires a sustained elevated arterial pressure of what?

140/90 mm Hg or higher

20

What type of hypertension is due to risk factors like heredity, diet, obesity, age, stress, diabetes mellitus, and smoking?

primary or essential hypertension

21

What type of hypertension is less common and is due to identifiable disorders like kidney disease, arteriosclerosis, and endocrine disorders like hyperthyroidism and Cushing's syndrome?

secondary hypertension

22

What allows for adequate time for exchange between blood and tissues?

slow capillary flow

23

What is the automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any given point in time?

autoregulation

24

What are the types of autoregulation

metabolic and myogenic

25

What type of autoregulation involves the vasodilation of arterioles and relaxation of precapillary sphincters that occur in response to declining tissue O2 and substances from metabolically active tissues?

metabolic

26

What are the effects of metabolic controls?

relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and release of NO from vascular endothelial cells

27

What is the major factor causing vasodilation in metabolic autoregulation?

nitrous oxide

28

What type of autoregulation keep tissue perfusion constant despite most fluctuations in systemic pressure?

myogenic

29

In myogenic controls, what promotes increased tone and vasoconstriction?

passive stretch (increased intravascular pressure)

30

In myogenic controls, what promotes vasodilation and increases blood flow to the tissue?

reduced stretch

31

What is the formation of new blood vessels called?

angiogenesis

32

Long-term autoregulation (angiogenesis) occurs when?

When more blood flow is needed and when short-term autoregulation cannot meet tissue nutrient requirements

33

What is syncope and when does it occur?

fainting/dizziness; when MAP is below 60 mm Hg

34

When can cerebral edema occur?

When MAP is above 160

35

What is any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled or blood cannot circulate normally?

circulatory shock

36

What type of shock results from large-scale blood loss?

hypovolemic shock

37

What type of circulatory shock results from extreme vasodilation and descreased peripheral resistance (caused by some poisons)?

vascular shock

38

What type of circulatory shock results when an inefficient heart cannot sustain adequate circulation (when heart is failing/dying)?

cardiogenic shock

39

What are the two main circulations?

pulmonary and systemic

40

What type of circulation is the short loop that runs from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart?

pulmonary

41

What type of circulation is a long loop to all parts of the body and back to the heart?

systemic