Biology 101

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Midterm Exam
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1

Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules

Catabolic Pathways

2

Pinocytosis or Receptor-mediator

Endocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell.

Pinocytosis

3

ATP made during glycolysis is generated by what?

Substrate-level phosphorylation

4

Oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

Accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

5

During cellular respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in which location?

Mitochondrial matrix

6

The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction...

Loses electrons and loses potential energy

7

When a molecule of NAD+ gains a hydrogen atom, not a proton, the molecule becomes _____.

Reduced

8

Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?

Glycolysis

9

During glycolysis, when each molecule of glucose is catabolized to two molecules of pyruvate, most of the potential energy contained in glucose is...

Retained in the two pyruvate

10

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the stages of cellular respiration?

Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the Citric Acid Cycle

11

The proteins of the electron transport chain are located where

Mitochondrial Inner Membrane

12

In cellular respiration, the energy for most ATP synthesis is supplied by...

A proton gradient across a membrane

13

Primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to...

Act as an acceptor for electron and hydrogen, forming water

14

Inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follows which pathway?

Citric Acid Cycle -> NADH-> Electron Transport Chain -> Oxygen

15

In chemiosmosis, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP + i to ATP?

Energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase, down their electrochemical gradient

16

Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ into which location in eukaryotic cells?

Mitochondrial Intermembrane Space

17

ATP synthase is located where in the mitochondrion?

Inner Membrane

18

The force provided by a transmembrane hydrogen ion gradient

Proton-motive force

19

Along with glycolysis, where does fermentation take place in eukaryotic cell?

Cytosol

20

Without oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of...

ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

21

The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is ____.

Oxygen

22

Formation of acetyl CoA takes place in the _____.

Mitochondrial Matrix

23

The citric Acid Cycle Takes place in the ______.

Mitochondrial Matrix

24

Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs where?

Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

25

Name the net input for oxidative phosporylation

NADH, ADP, O2

26

Name the net output for oxidative phosporylation

ATP, NAD+, Water

27

Net input involved in Citric acid Cycle

CoA, NAD+, ADP

28

Net output involved in citric acid cycle

NADH, ATP, coenzyme A

29

Pyruvate, NAD+, coenzyme A are my inputs

Acetyl CoA, NADH, CO2 are my outputs

who am I

Acetyl CoA

30

My net inputs are ADP glucose, and NAD+

My net outputs are ATP, NADH, and pyruvate

what am I

Glycoysis

31

The reactions of cellular respiration can be broken down into four stages...

1. Glycolysis

2. Acetyl CoA (Coenzyme A)

3. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)

4. Oxidative Phosphorylation

32

When a compound donates (loses) electrons, that compound becomes _______. Such compound is often referred to as an electron donor.

Oxidized

33

In glycolysis, the carbon-containing compound that functions as the electron donor is _______.

Glucose

34

Once the electron donor is glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a compound called...

Pyruvate

35

_____ is the electron acceptor in glycolysis

NAD+

36

Reduced form of electron acceptor in glycolysis is _______

NADH

37

What compounds in glycolysis which compounds can be used in other biological reactions?

Pyruvate, ATP, NADH

38

In lactate, what is the product of pyruvate metabolism?

Fermentation in human muscle

39

In ethanol what is the product of pyruvate metabolism?

Fermentation in yeast and bacteria

40

Main purpose of combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration

Transformation of the energy in glucose and related molecules in a chemical form that cells can use for work

41

Electrons shipped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound?

Water

42

What results from an unequal sharing of electrons betweens atoms?

Polar Covalent Bonds

43

A covalent bond is likely to be polar when

One of the atoms sharing electrons is much more electronegative than the other atom

44

What charge does a proton have?

+1 charge

45

What charge does a neutron have?

0 charge

46

What charge does an electron have?

-1 charge

47

Which subatomic particles both have masses of about 1 amu?

proton and neutron

48

What determines the types of chemical reactions that an atom participates in?

The number of electrons in the outermost electron shell

49

What type of bond is one in which electron pairs are shared?

card image

Covalent Bond

50

______ refers to two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

molecule

51

An ionic bond involves an attraction between ions of

opposite charge

52

Atoms with the same number of protons but with different electrical charges are _______

Different ions

53

In salt, what is the nature of the bond between sodium and chloride

Ionic

54

The type of bonding and the numbers of covalent bonds an atoms can form with other atoms is determined by _____

The number of unpaired electrons in the valence shell

55

What type of bond do atoms with similar electronegativities have?

Non-polar covalent

56

What bond is formed when one atom transfers an electron to another atom?

Ionic Bond

57

Hydrogen bonding is most often seen when hydrogen is...

covalently bonded to an electronegative atom

58

Tendency of dissimilar particles/ surfaces to cling to one another

Adhesion

59

The attraction between like molecules (water forms drops on table)

Cohesion

60

Resistance of the surface of a liquid of stretching or breaking

Surface tension

61

Resists change is pH by accepting hydrogen ions when acids are added to the solution and donating hydrogen ions when bases are added

A buffer

62

Buffers minimize the change in the ____ of a solution

pH

63

What forms when two atoms transfer or share outer electrons to complete their outer shells?

Chemical bond

64

Most organic compounds contain which two elements?

Hydrogen and Carbon

65

Large diversity of shapes of biological molecules is possible because of the extensive presence of ______ in the molecule.

Carbon

66

Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy

Chemical energy

67

Process that converts chemical energy found in glucose into chemical energy found in ATP.

Cellular respiration

68

What are 3 by-products of cellular respiration?

Heat, carbon dioxide, and water

69

In a cell, what is usually the immediate source for an endergonic reaction?

ATP

70

A reaction in which the net input of energy is required from its surroundings

Endergonic

71

In an endergonic reaction, the _______ have more potential energy than the ______.

Products

Reactants

72

In an exergonic reaction the ______ have less potential energy than the _______.

Products

Reactants

73

ADP + P --> ATP is a....

Endergonic reaction

74

The energy released by an exergonic reaction can be used to...

drive an endergonic reaction

75

What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?

It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction

76

The use of energy released form an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction

Energy coupling

77

Conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another

78

What reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate group in an ATP molecule?

Hydrolysis

79

Anabolism

Building of complex molecules from simple ones

80

Energy needed or produced from a catabolic or anabolic process is stored where?

Intermediate energy carrying molecules such as ATP

81

A catabolic/ anabolic process requires energy.

Anabolic process

82

A catabolic/ anabolic process generates energy.

Catabolic process

83

In general, enzymes are what kind of molecules?

Proteins

84

How do enzymes work?

By reducing the energy of activation

85

Enzymes are proteins that behave as...

Catalysts

86

After involvement in an reaction, an enzymes results are changed.

False

87

For a reaction to proceed, ________ must be overcome.

Energy of Activation

88

The name given to a reactant in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction.

Substrate

89

Generally, how many active sites at which catalysis can occur in an enzyme?

one

90

The movement of glucose into a cell against a concentration gradient is most likely to be accomplished by...

Co-transport of the glucose with a proton or sodium ion that was pumped across the membrane using the energy of ATP hydrolysis

91

What type of molecules are the major structural components of the cell membrane?

Phospholipids and proteins

92

Singer and Nicolson's fluid mosaic model of the membrane produced that membranes...

Consist of protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids

93

The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals

enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops

94

The primary function of polysaccharides attached to the glyclo-proteins and glycolipids and animal cell membranes is...

To mediate cell-to-cell recognition

95

What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?

Small and hydrophobic

96

True/ False

Diffusion is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

True

97

Pinocytosis/ Receptor-mediator Endocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell.

Pinocytosis

98

Pinocytosis/ Receptor-mediator Endocytosis offers more selectivity in the cells it brings into the cells

Receptor-mediator Endocytosis

99

A bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through phagocytosis will be digested by enzymes contained in...

Lysosomes

100

Substance that acts at a long distance from the site at which it is secreted.

Hormone

101

Advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that...

Light microscopy allows one to views dynamic processes in living cells

102

____ are surfaces appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface

Fimbriae

103

What is the function of a bacterium's capsule?

Protection

104

Where is a bacterial cell's DNA found?

Nucleoid region

105

In bacterium where are proteins synthesized?

Ribosomes

106

The rigid structure, found outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds and supports the bacterial cell?

Cell wall

107

The bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes to leave the cell

Plasma membrane

108

What clue tells if a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes

109

What are the two domains of prokaryotes?

1. Bacteria

2. Archaea

110

What is the first of the two main steps of proteins synthesis?

Transcription

111

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing what molecule?

Proteins

112

Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

Rough ER

113

Which polymers are composed of amino acids?

Proteins

114

Which monomers make up RNA?

Nucleotides

115

What happens between the formation of polypeptides from amino acids?

a bond forms between the carboxyl functional group of one amino acid and the amino functional group of the other amino acid

116

Which molecule is not a carbohydrate?

cellulose, glycogen, lipid, starch

Lipid

117

What is the function of cellulose?

It is the structural component of plant cell walls

118

Glycogen is _______

A polysaccharide found in animals

119

_______ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth

Cellulose

120

Lactose, the sugar in milk, is a _____ because it can be split into two monosaccharides

Disaccarides

121

Phospholipids are composed of a ____, ____, and a ____.

Phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids

122

The sequence of amino acids in a protein

Primary structure

123

The pattern of hydrogen bonds of the protein, such as alpha-helices and beta sheets, that are observed in an atomic resolution structure

Secondary structure

124

Achieved when a protein folds into a compact, three-dimensional shape, stabilized by interactions between side chain "R-groups" of amino acids

Tertiary structure

125

The result of two or more protein subunits assembling to form a larger, biologically active protein complex

Quartermary Structure

126

Two strands of a DNA double helix are held together by _____ that form between pairs of nitrogenous bases

Hydrogen

127

Which linkage forms the backbone of a nucleic acid?

Sugar-phosphate linkage

128

List the levels of biological organization from the most wide to the most specific

1. Biosphere

2. Ecosystems

3. Communities

4. Populations

5. Organisms

6. Organs and Organ Systems

7. Tissues

8. Cells

9. Organelles

10. Molecules

129

Approach of reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study

Reductionism

130

5 themes that help organize biological information and help understand life better.

1. Organization

2. Information

3. Energy

4. Interaction/ communication

5. Evolution

131

Descent with modification; the idea that living species are descendants if ancestral species that were different from the present-day ones; the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation

Evolution

132

New properties arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.

Emergent properties

133

A cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles

Eukaryotic cell

134

Eukaryotic/ Prokaryotic cells

protists, plants, fungi, and animals

Eukaryotic cells

135

A cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles

Prokaryotic cell

136

Eukaryotic/ Prokaryotic cells

bacteria and archaea

Prokaryotic cells

137

Discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA or RNA

Genes

138

Process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs

Gene expression

139

Genetic material of an organism of virus; the complete complement of an organisms genes along with its nucleic acid sequences

Genome

140

Name the three domains

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

141

Which two of the three domains are prokaryotic?

Bacteria and Archaea

142

What domain includes three kingdoms of multicellular eukaryotes, what are the three kingdoms?

Eukarya; Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia

143

Mostly unicellular eukaryotes and some relatively simple multicellular relatives

Protists

144

What kingdom consists of terrestrial multicellular eukaryotes (land plants) that carry outs photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to the chemical energy in food

Kingdom Platae

145

Which kingdom is defined in part by the nutritional mode of its members (such as this mushroom) which absorb nutrients from outside their bodies

Kingdom Fungi

146

Explain natural selection

Process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits

147

Search for information, often focusing on specific questions

Inquiry

148

Type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations

Inductive Reasoning

149

True/ False

A hypothesis is narrower in scope than a theory

True

150

Type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise

Deductive reasoning

151

An experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control that varies only in the factor being tested

Controlled experiment

152

Explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypothesis and is supported by a large body of evidence

Theory

153

All the organisms in a given area as will as the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around them

Ecosystem

154

A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offpring

Population

155

All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction

Community

156

An organisms basic unit unit of structure and function

A cell

157

Qualitative data is information with the use of...

Descriptions rather than measurements

158

Quantitative data is information with the use of...

Recorded measurements which are sometimes organized into tables and graphs