- Characterize a typical long bone in regards to its shaft
consists of a cylindrical shaft called the disthesis
with an enlarged knob call the epiphysis - inside is the spongy bone.
It is made up of compact bone that covers each end.
the central cavity is filled with yellow bone marrow (primary fat) which can be used for energy.
covered by a layer of connective tissue the eriostemon.
- Characterize cartilage in regards to its support function.
it contains fibers of collagen and/or elastin in a ground substance of water and other material.
it is smoother and more flexible than bone. cartilage can be found where support under pressure and where movement is necessary.
- Cell responsible for production of red and white blood cells in the bone marrow.
- Know the sequence of events that occur in the ossification of a long bone.
1. future bones are created out of hyaline cartilage by cartilage-forming cells called chondroblasts.
2. the chondroblasts slowly die out and the cartilage models begin to dissolve and are replaced by bone.
3. the cartilage gradually breaks down inside the future shaft and epihysis of the bone, making room for blood vessels to develop.
4. the osteoblasts (bone forming cells) are carried into the area from the developing eriostemon
5. the osteoblasts secrete a mixture of proteins called osteoid which forms a matrix that provides internal structure and strength to the bone.
6. it secretes enzymes that help the the crystallization of hard mineral salts of calcium phosphate known as hydroxapatite around and between the osteoid matrix.
7. osteoblasts become inbedded in the hardening bone tissue.
8. one third of the structure is osteoid and 2/3rds is crystals of hydroxyapatite.
- Why do bones continue to lengthen throughout childhood and adolescence?
a narrow strip of cartilage called the growth plate remains in each epiphysis.
- Before organs begin to form, rudimentary forms of bone begin to form in a fetus due to what?
- What does parathyroid hormone (PTH) do to the bones?
when blood levels of calcium fall below a given point, it stimulates the osteoclasts to secrete more bone-dissolving enzymes which in turn releases calcium and phosphate into the blood stream.
- Osteoporosis is a common condition that essentially results when homeostatis cannot be maintained in __________ and ___________?
osteocasts and osteoblasts
- When a bone break what forms until later being replaced with bone.
- A typical long bone has an epiphysis at each end, which can be thought of as what?
- Bones of trained athletes may be visibly thicker and heavier than those of non-athletes because of ?
exercise puts physical stress on your body causing to create more mineral salts and the production of collagen fibers. which makes the bones thicker to handle the activity.
- If someone has a broken cheek bone what bone was affected?
- What separates neighboring vertebrae and also functions as shock absorbers?
- Know all the vertebrae areas from the skull to the pelvis in order.
top to bottom-
- What bone articulates with the metatarsal bones?
- Dexterous movement is characterized by?
wide range of motions
- Know what fibrous joints are and what develops from them in the adult stage.
are immovable joints that firmly connect the bones that protect and stabilize the skull and brain. they become thin lines or sutures between skull bones
- What location would you find a cartilaginous joint?
the back bone and the lower ribs of the sternum.
- What does synovial fluid lubricate?
- Know the diseases of the bones from Chapter 5 Lecture notes.
sprains- stretched or torn ligaments
Bursitis and tendinitis- inflammations of the bursae and the tendons
Arthritis- inflammation of the joints
osteoarthritis- the cartilage covering the ends of the bone wears out and joint friction increases.
rheumatoid arthritis- chronic arthritis involving inflammation of the synovial membrane that lives certain joints
osteoporosis- excessive bone loss over time.