Chapter 19 Cardiovascular System - Blood Vessels: Part A

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1

What is the delivery system of dynamic structures that begins and ends at the heart?

Blood vessels

2

What type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart

Arteries

3

Is the blood carried by arteries oxygenated or de-oxygenated?

Oxygenated

4

Name the exceptions in arteries - the areas where the blood carried by arteries is NOT oxygenated.

pulmonary circulation and umbilical vessels of the fetus

5

Which blood vessels are contact tissue cells that directly serve cellular needs?

Capillaries

6

Which blood vessels care blood from cells and organs towards the heart?

Veins

7

How many layers to arteries and veins have?

Three

8

What is the central blood-containing space in arteries and veins?

Lumen

9

How many layers do capillaries have?

One

10

What is the layer of capillaries called?

Endothelium wiht a sparse basal lamina

11

What are the layers of arteries and veins called?

Tunica externa, tunica media, tunica intima

12

What is the tunica media composed of?

smooth muscle and sheets of elastin

13

What controls vasoconstriction and vasodilation in the tunica media of vessels?

sympathetic vasomotor nerve fibers

14

What is the tunica externa composed of?

collagen fibers that protect and reinforce

15

In the tunica externa of larger vessels, what helps nourish the external layer?

vasa vasorum (arteries supply artery, vessel supplies vessel)

16

What are the types of arteries?

Elastic (conducting) and Muscular (distributing)

17

What is located in all three tunics of elastic arteries?

elastin

18

What are the elastic/conducting arteries?

aorta and its major branches

19

The elastic arteries give rise to branches called?

muscular arteries

20

What do the muscular/distributing arteries and arterioles do?

deliver blood to body organs; active in vasoconstriction

21

What are the smallest arteries that lead to capillary beds?

arterioles

22

What do arterioles do?

control flow into capillary beds via vasodilation and vasoconstriction

23

What do arterioles lead to?

tissues/groups of cells to supply the blood

24

What are microscopic blood vessels that are only one cell thick?

capillaries

25

What helps stabilize capillary walls and control permeability?

pericytes (structural cells)

26

Where are capillaries NOT found?

cartilage, epithelia, cornea and lens of the eye

27

What are the functions of capillaries?

exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones, etc.

28

What are the types of capillaries?

continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal

29

Which type of capillary is abundant in the skin and muscles?

continuous capillaries

30

Which type of capillary forms the blood-brain barrier?

continuous capillaries

31

Which type of capillaries have tight junctions that connect endothelial cells, and intercellular clefts that allow the passage of fluids and small solutes?

continuous capillaries

32

Which type of capillary has some endothelial cells that contain pores?

fenestrated capillaries

33

Which type of capillary is more permeable than continuous capillaries?

fenestrated capillaries

34

Which type of capillary functions in absorption or filtrate formation in the small intestines, endocrine glands and kidneys?

fenestrated capillaries

35

Which type of capillary has fewer tight junctions, larger intercellular clefts, and large lumens?

sinusoidal capillaries

36

Are sinusoidal capillaries usually fenestrated?

yes

37

Which type of capillary allows large molecules and blood cells to pass between the blood and surrounding tissues?

sinusoidal capillaries

38

Which type of capillary is found in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen?

sinusoidal capillaries

39

What are interwoven networks of capillaries that form the micro-circulation between arterioles and venules (starting points for the venous system)?

capillary beds

40

What are the types of vessels that comprise capillary beds?

vascular shunt and true capillaries

41

What is the thoroughfare channel in capillary beds that directly connects the terminal arteriole and a post-capillary venule?

vascular shunt

42

What type of blood vessel in capillary beds branch off the metarteriole or terminal arteriole?

true capillaries

43

What regulates blood flow into true capillaries?

precapillary sphincters

44

What are formed when capillary beds unite?

venules

45

What is very porous and allows fluids and WBCs into tissues?

venules

46

What are formed when venules converge?

veins

47

Which type of blood vessel has thinner walls and larger lumen than corresponding arteries?

veins

48

Is blood pressure lower in veins than in arteries?

yes

49

Veins called capacitance vessels contain how much of the blood supply?

65%

50

Veins have adaptations that ensure the return of blood to the heart. They are:

large diameter lumens and valves that prevent the backflow of blood

51

What are flattened veins with extremely thin walls (in the coronary sinus of the heart and dural sinuses of the brain)?

venous sinuses

52

What are interconnections of blood vessels?

vascular anastomoses

53

What provides alternate pathways to a given body region, common at joints, in abdominal organs, the brain and the heart?

arterial anastomoses

54

What is an example of arteriovenous anastomoses?

vascular shunts of capillaries

55

What is the volume of blood flowing through a vessel, organ, or the entire circulation in a given period?

blood flow

56

How is blood flow measured?

ml/min

57

Blood flow is equivalent to what?

the cardiac output for entire vascular system

58

What is the force per unit area exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by the blood?

blood pressure

59

How is blood pressure measured?

mm Hg

60

What provides the driving force that keeps blood moving from higher to lower pressure areas?

the pressure gradient

61

What is the opposition to flow, a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters?

resistance

62

Where is resistance in circulation generally found?

in the peripheral systemic circulation (limbs)

63

What are the sources of resistance to circulation?

blood viscosity, total blood vessel length, and blood vessel diameter

64

What are the factors of resistance that remain relatively constant?

blood viscosity and blood vessel length

65

What is due to formed elements and plasma proteins?

blood viscosity

66

Resistance varies inversely with the fourth power of ?

vessel radius

67

What are the major determinants of peripheral resistance?

small-diameter arterioles

68

What dramatically increases resistance?

abrupt changes in diameter or fatty plaques from atherosclerosis

69

Blood flow is directly proportional to the ?

blood (hydrostatic) pressure gradient

70

Blood flow is inversely proportional to ?

peripheral resistance

71

What results when flow is opposed by resistance?

blood pressure

72

Systemic pressure is highest where?

in the aorta

73

The steepest drop in pressure occurs where?

in arterioles

74

Arterial blood pressure reflects two factors of the arteries close to the heart. They are?

elasticity (compliance or distensibility) and volume of blood forced into them at any time

75

Arterial blood pressure: What is the pressure exerted during ventricular contraction?

systolic pressure

76

Arterial blood pressure: what is the lowest level of arterial pressure?

diastolic pressure

77

Arterial blood pressure: what is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure?

pulse pressure

78

Arterial blood pressure: what is the pressure that propels the blood to the tissues?

mean arterial pressure (map)

79

mean arterial pressure (MAP) =

diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure

80

Pulse pressure and MAP both __________ with increasing distance from the heart.

decline

81

What type of blood pressure ranges from 15 to 35 mm Hg?

capillary blood pressure

82

What would rupture fragile, thin-walled capillaries?

high blood pressure

83

Which type of blood pressure changes little during the cardiac cycle and has a small pressure gradient?

venous blood pressure

84

What are the factors aiding venous return?

respiratory pump, muscular pump, vasoconstriction of veins under sympathetic control

85

What describes pressure changes created during breathing, which moves blood toward the heart by squeezing abdominal veins as thoracic veins expand?

respiratory pump

86

What describes the contraction of skeletal muscles that "milk" blood towards the heart and valves prevent backflow?

muscular pump

87

Maintaining blood pressure requires cooperation of what?

heart, blood vessels, and kidneys

88

What are the main factors influencing blood pressure?

cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume

89

What is determined by venous return and neural and hormonal controls (that go into the kidneys)?

cardiac output

90

What is a cluster of sympathetic neurons in the medulla that oversee changes in blood vessel diameter?

the vasomotor center

91

Where are baroreceptors located?

carotid sinuses, aortic arch, and the walls of large arteries of the neck and thorax

92

Chemoreceptors respond to what?

rise in CO2, drop in pH or O2

93

Which adrenal hormones cause generalized vasoconstriction and increase cardiac output?

norepinephrine and epinephrine

94

What, when generated by kidney release of renin, causes vasoconstriction?

angiotensin II

95

What hormone, when secreted by the heart, causes blood volume and blood pressure to decline, causing general vasodilation?

atrial natriuretic peptide

96

What hormone causes intense vasoconstriction in cases of extremely low blood pressure?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (vasopressin)

97

Increased blood pressure or blood volumen causes the kidneys to do what?

eliminate more urine, reducing blood pressure

98

Antiogensin II is a what?

potent vasoconstrictor