Sedimentary Rocks Practice Exam Flashcards


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1

Most sediment is formed by _________.

settling out of a fluid

2

Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is________.

layers

3

Why do most sediments end up being deposited in oceans instead of other parts of the Earth?

Because running water is the most important way to transport sediment and it is the lowest areas of the planet, usually large.

4

Explain why sedimentary rocks are particularly important in studying the past history of the Earth.

Because studying what happens at the coast, in rivers, or in the desert can help people figure out how landscapes change and sedimentary rocks and fossils are formed.

5

Which of the following is an economically important sedimentary rock?

coal

6

Which of the following pairs are likely products of weathering granite?

clay and quartz

7

Which of the following is not a product of the chemical weathering of potassium feldspar?

iron oxide

8

Detrital sedimentary rocks are typically classified on the basis of their _________.

particle size

9

Breccia, a rock with angular particles, is likely to have traveled _________.

only a short distance

10

When sand lithifies, the resulting tock is commonly called _________.

sandstone

11

The most common sedimentary rock is ___________.

shale

12

Silts and clays are commonly deposited in lakes, lagoons, swamps, and marine environments because __________.

those settings have relatively still water

13

Chemical sedimentary rocks form from materials _________.

carried in solution

14

Limestone is formed primarily through __________.

biochemical sediments secreted by marine organisms

15

Chalk forms from _________.

the hard parts of microscopic organisms that accumulate on the sea floor

16

Which one of the following is not related to chemical weathering?

frost wedging

17

Chemical weathering would be most effective __________.

in a warm, humid climate

18

Death Valley is a site where _________sedimentary rocks are common.

evaporative

19

An important condition for the formation of coal is __________.

incomplete decomposition of organic matter due to a lack of oxygen

20

Which rock type is associated with a high-energy environment (such as a very turbulent stream)?

conglomerate

21

Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except _________.

salt flat

22

Compaction would probably be most significant as lithification process for ____________.

shale

23

The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ____________.

limestone

24

Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt?

evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks

25

Coal beds originate in __________.

freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

26

The common source of pressure during compaction of sediments is __________.

the weight of the sediments deposited above the compacting sediments

27

Which word does not fit the pattern?

lithification

28

Rock salt and rock gypsum are common examples of a group of chemical sedimentary rocks called ___________.

evaporities