A & P 242 Final Exam Flashcards
Which of the following is NOT a function of a hormone?
A) Regulates chemical composition and volume of the internal environment?
B) Regulates metabolism
C) Regulates glandular secretions
D) Produces electrolytes
E) Controls growth and development
Controls growth and development
A type of hormone that acts on neighboring cells without entering the bloodstream.
A) Local hormone
D) Circulating hormone
Both A& B
Which of the following are a group of lipid-soluble hormones derived from cholesterol.
B) Thyroid hormones
C) Nitric oxide
D) Amine hormones
E) Peptide hormones
Which of the following statements correctly compares water-soluble hormones with lipid-soluble hormones?
A) Both types of hormone are carried in the blood attached to a carrier protein.
B) Both types of hormone almost always stimulate increases in mRNA transcription.
C) Only water-soluble hormones use second messengers
D) Only water-soluble hormones require a receptor
E) Lipid-soluble hormones are not found in the bloodsteam.
Only water-soluble hormones use second messengers
When one hormone opposes the action of another hormone it is called.
A) synergistic effect
B) permissive effect
C) antagonistic effect
D) circulating effect
E) local effect
Which of the following is NOT a common method of stimulating hormone secretion from an endocrine cell?
A) Signals from the nervous system
B) Chemical changes in the blood
C) Mechanical stretching of the endocrine cell
D) Releasing hormones
E) Both signals from the nervous system and Chemical changes in the blood.
Mechanical stretching of the endocrine cell
What controls hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland?
A) muscle contraction
B) The peripheral nervous system
C) Hormones released from the hypothalamus
D) Action potentials from the thalamus
E) Chemical changes in the cerebrospinal fluid
Hormones released from the hypothalamus
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimuates general body growth.
A) growth hormone
D) Luteinizing hormone
E) Adrenocorticopic hormone
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates milk production?
A) Luteinzing hormone
D) Melanocyte stimulating hormone
E) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates the adrenal cortex to secret cortisol?
A) Leutinizing hormone
C) Insulin-like growth factors
D) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
E) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulate the gonads to secrete progesterone and/or testosterone?
A) Luteinizing hormone
D) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
E) Growth hormone
Which type of anterior pituitary cell secretes human growth hormone?
Which of the following pairs of hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland?
A) Proplactin and growth hormonw
B) Melatonin-stimulating hormone and oxytocin
C) Oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone
D) Follicle-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone
E) Prolactin and ACTH
Oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone
The amount of ADH that is secreted by the posterior pituitay gland varies with
A) blood osmotic pressure
B) blood calcium levels
C) blood oxygen levels
D) blood glucose levels
E) All of these choices
blood osmotic pressure
Which of the following hormones opposes the action of parathyroid hormone?
A) Thyroid- stimulating hormone
Which of the following statements does NOT describe a step in the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4?
A) Iodide trapping
B) Oxidation of iodide
C) Coupling of T1 and T2
D) Synthesis of Calcitonin
E) Iodination of tyrosine
Synthesis of Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of the plasma concentration of which of the following ions?
Which of the following conditions would result from hyposecretion of aldosterone?
A) Decreased heart rate
B) Decreased airway dilation
D) Decreased oxygen delivery to the brain
E) Metabolic acidosis
Which of the following is NOT a common effect of glucocorticoid stimulation?
A) Protein and fat breakdown
B) Glucose formation
C) Depression of immune responses
D) Reduction of inflammation
E) Increased production of all types of blood cells
Increased production of all types of blood cells
Which blood glucose-lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cells?
D) Thyroid hormoes
Which of the following hormones promotes incrases in the basal metabolic rate ( BMR) ?
B) Adrenocorticoptropic hormone
D) Thyroid hormone
Which of the following hormones play key regulatory roles in the body's long-term response to stress?
A) Insulin, Glucagon, Thyroid hormone
B) hGH, Insulin, Aldosterone
C) Cortisol, hGH Thyroid horone
D) Parathyroid hormone, Cortisol, hGH
E) Calcitonin, Thyroid hormone, Insulin
Cortisol, hGH Thyroid horone
Which of the following is NOT a common response of the body to long-term stress
A) Increased lipolysis
B) Increased glycogenesis
C) Increased gluconeogensis
D) Increased digestive activities
E) Increased breakdown of proteins
Increased digestive activities
Which of the following hormones is an amine hormone derived from serotonic?
Which of the following glands is NOT an endocrine gland?
A) pituitary gland
B) throid gland
C) adrenal gland
D) sebaceous gland
E) pineal gland
Since insulin released from the pancreas is carried in the bloodstream to distant target cells, like muscle cells, it is considered to be a
A) local hormone
B) circulating hormone
Which of the following is an example of hormone that is secreted from an endocrine gland in response to a chemical change in the blood?
A) Parathyroid hormone release from the parathryroid gland
B) insulin release from the pancreas
C) glucagon release from the pancreas
D) ADH release from the posterior pituitary gland
E) all of the answer selection are correct
all of the answer selection are correct
Which hormonal influence on the muscular system is correctly described?
A) Thyroid hormone decreases muscle mass
B) Calcitonin is the primary regulator of CA2+ needed for contraction
C) Epinephrine helps increase blood flow to exercising muscle
D) Erythropoietin blocks formation of erythrocytes
E) ADH promotes water loss
Epinephrine helps increase blood flow to exercising muscle
Which of the following is NOT a major function of the blood?
A) Transportation of nutrients
B) Regulation of blood pH
C) Protection against infectious disease
D) Transportation of heat
E) Production of oxygen
Production of oxygen
The normal average temperature of blood is around
The normal pH range for blood is
The hematocrit is a measure of the percentage of whole blood occupied by
E) plasma proteins
What percentage of blood plasma is water
Which of the following plasma proteins play a role in disease resistance?
Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in blood clotting?
E) None of these choices
The process by which the formed elements of the blood develop is called
During hemopoiesis, some of the myeloid stem cells will eventually develop into
B) T lymphoblasts
C) B lymphoblasts
D) NK lymphoblasts
E) all of these choices
The major function of red blood cells is
A) nutrient transport
B) cytokine stimulation
C) blood cell proliferation
D) gas transport
E) disease resistance
Towards the end of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, a red blood cell loses its nucleus and becomes a
C) progenitor cell
D) mature erythrocyte
Which of the following blood cells is involved in reducing blood loss from a damaged blood vessel.
Which of the following blood cells release granules that intensify the inflammatory response and promote hypersensitivity ( allergic0 reactions?
Which of the following blood cells are the main soldiers in the immune system defense of the body against microbial invaders
The process of a while blood cell squeezing between endothelial cells to exit a blood vessel is called
Which of the following chemical substances are NOT commonly released by mast cells?
C) Nitric oxide
E) all of the choices
Which of following correctly lists the sequence of steps that occur during hemostasis in response to a damaged blood vessel?
A) vascular spasm, clotting, polycythemia
B) hemolysis, vascular spasm, platelet plug formation
C) emigration, clotting, hemolysis
D) vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, clotting
E) anemia, hemogenesis, platelet plug formation
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, clotting
Which of the following situations could result in maternal antibodies attacking fetal blood cells during a second pregnancy?
A) Mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh negative
B) Mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive
C) Mom is Rh positive and fetus is Rh negative
D) Mom is Rh positive and fetus is Rh positive
Mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive
Which of the following substances is an anticoagulant produced by mast cells and basophils?
C) Thromboxane A2
Ferritin is a protein used to
A) transport ion in the blood
B) store iron in the liver
C) oxidize iron in the peroxisomes
D) synthesize iron
E) absorb iron across intestinal cells
store iron in the liver
Approximately, how many hemoglobin molecules are found in each RBC
A) 50 million
B) 100 million
C) 280 million
D) 320 million
E) 430 million
A megakaryoblast will develop into
A) a red blood cell
B) a while blood cell
C) a platelet
D) either a white blood or a platelet
E) none of these choices
a red blood cell
Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following event
A) closure of the heart valves
B)friction of blood against the chamber walls
C)excitation of the SA node
D) opening and closing of the heart valves
closure of the heart valves
Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________.
A) a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
B) a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
C)no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration
D) no change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate
a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
Which of the events below does not occur when the semilunar valves are open?
A) Blood enters pulmonary arteries and the aorta.
B)Ventricles are in systole.
C)AV valves are closed.
D)Ventricles are in diastole.
Ventricles are in diastole.
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.
A) pump blood with greater pressure
B) accommodate a greater volume of blood
C) pump blood through a smaller valve
D) expand the thoracic cage during diastole
pump blood with greater pressure
Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block.
A) AV node
B) SA node
C) AV bundle
D) AV valves
Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________.
A) right ventricle
B) right atrium
C) left ventricle
D) left atrium
The condition where fluid compresses the heart and limits its ability to contract is called ________
A) myocardial infarction
C) angina pectoris
D) cardiac tamponade
The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________.
A) coronary arteries
B) fossa ovalis
C) coronary veins
D) coronary sinus
The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it ________.
A) sends blood through a smaller valve
B) pumps blood against a greater resistance
C) pumps a greater volume of blood
D) expands the thoracic cage
pumps blood against a greater resistance
Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate?
B) skin color
C) body temperature
If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.
A) a lack of nutrients to feed into metabolic pathways
B) a decrease in the number of available mitochondria for energy production
C) an inadequate supply of lactic acid
D) decreased delivery of oxygen
decreased delivery of oxygen
A foramen ovale ________.
A) is a shallow depression in the interventricular septum
B) is a connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta in the fetus
C) connects the two atria in the fetal heart
D) is a condition in which the heart valves do not completely close
connects the two atria in the fetal heart
Which vessel(s) of the heart receive(s) blood during right ventricular systole?
A) pulmonary veins
B) pulmonary trunk
C) venae cavae
Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?
A) SA node
B) bundle of His
C) AV node
D) AV valve
When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by ________.
A) tracing out where the auricles connect
B) finding the papillary muscles
C) noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls
D) locating the apex
noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls
Select the correct statement about the heart valves.
A) The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle.
B) Aortic and pulmonary valves control the flow of blood into the heart.
C) The mitral valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.
D) The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.
The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.
Select the correct statement about the function of myocardial cells.
A) The influx of potassium ions from extracellular sources is the initiating event in cardiac muscle contraction.
B) The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all.
C) Cardiac muscle cells are innervated by sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic nerve fibers so that the nervous system can increase heart rate.
D) The refractory period in skeletal muscle is much longer than that in cardiac muscle.
The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all.
Select the correct statement about cardiac output.
A) Stroke volume increases if end diastolic volume decreases.
B) If a semilunar valve were partially obstructed, the end systolic volume in the affected ventricle would be decreased.
C) Decreased venous return will result in increased end diastolic volume.
D) A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction.
A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction.
Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?
A) emotional state
B) cardiac output
C) peripheral resistance
D) blood volume
Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?
B) angiotensin II
C) atrial natriuretic peptide
D) nitric acid
Which statement best describes arteries?
A) Only large arteries are lined with endothelium.
B) All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
C) All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
D) All carry blood away from the heart.
All carry blood away from the heart.
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.
The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.
B) elastic arteries
C) muscular arteries
Aldosterone will ________.
A) result in a larger output of urine
B) promote a decrease in blood volume
C) decrease sodium reabsorption
D) promote an increase in blood pressure
promote an increase in blood pressure
Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign?
A) increased heart rate
B) rapid, thready pulse
C) rapidly falling blood pressure
D) cold, clammy skin
rapidly falling blood pressure
Which of the following is true about veins?
A) Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time.
B) Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.
C) Venous valves are formed from the tunica media.
D) Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?
A) renal regulation
B) neural controls
C) baroreceptor-initiated reflexes
D) chemoreceptor-initiated reflexes
Peripheral resistance ________.
A) increases as blood vessel diameter increases
B) decreases with increasing length of the blood vessel
C) is not a major factor in blood pressure in healthy individuals
D) increases as blood viscosity increases
increases as blood viscosity increases
Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?
A) plasma and formed element concentration
B) hydrostatic pressure only
C) hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
D) blood volume and viscosity
hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood
pressure and continuous blood circulation?
A) tunica media
B) tunica intima
C) tunica adventitia
D) tunica externa
Which of the following is the most significant source of blood flow resistance?
A) total blood vessel length
B) blood vessels type
C) blood vessel diameter
D) blood viscosity
blood vessel diameter
Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?
A) right atrium, aorta, and left ventricle
B) right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
C) left ventricle, aorta, and inferior vena cava
D) superior vena cava, right atrium, and left ventricle
right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.
A) elastic arteries
B) muscular arteries
Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension?
A) 110/60 in a 20-year-old woman
B) 170/96 in a 50-year-old man
C) 120/80 in a 30-year-old man
D) 140/90 in a 70-year-old woman
170/96 in a 50-year-old man
A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________.
A) left upper arm
B) myocardium of the heart
C) left side of the head and neck
D) right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?
A) changes in arterial pressure
B) a decrease in oxygen levels
C) an increase in oxygen levels
D) a decrease in carbon dioxide
changes in arterial pressure
Whereas diffusion is more important for solute exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, bulk flow is more important for regulation of the relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluid.
An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance.
An obstruction in the superior vena cava would decrease the flow of blood from the head and neck to the heart.
Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction.
Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm Hg.
The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima.
Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane.
Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systemic circulation because of its proximity to the heart.
The adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation.
The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
A) in the walls of the tract organs
B) in the pons and medulla
C) in the oral cavity
D) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen
in the walls of the tract organs
The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
A) mechanical digestion
D) chemical digestion
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
A) serosal lining
B) mucosal lining
D) lamina propria
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
A) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
B) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
C) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
D) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?
Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
C) gastric inhibitor peptide
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
A) Brunner's glands and Peyer Patches
B) the vast array of digestive enzymes
C) the rugae and haustra
D) plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli
plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli
The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
A) parietal cells and glial cells
B) serous cells and mucous cells
C) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells
D) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells
serous cells and mucous cells
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
A) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place
B) is the only place where fats are completely digested
C) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
D) is the first site where absorption takes place
initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
Chyme is created in the ________.
B) small intestine
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
A) serous cells
B) chief cells
C) parietal cells
D) mucous neck cells
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
A) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients
B) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required
C) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
D) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
Peristaltic waves are ________.
A) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
B) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract
C) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
D) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
A) Brunner's glands
B) goblet cells of the small intestine
C) chief cells of the stomach
D) parietal cells of the duodenum
chief cells of the stomach
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.
B) portal vein
C) bile canaliculus
D) hepatopancreatic ampulla
The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
C) active transport
Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
A) hydrochloric acid
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
The function of goblet cells is to ________.
A) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral
B) provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food
C) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
D) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
A) zymogenic cells
B) enteroendocrine cells
C) mucous neck cells
D) parietal cells
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
A) intestinal juice
B) gastric juice
D) pancreatic juice
How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
A) active transport
B) bulk flow
C) facilitated diffusion
D) simple diffusion
Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
A) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.
B) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.
C) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.
D) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________
A) collecting duct
B) glomerular filtration membrane
C) nephron loop
D) distal convoluted tubule
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
A) increase in the production of ADH
B) decrease in the production of ADH
C) increase in the production of aldosterone
D) decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma
increase in the production of ADH
The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.
A) simple squamous
B) pseudostratified columnar
C) stratified squamous
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
A) when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10
B) when the pH of the urine decreases
C) by a decrease in the blood pressure
D) when the peritubular capillaries are dilated
by a decrease in the blood pressure
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
A) maintains blood osmolarity
B) helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood
C) eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
D) regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones
eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.
A) stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
B) ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently
C) is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys
D) produces vitamin D and other chemicals needed by the kidney
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
A) the renal papilla
B) the renal pyramid
C) Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
D) the descending nephron loop
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
A) glomerular capsule
C) nephron loop
D) capsular space
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
A) the ionic electrochemical gradient
B) protein-regulated diffusion
C) the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries
D) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
B) cotransport with sodium ions
D) active transport
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
A) is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells
B) inhibits the release of ADH
C) increases the rate of glomerular filtration
D) increases secretion of ADH
inhibits the release of ADH
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.
A) diabetic acidosis
C) diabetes mellitus
D) diabetes insipidus
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
- major calyx
- minor calyx
- collecting duct
A) 2, 1, 3, 6, 5, 4
B) 6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
C) 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
D)3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.
A) lymph nodes
D) lymph follicles
Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?
D) Peyer's patches of the intestine
Lymph transport involves all but which of the following?
A) milking action of active muscle fibers
B) thorax pressure changes during breathing
C) lymph capillary minivalve action
D) smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls
smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls
The thymus is most active during ________.
A) old age
B) middle age
D) fetal development
Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
A) cisterna chyli
B) lumbar trunk
C) right lymphatic duct
D) thoracic duct
right lymphatic duct
Which of the following is not a part of the lymphatic system?
B) lymph nodes
D) lymphatic vessels
The lymphatic capillaries are ________.
A) as permeable as blood capillaries
B) less permeable than blood capillaries
C) completely impermeable
D) more permeable than blood capillaries
more permeable than blood capillaries
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.
A) plasma cells
B) medullary cords
C) T lymphocytes
D) lymph nodes
Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.
A) afferent lymphatic vessels
B) the cortical sinus
C) the subcapsular sinus
D) efferent lymphatic vessels
efferent lymphatic vessels
Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?
Select the correct statement about lymph transport.
A) Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins.
B) Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.
C) Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits.
D) Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling.
Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.
Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.
A) T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue.
B) T cells are the precursors of B cells.
C) The two main types are T cells and macrophages.
D) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.
D) Peyer's patch
Which of the following does not contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?
A) Peyer's patch
Peyer's patches are found in the ________.
A) jejunum of the small intestine
B) large intestine
C) duodenum of the small intestine
D) ileum of the small intestine
ileum of the small intestine
Lymph capillaries are absent in all except which of the following?
A) bone marrow
B) bones and teeth
D) digestive organs
Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.
A) inguinal region
B) lower extremities
C) axillary region
D) cervical region
Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.
A) palatine tonsils
B) islets of Langerhans
C) Peyer's patches
D) lingual tonsils
islets of Langerhans
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.
A) pharyngeal tonsils
B) lingual tonsils
C) Peyer's tonsils
D) palatine tonsils
Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?
A) transporting dietary fats
B) draining excess interstitial fluid
C) carrying out immune responses
D) transporting respiratory gases
transporting respiratory gases
Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?
A) produce lymph fluid and cerebrospinal fluid
B) produce lymphoid cells and house granular WBCs
C) serve as antigen surveillance areas
D) act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
produce lymph fluid and cerebrospinal fluid
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
A) infusion of weakened viruses
B) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
C) booster shot of vaccine
D) exposure to an antigen
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
Which of the following is not a type of T cell?
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.
B) lymph nodes
C) bone marrow
Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
A) sets the stage for repair processes
B) disposes of cellular debris and pathogens
C) replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
D) prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue
replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.
A) complement production
C) phagocyte mobilization
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.
Which of the following cells predominate at the sites of chronic infections?
D) B cells
A) are virus-specific, so that an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus
B) are routinely used in nasal sprays for the common cold
C) act by increasing the rate of cell division
D) interfere with viral replication within cells
interfere with viral replication within cells
Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
A) gastric juice
Phagocyte mobilization involves ________
A) diapedesis, during which cells line up against the capillary wall
B) mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
C) monocytes as the most active phagocyte
D) margination, which is the process of white cell movement through the walls of capillaries into injured tissues
mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
A) causes the liver to release large amounts of iron, which seems to inhibit bacterial replication
B) is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is always dangerous
C) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
D) decreases the metabolic rate of the body to conserve energy
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
The main site of gas exchange is the ________.
A) alveolar sacs
C) respiratory bronchiole
D) alveolar duct
The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.
A) thickness of vestibular folds
B) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
C) length of the vocal folds
D) strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is ________.
A) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure
B) less than the pressure in the atmosphere
C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere
D) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
A) surface tension of water
B) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
C) C-shaped cartilage rings
D) surfactant production
C-shaped cartilage rings
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
A) pressure within the pleural cavity
B) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
C) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
D) negative pressure in the intrapleural space
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
The relationship between gas pressure and gas volume is described by ________.
A) Henry's law
B) Boyle's law
C) Dalton's law
D) Charles' law
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
B) increase of carbon dioxide
D) loss of oxygen in tissues
increase of carbon dioxide
Tidal volume is air ________
A) exchanged during normal breathing
B) inhaled after normal inspiration
C) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
D) forcibly expelled after normal expiration
exchanged during normal breathing
Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.
A) too little oxygen in the atmosphere
B) taking several rapid deep breaths
C) getting very cold
D) obstruction of the esophagus
taking several rapid deep breaths
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
A) midbrain and medulla
B) upper spinal cord and medulla
C) medulla and pons
D) pons and midbrain
medulla and pons
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
A) expiratory capacity
B) reserve air
C) inspiratory reserve
D) vital capacity