The two systems that supply oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide are the (1)_____ system and the (2)_____ system. They participate equally in respiration.
The (1)_____ system provides for gas exchange, intake of O2, and elimination of CO2, where as the (2)_____ system transports the gases in the blood between the lungs and the cells.
Failure of either system has the same effect on the body:
disruption of homeostasis and rapid death of cells from oxygen starvation and buildup of waste products.
The respiratory system consists of...
The external portion of the nose is made of (1)_____ and (2)_____ and is lined with(3) _____ _____. Openings to the exterior are the(4) _____ _____. The internal portion communicates with the paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx through the (5)_____ _____. The inside of both the external and internal nose is called the (6)_____ _____. It is divided into right and left sides by the (7)_____ _____. The anterior portion of the cavity is called the (8)_____.
_____ is a surgical procedure in which the structure of the external nose is altered for cosmetic or functional reasons.
What are the functions of the nose.
*receives olfactory stimuli and provides resonating chambers to modify speech sounds.
The _____ is a muscular tube lined by a mucous membrane.
The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ears, nose, and throat is called _____.
otorhinolaryngology (or otolaryngology)
What are the three anatomic regions of the pharynx? What are their functions?
*oropharynx-digestion and in respiration(serving as a passageway for both air and food.
*laryngopharynx-digestion and in respiration(serving as a passageway for both air and food.
The (1)_____ is a passageway that connects the pharynx with the trachea. It contains the (2)_____ _____; the (3)_____, which prevents food from entering the larynx; the (4)_____ _____,which connects the larynx and trachea; and the paired (5)_____,(6)_____, and (7)_____ _____.
(2)thyroid cartilage(Adam's apple)
The larynx contains _____ _____, which produce sound. Taut _____ _____ produce high pitches, and relaxed ones produce low pitches.
Vocal folds(true vocal cords)
_____ is an inflammation of the larynx that is most often brought on by a respiratory infection or irritants such as cigarette smoke; it causes horseness or loss of voice by interfering with the contraction of the folds or by causing them to swell to the point where they cannot vibrate freely.
The _____ extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi. It is composed of smooth muscle and C-shaped rings of cartilage and is lined with pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium.
What are two methods of bypassing obstructions from the respiratory passageways?
What does the bronchial tree consist of?
Walls of bronchi contain ...
rings of cartilage.
Walls of bronchioles contain...
A _____ is an x-ray of the bronchial tree taken after introduction of an opaque contrast medium, usually containing iodine.
(1)_____ is the visual examination of the bronchi through a (2)_____, an illuminated, tubular instrument that is passed through the trachea into the bronchi. The examiner can view the interior of the trachea and bronchi to biopsy a tumor, clear an obstructing object or secretions from an airway, take cultures or smears for microscopic examination, stop bleeding, or deliver drugs.
During an _____ _____, the bronchiole smooth muscle contracts, reducing the diameter of the airways. Because there is no supporting cartilage, the spasms can even close off the air passageways, a life-threatening situation.
_____ are paired organs in the thoracic cavity.
The lungs are enclosed and protected by the _____ _____.
The _____ _____ is the outer layer of the lungs, attached to the wall of the thoracic cavity.
The _____ _____ is the inner layer of the lungs, covering the lungs themselves.
Between the pleura is a small potential space, the _____ _____, which contains a lubricating fluid secreted by the membranes.
The potential space between the pleurae occasionally becomes an actual space when it fills with air(1)(_____), blood(2)(_____),pus, or fluid due to wounds, surgery, infection, or inflammation.
Pleural inflammation in its early stages is called _____.
Fluid accumulation from uncontrolled infection or cancer is referred to as _____ _____.
The (1)_____ lung has three lobes separated by two fissures; the (2)_____ lung has two lobes separated by one fissure and a depression, the (3)_____ _____.
The secondary bronchi give rise to branches called (1)_____ _____, which supply segments of lung tissue called (2)______ _____.
(1)tertiary (segmental) bronchi
Each bronchopulmonary segment consists of many small compartments called _____.
Lobules contain ...
Alveolar walls consist of ...
*type I alveolar(squamous pulmonary epithelial)cells
*type II alveolar(septal) cells
*alveolar macrophages(dust cells)
Type II alveolar cells secrete alveolar fluid, which keeps the alveolar cells moist and which contains a component called _____, which lowers the surface tension of alveolar fluid, preventing the collapse of alveoli with each expiration.
Gas exchange occurs across the...
(1)_____ _____ is the first of three basic processes of respiration; it consists of inspiration and expiration. The other two processes are (2)_____ _____ and (3)_____ _____.
_____ is the process of bringing air into the lungs.
The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by _____ _____, which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure, assuming that temperature is constant.
Inspiration occurs when (1)_____ _____ falls below atmospheric pressure. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of hte thorax, thus decreasing the (2)_____ _____ so that the lungs expand. Expansion of the lungs decreases alveolar pressure so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs.
During forced inspiration, accessory muscles of inspiration(_____,_____,and _____ _____) are also used.
sternocleidomastoids,scalenes, and pectoralis minor
_____ is the movement of air out of the lungs.
Expiration occurs when alveolar pressure is _____ than atmospheric pressure.
What is the passive process of expiration?
Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles. This results in elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs, which increases intrapleural pressure, decreases lung volume, and increases alveolar pressure so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. There is also an inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid.`
Expiration becomes active during...
labored breathing and when air movement out of the lungs is impeded.
Forced expiration employs contraction of the _____ _____ and _____ ______.
internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
A collapsed lung or portion of a lung is called _____.
The presence of _____, a phospholipid produced by the type II alveolar (septal) cells in the alveolar walls, allows alteration of the surface tension of the alveoli and prevents their collapse following expiration.
_____ is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded.