Campbell Biology: BIOL102 LECTURE TEST 1 REVIEW GUIDE Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by Neil
2,295 views
book cover
Campbell Biology
Chapters 19, 27, 28
updated 8 years ago by Neil
Grade levels:
College: First year
Subjects:
biol102, science, life sciences, biology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

All members of a species in an area would be termed a

Population

2

A CLASS may best be defined as a taxon composed of?

Order

3

In the scientific name Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus refers to the___

Genus

4

Carl Woese based his system of classification on what criterion?

rRNA sequencing

5

Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Influenzavirus H1N5 are examples of ____that have mutated to be different than the normal members of a species

Strain

6

Woese classified the prokaryotes that lived in extreme environments such as in glaciers, deep see vents, and hot sulfur springs in Domain_____

Archaea

7

All the living organisms in an area together with all the abiotic factors in an area would be considered a(n)______

Ecosystem

8

In Whittaker's Five Kingdom classification scheme, bacteria are placed in Kingdom____

Monera

9

The scientific study of life

Biology

10

Characteristics of life

  1. Order
  2. Evolutionary adaptation
  3. Response to the environment
  4. Reproduction
  5. Growth and development
  6. Energy processing
  7. Regulation

11

What kind of organization does atoms and molecules have?

Chemical organization

12

Organelle, cell, tissue, organ and organ systems and organism fall in which category of organization?

Biological organization

13

Species, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere, ecosphere fall in which category of organization?

Ecological organization

14

Ordered division of organisms into categories, based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences

Taxonomy

15

Aristotle, Plato, and Linneaus came up with what taxonomic scheme?

Two Kingdom scheme

16

Robert Whittaker came up with what taxonomic scheme?

Five Kingdom scheme

17

Carl Woese came up with what taxonomic scheme?

Three domain scheme

18

What taxonomic scheme was based on macroscopic characteristics?

Two kingdom scheme

19

What taxonomic scheme was based on microscopic observation and form of nutrition?

Five Kingdom scheme

20

Whittaker's five kingdom scheme

  1. Kingdom monera
  2. Animalia
  3. Plantae
  4. Protista
  5. Fungi

21

Woese's three domain scheme

  • domain Archaea
  • domain Eukarya
  • domain Bacteria

22

The named taxonomic unit at any given level of classification

Taxon

23

Hierarchy of Taxa

  • domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

24

Scientific nomenclature is also known as

Binomial nomenclature

25

Origin of new species in evolution

Speciation

26

May occur when gene flow is interrupted between populations of the existing species

Speciation

27

Two main modes of speciation

Allopatric and sympatric

28

Gene flow is interrupted when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations

Allopatric

29

Speciation take place in geographically overlapping populations

Sympatric

30

Two species that occupy different habitats within the same area may encounter each other rarely, if at all, even though they are not isolated by obvious physical barriers such as mountain ranges

Habitat isolation

31

Species that breed during different times of the day, different seasons, or different years cannot mix their gametes

Temporal isolation

32

Courtship rituals that attract mates and other behaviors unique to a species are effective reproductive barriers, even between closely related species

Behavioral isolation

33

Morphological differences can prevent successful mating

Mechanical isolation

34

Sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize the eggs of another species

Gametic isolation

35

Process whereby a researcher chooses as correct the hypothesis that requires the fewest number of genetic changes to have occurred

Parsimony

36

A grouping of species consisting of an ancestral species an all of its descendants is called a

Clade

37

Criterion used to determine whether structures are considered to be homologous

Shared ancestry

38

The protein coat of a virus is called a

Capsid

39

Researcher who determined that the infectious agent of TMD was transmitted by contact with sap from a diseased leaf

Adolf Mayer

40

Bacteriophages may be grown on nutrient agar True or False?

False

41

Name characteristics that a cells lose when they are transformed by infection with a virus?

Density dependence and anchorage dependence

42

All viruses have DNA and RNA in their core True or False?

False

43

The genes of different parent species may interact and impair the hybrid's development

Reduced hybrid viability

44

Producing sterile offspring

Reduced Hybrid fertility

45

Some first-generation hybrids are viable and fertile, but when they mate with one another or with either parent species, offspring of the next generation are feeble or sterile

Hybrid breakdown

46

Change over time, descent with modification; unequal reproductive success of individuals

Evolution

47

Evolutionary history of a group of organisms

Phylogeny

48

Branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships

Phylogenetic tree

49

Analysis of how species may be grouped into clades

Cladistics

50

Identified using shared derived characteristics

Clade

51

Diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species

Cladogram

52

A phylogenetic tree in which the lengths of the branches reflect the number of genetic changes that have taken place in a particular DNA or RNA sequence in various lineages

Phylogram

53

Grouping of species derived from 2 or more ancestral forms

Polyphyletic

54

Grouping of species that consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all , of its descendants

Paraphyletic

55

A grouping of species consisting of an ancestral species and all its descendants. A clade

Monophyletic

56

Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry

Homology

57

Structures in different species that are similar due to common ancestry

Homologous structures

58

Similarity between 2 species due to convergent evolution

Analogy

59

Remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors

Vestigial structures

60
  • Particulate, not cellular
  • Obligate intracellular parasite
  • Very small in size
  • Difficult to grow

Viral characteristics

61

These cells have density dependence and anchorage dependence

Normal cells

62

Structure of viruses

  • Nucleic acid core
  • Capsid
  • Enveloped of naked
  • Spikes

63

A membrane that cloaks the capsid

Viral envelope

64

Surface glycoproteins for attachment to host receptors

Spikes

65

Viral morphology (shapes)

  • Helical
  • Polyhedral
  • Spherical
  • Complex

66

Viruses are classified by

  • Type of host
  • Type of nucleic acid
  • Morphology
  • Naked or enveloped
  • Transmission
  • Site of multiplication
  • Symptomology

67

The ___ cycle of bacteriophage multiplication taken to completion always results in death of the host cell

Lytic cycle

68

General term for a virus like West Nile Virus or Yellow Fever Virus carried by an arthropod vector such as a mosquito

Arbo virus

69

During the lysogenic cycle, once a bacterial virus has incorporated into the host DNA, it is then referred to as a

Prophage

70

Bacteriophage and animal virus multiplication are similar in most respects. What step is completely unique to animal virus

Uncoating

71

Proteinaceous infectious particles that cause neurological diseases such as mad cow disease or CJD

Prions

72

Chicken pox, shingles, mononucleosis, and cold sores are all caused by members of the same family of viruses. Give the correct name for the family.

Herpesvirus

73

All Human Papilloma Viruses cause ___; several types also cause _____.

warts, cancer

74

Method of transmission for Hepatitis B Virus

Bodily fluids

75

A bullet-shaped animal virus that attaches to the nervous system for which a post exposure vaccine is a valid prevention method:

Rabies

76

The bacterial cell wall of members of Domain Bacteria is composed of a unique combination of proteins and carbohydrates that is called:

Peptidoglycan

77

Name one way the composition of the prokaryotic membrane differs from that of the eukaryotic membrane

Sterols in membrane

78

HIV is _____ virus

Retrovirus

79

What is the term for diseases of animals that can be spread to humans

Zoonosis

80

Circular RNA molecules that infect plants

Viroids

81

Diseases caused by prions

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

82

Who proposed the model for Prion propagation?

Stanely Prusiner

83

Different types of TSE

Bovine spongiform encephalopathies (mad cow disease)

Kuru

Scrapie

Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease

Variant cjd

84

What is the individual cell size of prokaryotic cells?

0.5 - 5 micrometers in diameter

85

What is the individual cell size of eukaryotic cells?

10 - 100 micrometers in diameter

86

What ribosomes does prokaryotic cells have

70S Ribosomes

87

What ribosomes does eukaryotic cells have

80S Ribosomes

88

Long hair-like structure that serves as a "sex bridge" or connection between cells to allow horizontal gene transfer (conjugation) to occur.

Pilus

89

Polysaccharide structure that encloses some prokaryotic cells and increases pathogenicity (virulence) by allowing the cell to attach to host tissues and helping the cell to evade phagocytosis by macrophages:

Capsule

90

Rod shaped bacteria arranged as pairs are called?

Diplobacilius

91

Round or spherical bacteria arranged in chains are called?

Streptococci

92

Term used to describe a motile prokaryotic cell that has a flagellum at one end of the cell

Monotrichous

93

A small circular extra chromosomal piece of DNA that may contain genes fro toxin production or antibiotic resistance; sometimes used as a vector in genetic engineering

Plasmid

94

Stressful conditions such as the depletion on nutrients from the environment can cause some gram positive bacilli to form a protective structure known as a(n)_____

Endospores

95

Asexual reproduction in prokaryotes is equivalent to mitosis in eukaryotes. This prokaryotic division process is called _____

Binary fission

96

If the generation time for a bacterium is 20 minutes, how many cells would be in a culture that has been incubated for two hours if you started with eight cells?

512 cells

97

A bacterium that has thick peptidoglycan in its cell wall would be what color after completion of the Gram Stain?

Purple

98

A bacterium that has thin peptidoglycan in its cell wall would be what color after completion of the Gram Stain?

Pink

99

A temporary union of two bacteria in which genetic material is transferred by migration of a plasmid from the donor to the recipient

Conjugation

100

The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another resulting in a genetic change in the recipient cell

Transformation

101

The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another by means of a virus

Transduction

102

Photosynthetic organisms that capture light energy and use it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon

Photoautotrophs

103

Cyanobacteria is an example of?

Example of photoautotrophs

104

Oxidize inorganic substances

Chemoautotrophs

105

Sulfolobus is an example of?

Chemoautotrophs

106

Use light energy but obtain their carbon in organic form

Photoheterotrophs

107

Rhodobacter, Chloroflexus are examples of?

Photoheterotrophs

108

Must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon source

Chemoheterotrophs

109

Clostridium, fungi, animals are examples of?

Chemoheterotrophs

110

Require oxygen

Obligate aerobes

111

Killed by oxygen

Obligate anaerobes

112

Use oxygen if present or switch to other modes

Facultative anaerobes

113

These bacteria whose temperature range is from 0oC to 20oC

Typical psychrophile

114

These bacteria whose temperature range is from 13oC to 46oC

Typical mesophile

115

These bacteria whose temperature range is from 42oC to 70oC

Typical thermophile

116

These bacteria whose temperature range is from 67oC to 96oC

Extreme thermophiles

117

Metabolic cooperation between different prokaryotic species

Biofilm

118

Nuclear envelope is present in?

domain Eukarya

119

Membrane-enclosed organelles are present in?

domain Eukarya

120

Peptidoglycan is present in?

domain Bacteria

121

Unbranched hydrocarbons are present in?

domain Bacteria and Archaea

122

Several kinds of RNA polymerase is present in?

domain Archaea and Eukarya

123

Methioine is present in?

domain Archaea and Eukarya

124

Introns are present in?

domain Archaea and Eukarya

125

Growth is not inhibited in?

domain Archaea and Eukarya

126

Histones are present in?

domain Archaea and Eukarya

127

Circular chromosome in present in?

domain Bacteria and Archaea

128

Who came up with Endosymbiotic Hypothesis?

Lynn Margulis

129
  • Protists with modified mitochondria
  • Protists with unique flagella
  • Lack plastids

Excavates

130

Excavates include

Diplomonads, Parabasalids, Euglenozoans

131
  • Have two nuclei
  • multiple flagella

Diplomonads

132

Example of diplomonad

Giardia Intestinalis (aka G. lamblia)

133
  • Move my means of flagella and an undulating part of the plasma membrane
  • Includes Trichomonads

Parabasalids

134

Example of parabasalids

Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichonympha

135

Flagella has unique internal structure

spiral or crystalline rod inside

Euglenozoans

136

Predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs and pathogenic parasites are in which clade

Euglenozoans

137

What are the two important groups of euglenozoans?

Kinetoplastids, Euglenids

138

Free living consumers of bacteria in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial ecosystems which have single large mitochondrion with a organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast

Kinetoplastids

139

Example of kinetoplastids

Trypanosoma spp

140

Evade immune system with "bait & switch" technique that involves changing surface proteins before body can mount effective response

The parasitic kinetoplastids

141

Causes African Trypanosomiasis or African Sleeping Sickness

Trypanosoma brucei

142

What is the vector for Trypanosoma brucei?

African Tsetse Fly

143

Causes American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas' Disease

Trypanosoma cruzi

144

Which strain of Trypanosoma brucei affects equines, pigs, cattle, rodents

Trypanosoma brucei brucei

145

Which strain of Trypanosoma brucei affects humans, monkeys, dogs, pigs, antelopes and is prevalent in West and Central Africa?

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

146

Which strain of Trypanosoma brucei affects humans, wild game, pigs, rats (experiments) and is prevalent in East and Central Africa?

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

147
  • One or two flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell
  • The glucose polymer paramylon is characteristic of this clade

Name the clade

Euglenids

148

Example of euglenids

Euglena

149

Chromalveolates include?

Alveolates and Stramenopiles

150

Membrane-bound sacs just under the plasma membrane is a characteristic of which group?

Alveolates

151

Alveolates include?

Dinoflagellates, Apicomplexa and Ciliophora

152
  • These organisms are abundant components of marine and freshwater phytoplanktons
  • Characteristic shape reinforced by internal plates of cellulose
  • Two flagella in perpendicular grooves make organism spin as it moves through the water

Name the group?

Dinoflagellates

153

Examples of dinoflagellates

Pfiesteria shumayae, Gonyaulax (aka Alexandrium), Gambierdiscus, Peridinium

154

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning is caused by

Gonyaulax

155

These organisms are

  • All parasites of animals
  • have apical complexes at one end

Apicomplexans

156

Host that harbors the ADULT parasite

Definitive Host

157

Host that harbors an intermediate form of parasite

Intermediate Host

158

Examples of apicomplexans

Plasmodium spp, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora

159

A large varied group of protists that have macronuclei and micronuclei

Ciliates

160

Sexual process that produces genetic variation; two individuals exchange micronuclei but do not reproduce (Ciliates)

Conjugation

161

Asexual reproduction; macronuclei disintegrates; new macronucleus forms from cell's micronuclei (Ciliates)

Binary Fission

162

Example of ciliates

Paramecium caudatum

163

Most have a hairy flagellum paired with a smooth flagellum

Stramenopiles

164

Example of stramenopile

Synura petersenii

165

Stramenopiles include

  • Oomycota (water molds)
  • Bacillariophyta (diatoms)
  • Chryophyta (golden algae)
  • Phaeophyta (brown algae)

166

Example of oomycota

Phytophthora infestans

167
  • I am unicellular algae
  • I have unique two-part, glass-like wall of hydrated silica

Who am I?

Diatoms

168
  • My color results from yellow and brown carotenoids
  • My cells are typically biflagellated
  • I form a cyst if environmental conditions deteriorate

Who am I?

Golden Algae

169

Example of golden algae

Dinobryon

170
  • Cell walls composed of algin
  • Common along temperate coasts

What type of algae?

Brown Algae

171

Example of brown algae

Postelsia, Laminaria Macrocystis (Kelp)

172
  • Defined by DNA similarities
  • Characterized by threadlike pseudopodia

Rhizarians

173

Named for porous shells called tests

Foraminiferans (Forams)

174

Tests are hardened with

calcium carbonate

175

Example of foraminiferans

Globigerina

176
  • Internal skeleton fused into one delicate piece made of silica
  • Threadlike pseudopodia radiate from central body

What group is this?

Radiolarians

177

Large group of amoeboid and flagellated protists

Cercozoans

178

Example of cercozoan

Paulinella chromatophora

179

Monophyletic group that descended from an ancient protest that engulfed a cyanobacterium

Archaeplastida

180

The most abundant large algae in warm coastal waters od the tropics

Red algae

181

Examples of red algae

Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Palmaria palmate (Dulse), Porphyra (Nori)

182

Named for their grass-green chloroplasts

Green algae

183

What are the two main groups of green algae

Chlorophytes and charophyceans

184

Most aquatic freshwater and marine phytoplankton

Chlorophytes

185

Examples of chlorophytes

Volvox, Ulva, Caulerpa, Chlamydomonas

186

Unikonts include

Amoebozoans, and Opisthokonts

187

What are four important groups of amoebozoans

Gymnamoeba, Entamoeba, Slime molds (cellular and plasmodial)

188

Amoebozoans are classified by

lobe shaped pseudopodia

189

Amoebas that are heterotrophic and actively seek and consume bacteria and other protists

Gymnamoebas

190

Parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates

Entamoebas

191

Example of entamoebas

Entamoeba histolyitca

192

Which entamoeba causes amoebic dysentery in humans

Entamoeba histolytica

193

What is the scientific name for slime molds?

Mycetozoans

194

This molds have multinucleate plasmodium

Plasmodial slime molds

195

What is the scientific name for plasmodial slime molds?

Myxogastrida

196

Example of plasmodial slime mold

Physarum polycephalum

197

This molds form asexual fruiting bodies and function as a unit

Cellular slime molds

198

What is the scientific name for cellular slime molds?

Dictyostelida

199

Example of cellular slime molds

Dictyostelium discoideum

200

Rhizarians include

Radiolarians, Forams and Cercozoans